G Torregrosa

Hospital Universitari i Politècnic la Fe, Valenza, Valencia, Spain

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Publications (66)159.62 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While the estrogen treatment of stroke is under debate, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) arise as a promising alternative. We hypothesize that bazedoxifene (acetate, BZA), a third generation SERM approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, reduces ischemic brain damage in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. For comparative purposes, the neuroprotective effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) has also been assessed. Male Wistar rats underwent 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (intraluminal thread technique), and grouped according to treatment: vehicle-, E2- and BZA-treated rats. Optimal plasma concentrations of E2 (45.6 ± 7.8 pg/ml) and BZA (20.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml) were achieved 4 h after onset of ischemia, and maintained until the end of the procedure (24 h). Neurofunctional score and volume of the damaged brain regions were the main end points. At 24 h after ischemia–reperfusion, neurofunctional examination of the animals did not show significant differences among the three experimental groups. By contrast, both E2- and BZA-treated groups showed significantly lower total infarct volumes, BZA acting mainly in the cortical region and E2 acting mainly at the subcortical level. Our results demonstrate that: (1) E2 at physiological plasma levels in female rats is neuroprotective in male rats when given at the acute stage of the ischemic challenge and (2) BZA at clinically relevant plasma levels mimics the neuroprotective action of E2 and could be, therefore, a candidate in stroke treatment.
    Neuroscience Letters. 01/2014; 575:53–57.
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    ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that the phytoestrogen genistein protects the brain against ischemic stroke by improving the circulatory function in terms of reduced production of thromboxane A2 and leukocyte-platelet aggregates, and of preserved vascular reactivity. Ischemia-reperfusion (90min-3 days, intraluminal filament) was induced in male Wistar rats, and functional score and cerebral infarct volume were the end points examined. Genistein (10mg/kg/day) or vehicle (β-cyclodextrin) was administered at 30min after ischemia or sham-operation. Production of thromboxane A2 and leukocyte-platelet aggregates, as well as reactivity of carotid artery to U-46619 (thromboxane A2 analogue) and to platelet releasate was measured. At 3 days post-ischemia, both improvement in the functional examination and reduction in the total infarct volume were shown in the ischemic genistein-treated group. Genistein significantly reverted both the increased thromboxane A2 concentration and the increased leukocyte-platelet aggregates production found in samples from the ischemic vehicle-treated group. Both U-46619 and platelet releasate elicited contractions of the carotid artery, which were significantly lower in the ischemic vehicle-treated group. Genistein significantly restored both the decreased U-46619- and the decreased platelet releasate-elicited contractile responses. In conclusion, genistein protects the brain against an ischemia-reperfusion challenge, at least in part, by its beneficial effects on the circulatory function.
    European journal of pharmacology 02/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relation between diabetes and stroke is bidirectional: diabetes is an important risk factor for ischemic stroke, and acute stroke frequently induces hyperglycaemia. On the other hand, plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels are raised in diabetes and stroke. The purpose was to study how alloxan-induced diabetes might modify the effects of BNP in rabbit carotid arteries and the mechanisms involved in such actions. To do this, isometric tension in isolated rabbit carotid artery was recorded and prostanoids release and plasma NT-proBNP were measured by enzyme immunoassay. BNP induced a relaxation of phenylephrine-precontracted carotid arteries, and this relaxation was lower in diabetic than in control rabbits. Endothelium removal did not modify the relaxation to BNP in control rabbits but increased this relaxation in diabetic rabbits. In control rabbits, indomethacin inhibited the BNP-induced relaxation in the presence and in the absence of endothelium. In diabetic rabbits, indomethacin did not modify the BNP-induced relaxation in arteries with endothelium and inhibited it in arteries without endothelium. In the presence of BNP the carotid artery released thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin, and the release of endothelial prostacyclin was inhibited in diabetic rabbits. Glibenclamide and 4-aminopyridine inhibited the relaxation to BNP, and these inhibitions were lower in diabetic than in control rabbits. In conclusion, our results provide a new understanding concerning the mechanisms of the diabetes-induced hyporeactivity of the carotid artery to BNP, that at least include the loss of endothelial prostacyclin and a reduced participation of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels (K(ATP)) and voltage-sensitive K(+) channels (K(V)).
