Mikiya Miyazato

National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Ōsaka, Ōsaka, Japan

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Publications (112)338.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is sometimes seen in patients with primary lung cancer. Therapeutic interventions for lung cancer patients with ILD sometimes provoke acute exacerbation (AE) of pre-existing lung disease. Although postoperative AE after lung resection is a potentially fatal complication, prophylactic treatments have yet to be established. Prophylaxis for postoperative AE is imperative for thoracic surgeons. However, no animal models for preclinical research into postoperative management and prophylactic interventions for AE of ILD have been developed. The objective of this study was to establish a new mouse model of AE of ILD, for further investigation of prophylactic interventions. C57BL/6 mice were intratracheally administered bleomycin (BLM, 1 mg/kg) or saline on Day 0 to induce pulmonary fibrosis, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 mg/kg) or saline to induce inflammatory stimulation on Day 7. Mice were divided into four groups: control group; LPS group; BLM group and BLM + LPS group. Histological changes and computed tomography (CT) images of the lung, lung water content, oxygen partial pressure (pO2) of arterial blood and cell counts and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were assessed on Day 8. Survival rates were also determined. In the BLM + LPS group, chest CT showed diffuse ground-glass opacities, and pO2 was significantly decreased. The most severe inflammatory reaction was evident in the BLM + LPS group, with increased infiltrating cells on histopathology and increased lung water content. Total cell and neutrophil counts and levels of cytokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-6 and keratinocyte chemoattractant in the BALF were significantly elevated in the BLM + LPS group. These findings mimic human AE of ILD. Furthermore, survival curves demonstrated that the BLM + LPS group had the lowest survival rate among all groups. A new mouse model of AE of ILD was developed. This model represents an attractive experimental method for preclinical research of postoperative management and prophylactic interventions for AE of ILD in lung cancer patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 07/2015; DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezv261 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • Hiroyuki Kaiya · Kenji Kangawa · Mikiya Miyazato
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    ABSTRACT: We identified cDNA encoding a functional ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue-receptor 1a (GHS-R1a)) in a urodele amphibian, the Japanese fire belly newt (Cynops phyrrhogaster). Two functional receptor proteins, comprised of 378- and 362-amino acids, were deduced from the identified cDNA because two candidate initiation methionine sites were found. The long-chain receptor protein shared 80%, 69%, and 59% identities with the bullfrog GHS-R1a, human GHS-R1a and tilapia GHS-R1a-like receptor, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the newt receptor is grouped to the clade of the tetrapod homologs, and very closed to anuran amphibians. In functional analyses, homologus newt ghrelin, heterologous bullfrog and rat ghrelin, and a GHS-R1a agonist, GHRP-6 increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably expressed newt GHS-R1a. The responsiveness was much greater in the short-chain receptor than in the long-chain receptor. Both receptors preferred to bind Ser(3)-ghrelin including newt and rat ghrelin than Thr(3)-ghrelin with bullfrog ghrelin. GHRP-6 was a similar affinity to bullfrog ghrelin. GHS-R1a mRNA was expressed in the brain, pituitary, intestine, pancreas, testis and fat body with high level, and eyes, heart, stomach, liver, gall bladder, kidney and dorsal skin with low level. In a fasting experiment, gene expression of GHS-R1a in the brain and pituitary increased 4days after fasting, and the increased level decreased to the initial level 2weeks after fasting. These changes are consistent with the change in ghrelin mRNA. In contrast, expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a mRNA in the stomach decreased on day 4 after fasting, and increased 2weeks after fasting. These results indicate that ghrelin and its receptor system is present and altered by energy states in this newt. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 07/2015; 189. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpb.2015.07.001 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of rapid weight gain on glucose metabolism during the early postnatal period remains unclear. We investigated the influence of rapid weight gain under different nutritional conditions on glucose metabolism, focusing on the production of pancreatic and gastric peptides. On postnatal day (PND) 2, C57BL/6N pups were divided into three groups: control (C) pups whose dams were fed a control diet (10%kcal fat) and nursed 10 pups each; maternal high-fat diet (HFD) pups whose dams were fed an HFD (45%kcal fat) and nursed 10 pups each; and overfeeding (OF) pups whose dams were fed the control diet and nursed 4 pups each. Data were collected on PND 7, 14 and 21. The body weight gains of the HFD and OF pups were 1.2 times higher than that of the C pups. On PND 14, the HFD pups had higher blood glucose levels, but there were no significant differences in serum insulin levels between the HFD and C pups. The OF pups had higher blood glucose