    European journal of pharmacology 01/2013; · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is associated with increased prevalence of hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plays an important role in cardiovascular pathophysiology and is claimed to have cardioprotective and renoprotective effect in diabetic patients. The working hypothesis was that alloxan-induced diabetes might modify the vascular effects of ANP in isolated rabbit renal arteries and the mechanisms involved in such actions. Plasma ANP levels were higher in diabetic rabbits than in control rabbits. ANP (10(-12)-10(-7)M) induced a relaxation of precontracted renal arteries, which was lower in diabetic than in control rabbits. In arteries from both groups of animals, endothelium removal decreased the ANP-induced relaxation but inhibition of NO-synthesis did not modify ANP-induced relaxations. In KCl-depolarised arteries, relaxation to ANP was almost abolished both in control and diabetic rabbits. Tetraethylammonium (TEA) partly inhibited the relaxation to ANP in control rabbits but did not modify it in diabetic rabbits. Glibenclamide and 4-aminopyridine inhibited the relaxation to ANP, and these inhibitions were lower in diabetic than in control rabbits. Indomethacin potentiated the relaxation to ANP, more in control than in diabetic rabbits. In the presence of ANP the renal artery released thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin, and the release of prostacyclin resulted decreased in diabetic rabbits. The present results suggest that diabetes produces hyporeactivity of the rabbit renal artery to ANP by mechanisms that at least include the reduced modulation by prostacyclin and a lower participation of ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP)), voltage-sensitive K(+) channels (K(V)) and TEA-sensitive K(+) channels (K(Ca)).
    Pharmacological Research 08/2012; 66(5):392-400. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The potential of bovine lactoferrin (LF) as a source of antihypertensive peptides has been examined. For this purpose, LF pepsin hydrolysate with molecular mass lower than 3 kDa (LFH < 3 kDa) was prepared and orally administered to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), resulting in reduced systolic blood pressure in a significant and maintained manner up to 24 h after administration. LFH < 3 kDa was further fractionated by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 38 peptides, contained in the active fractions, were identified by using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Based on the peptide abundance, a total of 11 peptides were chemically synthesized and their ACE inhibitory activity tested. Only three of them, corresponding to peptides of sequences LIWKL, RPYL and LNNSRAP exerted in vitro inhibitory effects on angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity and had a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.47, 56.5 and 105.3 μM, respectively. The three peptides also showed antihypertensive effects in SHR and remarkably the effect of LIWKL remained significant for up to 24 h post-administration, similarly LFH < 3 kDa and the captopril control. The two most potent in vitro inhibitory peptides showed ex vivo inhibitory effect on ACE-dependent vasoconstriction as well. In conclusion, three novel LF-derived peptides and a pepsin LFH < 3 kDa lowered blood pressure and exhibit potential as orally effective antihypertensive compounds.
    Food Chemistry. 03/2012; 131(1):266–273.
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    ABSTRACT: Bioactive ACE inhibiting peptides are gaining interest in hypertension treatment. We have designed and screened six synthetic heptapeptides (PACEI48 to PACEI53) based on two hexapeptide leads (PACEI32 and PACEI34) to improve ACE inhibitory properties and assess their antihypertensive effects. ACE activity was assayed in vitro and ex vivo. Selected peptides were administered to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. In vitro cytotoxicity was assessed with the MTT reduction test. The six heptapeptides at low micromolar concentration produced different degrees of in vitro inhibition of ACE activity using the synthetic substrate HHL or the natural substrate angiotensin I; and ex vivo inhibition of ACE-dependent, angiotensin I-induced vasoconstriction, but not angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction. Oral administration of the hexapeptide PACEI32L, and the heptapeptides PACEI50L and PACEI52L, induced reductions in systolic blood pressure lasting up to 3h in SHRs but not in WKY rats. Intravenous injection of PACEI32L and PACEI50L, but not PACEI52L, induced acute transient reductions in mean blood pressure of SHRs. d-Amino acid peptides showed five-fold less ACE inhibitory potency, no inhibitory effect on angiotensin I-induced vasoconstriction, and antihypertensive effect in SHRs after i.v. injection, but not after oral administration. The toxicity of peptides to reduce the viability of cultured cells was in the millimolar range. In conclusion, we have obtained novel rationally designed heptapeptides with improved ACE inhibitory properties when compared to lead hexapeptides. One selected hexapeptide and two heptapeptides show oral antihypertensive effects in SHRs and appear safe in cytotoxicity assays.
    Peptides 05/2011; 32(7):1431-8. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The progress of effective therapies for stroke has become a challenging task for both researchers and clinicians. Some pitfalls in clinical trials might have their origins in the pre-clinical experimental ischaemic models for the evaluation of potential neuro-protective agents. We aim to standardise the methods for the development of stroke animal models throughout Spain, to produce document with appropriate recommendations and best practice in order to improve experimental methods in the field of stroke research. Members of several experienced stroke research groups prepared a guide with recommendations in the application of focal cerebral ischaemic models. The main features of this guide are based on the selection of the most appropriate animal model, taking in account the objective of the study, the species, strain, age, sex of animals, as well as risk factors. The experimental design must include a sham control group and the sample size calculation. Animal randomisation and blind analysis, masked assessment of outcomes, monitoring of body temperature and cerebral blood flow, and the reporting of reasons for excluding animals from the study, as well as the mortality rate, are other main points to fulfil in the application of stroke models. Standardised methods are essential to increase the success of the pre-clinical findings in the stroke neuroprotection field to be able to translate to the clinical practice.
    Neurologia 03/2011; 26(2):105-10.
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    ABSTRACT: The ability of a soy-based high-phytoestrogen diet (nutritional intervention) or genistein (pharmacological intervention), to limit ischemic brain damage in Wistar, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, has been assessed. As to the nutritional intervention, two groups from each strain received either a phytoestrogen-free (PE-0) or a high-phytoestrogen (PE-600) diet from weaning to adulthood. As to the pharmacological intervention, all animals were fed the standard soy-free AIN-93G diet and subsequently separated into two groups from each strain to receive either pure genistein (aglycone form, 1mg/kg/day intraperitoneal) or vehicle at 30 min reperfusion. After an episode of 90 min ischemia (intraluminal thread procedure) followed by 3 days reperfusion, cerebral infarct volume was measured. Arterial blood pressure (ABP) was significantly higher at the basal stage (just before ischemia) in SHR (140 ± 7 mmHg, n=17, p<0.05) than in Wistar (113 ± 4mmHg, n=23) and WKY (111 ± 6mmHg, n=14) rats. No significant differences were shown among the three stages (basal, ischemia, reperfusion) within each rat strain for both PE-0 and PE-600 diets. Wistar, but not WKY or SHR, rats fed the PE-600 diet showed significantly lower infarct volumes than their counterparts fed the PE-0 diet (30 ± 3% vs. 17 ± 3%, p<0.01). Genistein-treated Wistar, but not WKY or SHR, rats showed significantly lower infarct volumes than their vehicle-treated controls (27 ± 2% vs. 15 ± 2%, p<0.01). Our results demonstrate that: (1) the neuroprotective action of either chronic or acute exposure to soy isoflavones is strain-dependent, since it was shown in Wistar but not WKY or SHR rats; and (2) the soy-based diet does not prevent development of hypertension in SHR rats.
    Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 03/2011; 18(6):513-5. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe progress of effective therapies for stroke has become a challenging task for both researchers and clinicians. Some pitfalls in clinical trials might have their origins in the pre-clinical experimental ischaemic models for the evaluation of potential neuro-protective agents.
    Neurologia. 01/2011; 26(2):105-110.
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of the vascular complications in diabetes. The working hypothesis was that diabetes might modify the vascular actions of ANP in isolated rabbit carotid arteries and the mechanisms involved in these actions. ANP (10(-12)-10(-7)M) induced a relaxation of precontracted carotid arteries, which was lower in diabetic than in control rabbits. In arteries from both groups of animals, endothelium removal increased the ANP-induced relaxation. Isatin inhibited the relaxation to ANP both in arteries with and without endothelium. Carotid arteries from diabetic rabbits showed a decreased natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A expression and an enhanced NPR-C expression. Inhibition of NO-synthesis did not modify ANP-induced relaxation in control rabbits but inhibited it in diabetic rabbits. In arteries with endothelium indomethacin enhanced the relaxation to ANP in control rabbits but did not modify it in diabetic rabbits. In endothelium-denuded arteries indomethacin inhibited the relaxation to ANP in both groups of animals. In KCl-depolarised arteries, relaxation to ANP was almost abolished both in control and diabetic rabbits. Tetraethylammonium inhibited the relaxation to ANP, and this inhibition was higher in diabetic than in control rabbits. These results suggest that diabetes produces hyporeactivity of the rabbit carotid artery to ANP by a mechanism that at least includes a reduced expression of NPR-A, an enhanced expression of NPR-C and a reduced participation of K(+)-channels. Furthermore, diabetes enhances endothelial NO release and diminishes the ratio thromboxane A(2)/prostacyclin. This increase of vasodilators could result from compensatory mechanisms counteracting the arterial hyporeactivity to ANP.
    Pharmacological Research 11/2010; 63(3):190-8. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), a key peptidase in the endothelin (ET) system, cleaves inactive big ET-1 to produce active ET-1, which binds to ET(A) receptors to exert its vasoconstrictor and pressor effects. ECE inhibition could be beneficial in the treatment of hypertension. In this study, a set of eight lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-derived peptides, previously characterized in our laboratory as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides, was examined for their inhibitory effects on ECE. In vitro inhibitory effects on ECE activity were assessed using both the synthetic fluorogenic peptide substrate V (FPS V) and the natural substrate big ET-1. To study vasoactive effects, an ex vivo functional assay was developed using isolated rabbit carotid artery segments. With FPS V, only four LfcinB-derived peptides induced inhibition of ECE activity, whereas the eight peptides showed ECE inhibitory effects with big ET-1 as substrate. Regarding the ex vivo assays, six LfcinB-derived peptides showed inhibition of big ET-1-induced, ECE-dependent vasoconstriction. A positive correlation between the inhibitory effects of LfcinB-derived peptides on ECE activity when using big ET-1 and the inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction was shown. ECE-independent vasoconstriction induced by ET-1 was not affected, thus discarding effects of LfcinB-derived peptides on ET(A) receptors or intracellular signal transduction mechanisms. In conclusion, a combined in vitro and ex vivo method to assess the effects of potentially antihypertensive peptides on the ET system has been developed and applied to show the inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction of six LfcinB-derived peptides, five of which were dual vasopeptidase (ACE/ECE) inhibitors.
    Peptides 10/2010; 31(10):1926-33. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A set of eight lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-derived peptides was examined for inhibitory effects on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and ACE-dependent vasoconstriction, and their hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Peptides were derived from different elongations both at the C-terminal and N-terminal ends of the representative peptide LfcinB(20-25), which is known as the LfcinB antimicrobial core. All of the eight LfcinB-derived peptides showed in vitro inhibitory effects on ACE activity with different IC(50) values. Moreover, seven of them showed ex vivo inhibitory effects on ACE-dependent vasoconstriction. No clear correlation between in vitro and ex vivo inhibitory effects was found. Only LfcinB(20-25) and one of its fragments, F1, generated after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion, showed significant antihypertensive effects in SHR after oral administration. Remarkably, F1 did not show any effect on ACE-dependent vasoconstriction in contrast to the inhibitory effect showed by LfcinB(20-25). In conclusion, two LfcinB-derived peptides lower blood pressure and exhibit potential as orally effective antihypertensive compounds, yet a complete elucidation of the mechanism(s) involved deserves further ongoing research.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2010; 58(11):6721-7. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The involvement of plasma membrane glutamate transporters (EAATs - excitatory aminoacid transporters) in the pathophysiology of ischemia has been widely studied, but little is known about the role of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) in the ischemic process. We analyzed the expression of VGLUT1-3 in the cortex and caudate-putamen of rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Western blot and immunohistochemistry revealed an increase of VGLUT1 signal in cortex and caudate-putamen until 3 days of reperfusion followed by a reduction 7 days after the ischemic insult. By contrast, VGLUT2 and 3 were drastically reduced. Confocal microscopy revealed an increase in VGLUT2 and 3 immunolabelling in the reactive astrocytes of the ischemic corpus callosum and cortex. Changes in VGLUTs and EAATs expression were differently correlated to neurological deficits. Interestingly, changes in VGLUT1 and EAAT2 expression showed a significant positive correlation in caudate-putamen. Taken together, these results suggest a contribution of VGLUTs to glutamate release in these structures, which could promote neuroblast migration and neurogenesis during ischemic recovery, and a possible interplay with EAATs in the regulation of glutamate levels, at least in the first stages of ischemic recovery.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 03/2010; 113(5):1343-55. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kidney disease is a frequent complication in diabetes, and significant differences have been reported between male and female patients. Our working hypothesis was that diabetes might modify the vascular actions of testosterone in isolated rabbit renal arteries and the mechanisms involved in these actions. Testosterone (10(-8) to 10(-4)M) induced relaxation of precontracted arteries, without significant differences between control and diabetic rabbits. Both in control and diabetic rabbits endothelium removal inhibited testosterone relaxant action. In arteries with endothelium, incubation with indomethacin (10(-5)M), N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (10(-5)M) or tetraethylammonium (10(-5)M) did not modify relaxations to testosterone neither in control nor in diabetic rabbits. In endothelium-denuded arteries indomethacin enhanced the relaxant action of testosterone, both in control and diabetic rabbits. In arteries from diabetic rabbits, eNOS, iNOS and COX-1 expression and testosterone-induced release of thromboxane A(2) and prostacyclin were not significantly different from those observed in control rabbits. However, COX-2 expression was significantly lower in diabetic rabbits that in control rabbits. In nominally Ca(2+)-free medium, cumulative addition of CaCl2 (10(-5) to 3x10(-2)M) contracted previously depolarized arteries. Testosterone (10(-4)M) inhibited CaCl2 contractions of the renal artery both in control and diabetic rabbits. These results show that testosterone relaxes the renal artery both in control and diabetic rabbits. This relaxation is modulated by muscular thromboxane A(2), it is partially mediated by endothelial prostacyclin, and it involves the blocking of extracellular Ca2+ entry. Diabetes does not modify the mechanisms involved in the relaxant action of testosterone in the rabbit renal artery.
    Pharmacological Research 09/2009; 61(2):149-56. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients, which in turn is also associated with low levels of serum testosterone. The working hypothesis was that diabetes might modify the mechanisms involved in the vascular actions of testosterone in isolated rabbit carotid arteries. Testosterone (10(-8)-3x10(-4)M) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of precontracted carotid arteries, which was higher in diabetic than in control rabbits. In control rabbits neither endothelium removal nor the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NOArg, 10(-5)M) modified the relaxant action of testosterone, and the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin (10(-5)M) enhanced this relaxation. In contrast, in diabetic rabbits endothelium removal, l-NOArg (10(-5)M) or indomethacin (10(-5)M) inhibited the testosterone induced relaxation. In arteries from diabetic rabbits, eNOS, iNOS and COX-2 expression and testosterone induced release of prostacyclin resulted enhanced in comparison with arteries from control rabbits. Testosterone (10(-4)M) strongly inhibited CaCl(2) (10(-5)-3x10(-2)M) concentration-related contractions of the carotid artery both in control and diabetic rabbits. These results suggest that testosterone relaxes the rabbit carotid artery by blocking the extracellular calcium entry. Diabetes enhances the vasodilator response of the rabbit carotid artery to testosterone by a mechanism that at least includes an increased modulatory activity of the endothelial nitric oxide and an augmented release of COX-2 vasodilator, prostacyclin rather than the absence of COX-1 vasoconstrictor, thromboxane A(2). The hypotestosteronemia observed in diabetic rabbits could be a consequence of the increased expression of iNOS and could contribute to the hyperreactivity of the rabbit carotid artery to testosterone.
    Pharmacological Research 07/2009; 61(1):62-70. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the role of K(+) and Ca(2+) fluxes in the cerebroarterial vasoactive effects of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil. We used isolated rabbit basilar arteries to assess the effects of extracellular K(+) raising on sildenafil-induced vasodilatation, and studied the pharmacological interaction of sildenafil with selective modulators of membrane K(+) and Ca(2+) channels. Expression of Kv1 subunits of K(+) channels was assessed at messenger and protein levels. Parallel experiments were carried out with zaprinast for comparison. Sildenafil (10 nM-0.1 mM) induced concentration-dependent relaxation of endothelin-1 (10 nM)-precontracted arteries, which was partially inhibited by depolarization with KCl (50 mM), 3 mM tetraethylammonium (non-selective K(+) channel blocker) or 1 mM aminopyridine (inhibitor of K(v) channels), but not by 1 microM glibenclamide (inhibitor of K(ATP) channels) or 50 nM iberiotoxin (inhibitor of K(Ca) channels). Arterial smooth muscle expressed messengers for Kv1.2, Kv1.3, Kv1.4, Kv1.5 and Kv1.6, and proteins of Kv1.1, Kv1.2 and Kv1.4. CaCl(2) (10 microM- 10 mM) induced concentration-dependent contraction in Ca(2+)-free, depolarizing (50 mM KCl) medium. Sildenafil (0.1-100 microM) produced reversible concentration-dependent inhibition of the response to CaCl(2), which was completely abolished by the highest sildenafil concentration. By contrast, only 100 microM zaprinast inhibited the response to CaCl(2). The L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 (0.1 nM-1 microM) induced concentration-dependent potentiation of the response to CaCl(2) inhibited by 100 microM sildenafil. Moreover, Bay K 8644 (0.1 nM-1 microM) induced concentration-dependent contraction in slightly depolarizing (15 mM) medium, which was inhibited to the same extent and in a concentration-dependent way by sildenafil (0.1-100 microM) and zaprinast (1 or 100 microM). These results show that sildenafil relaxes the rabbit basilar artery by increasing K(+) efflux through K(v) channels, which in turn may affect Ca(2+) signalling. Expression of Kv1 subunits involved in this pharmacological effect occurs at the messenger and, in some cases, at the protein level. In addition to this phosphodiesterase-5-related effect, sildenafil and zaprinast inhibit cerebroarterial vasoconstriction at least in part by directly blocking L-type Ca(2+) channels, although a decrease in the sensitivity of the contractile apparatus to Ca(2+) can not be discarded.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 03/2008; 581(1-2):138-47. · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Autonomic Pharmacology 01/2008; 12(1):25 - 36.
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    ABSTRACT: Phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens are naturally occurring plant and fungus secondary metabolites with estrogen-like structure and/or actions. We aimed to check the hypothesis that phytoestrogens and mycoestrogens, due to their ability to elicit cerebral vasodilation, can induce acute increases in brain blood perfusion. For this purpose, we continuously recorded cerebrocortical perfusion by laser-Doppler flowmetry in anesthetized rats receiving intracarotid infusions (1 mg/kg) of one of the following estrogenic compounds: biochanin A, daidzein, genistein or zearalanone. We have shown the ability of two isoflavone class phytoestrogens (daidzein and biochanin A) and the mycoestrogen zearalanone to induce acute increases in brain blood flow when locally infused into the cerebral circulation of anesthetized rats. The isoflavone genistein failed to induce a significant increase in brain perfusion. No concomitant changes in blood pressure were recorded during the cerebral effects of the estrogenic compounds. Therefore, these microcirculatory effects were due to direct actions of the estrogenic compounds on the cerebrovascular bed.
    Phytomedicine 09/2007; 14(7-8):556-62. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phospholipase A2s (PLA2s) seem to be involved in the pathophysiology of ischemic brain injury, but their specific role is far from being completely understood. The present study was carried out to ascertain how and to what extent secretory PLA2s (sPLA2s) activity influences outcome after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, and to correlate this with the inflammatory response. To do this we used the potent and selective sPLA2 inhibitor, 12-epi-scalaradial. Male Wistar rats were separated into three groups: a control group receiving intracerebroventricular vehicle, and two groups receiving intracerebroventricular 0.005 or 0.5 microg/h 12-epi-scalaradial. Every animal was subjected to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (90 min, intraluminal thread technique) under continuous moni-torization of cerebrocortical perfusion (CP, laser-Doppler flowmetry), followed by reperfusion (3 days). Neurological status, infarct volume, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were the main end points. Three days after the 90-min ischemia period, neurological examination did not reveal significant differences between the three groups of rats. Control rats showed a mean infarct volume of 145.9 +/- 24.7 mm3 (21 +/- 4.1% of the ipsilateral hemisphere volume), while mean infarct volume in rats treated with 0.005 or 0.5 microg/h 12-epi-scalaradial increased to 164.8 +/- 86.8 mm3 (22.0 +/- 10.9%) and 211.5 +/- 12.2 mm3 (28 +/- 3%, P < 0.05), respectively. Treatment with the highest dose of 12-epi-scalaradial (0.5 microg/h) increased MPO activity in the ipsilateral hemisphere by about 140% (from 0.59 +/- 0.59 to 1.42 +/- 1.03 units of activity/g of tissue in comparison with the control ischemic hemisphere, P < 0.05). Overall, our results point to a positive rather than a negative influence of sPLA2 activity during ischemia. This, along with its inability to decrease the inflammatory response, does not allow to propose the use of 12-epi-scalardial as a potential drug for stroke therapy.
    Experimental Brain Research 01/2007; 176(2):248-59. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inhibitory effect of a pepsin hydrolysate of bovine lactoferrin (LFH) on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) has been examined using in vitro and ex vivo functional assays. In vitro assays showed a LFH inhibitory effect on ACE activity with an IC50 value of 0.95±0.06mgmL−1. Ex vivo functional assays using rabbit carotid artery segments showed a LFH inhibitory effect on ACE-dependent angiotensin I-induced contraction, but not on angiotensin II-induced contraction, suggesting that the effect of LFH is not due to antagonism of receptors for angiotensin II. LFH was shown to possess ACE inhibitory effect with potential to modulate hypertension, although the possible inhibitory effect of LFH on angiotensinases deserves further research.
    International Dairy Journal - INT DAIRY J. 01/2007; 17(10):1212-1215.

Publication Stats

630 Citations
159.62 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1984–2014
    • Hospital Universitari i Politècnic la Fe
      • • Centro de Investigación
      • • Research Center
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 2013
    • Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 1991–2013
    • University of Valencia
      • • Departamento de Fisiología
      • • Plant Biology
      Valencia, Valencia, Spain
  • 2010
    • Spanish National Research Council
      • Department of Food Science & Technology
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006–2007
    • Hospital la Magdalena
      Castellón, Valencia, Spain