and serum insulin levels than that of the C pups. Insulin resistance was found in the HFD and OF pups. On PND 14, the content of incretins in the jejunum was increased in the OF pups, and acyl ghrelin in the stomach was upregulated in the HFD and OF pups. These results suggest that neonatal weight gain induced by overfeeding pups and maternal high-fat diet during the early postnatal period modulates the insulin sensitivity and the production of pancreatic and gastrointestinal peptides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Peptides 05/2015; 70. DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2015.05.003 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac hypertrophy, which is commonly caused by hypertension, is a major risk factor for heart failure and sudden death. Endogenous ghrelin has been shown to exert a beneficial effect on cardiac dysfunction and postinfarction remodeling via modulation of the autonomic nervous system. However, ghrelin's ability to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy and its potential mechanism of action are unknown. In this study, cardiac hypertrophy was induced by transverse aortic constriction in ghrelin knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. After 12 weeks, the ghrelin knockout mice showed significantly increased cardiac hypertrophy compared with wild-type mice, as evidenced by their significantly greater heart weight/tibial length ratios (9.2±1.9 versus 7.9±0.8 mg/mm), left ventricular anterior wall thickness (1.3±0.2 versus 1.0±0.2 mm), and posterior wall thickness (1.1±0.3 versus 0.9±0.1 mm). Furthermore, compared with wild-type mice, ghrelin knockout mice showed suppression of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, as indicated by reduced parasympathetic nerve activity and higher plasma interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 levels. The administration of either nicotine or ghrelin activated the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in ghrelin knockout mice. In conclusion, our results show that endogenous ghrelin plays a crucial role in the progression of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy via a mechanism that involves the activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    Hypertension 04/2015; 65(6). DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04864 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin is a highly effective chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various malignancies, but its utility is compromised by its nephrotoxicity. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a member of the natriuretic peptide family, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects by activating its specific receptor, guanylyl cyclase (GC)-B. CNP and GC-B receptor are known to be expressed in both the vascular endothelium and the kidney. The objective of this study was to investigate the renoprotective effects of CNP in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: normal control mice; cisplatin (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) mice treated with vehicle; and cisplatin mice treated with CNP (2.5 µg/kg/min, subcutaneous). At 72 h after cisplatin injection, urine, blood and kidney samples were collected. Urine and blood samples were examined biochemically. Histological findings and gene expression in kidney tissue were evaluated. CNP reduced histological renal tubular damage and apoptosis induced by cisplatin and suppressed plasma blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, which were elevated by cisplatin administration. CNP treatment decreased the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which were elevated in the kidney by cisplatin administration. CNP treatment attenuated the decrease in GC-B expression in cisplatin-induced kidney injury. The present study is the first to show that CNP inhibits nephrotoxicity and kidney cell damage induced by cisplatin. The mechanism of action may involve down-regulation of inflammatory cytokine expression in cisplatin-induced kidney injury and attenuation of apoptosis in renal tubular cells.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 03/2015; 75(5). DOI:10.1007/s00280-015-2734-7 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most patients suffering from cancer die of metastatic disease. Surgical removal of solid tumors is performed as an initial attempt to cure patients; however, surgery is often accompanied with trauma, which can promote early recurrence by provoking detachment of tumor cells into the blood stream or inducing systemic inflammation or both. We have previously reported that administration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) during the perioperative period reduces inflammatory response and has a prophylactic effect on postoperative cardiopulmonary complications in lung cancer surgery. Here we demonstrate that cancer recurrence after curative surgery was significantly lower in ANP-treated patients than in control patients (surgery alone). ANP is known to bind specifically to NPR1 [also called guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor]. In mouse models, we found that metastasis of GC-A-nonexpressing tumor cells (i.e., B16 mouse melanoma cells) to the lung was increased in vascular endothelium-specific GC-A knockout mice and decreased in vascular endothelium-specific GC-A transgenic mice compared with control mice. We examined the effect of ANP on tumor metastasis in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide, which mimics systemic inflammation induced by surgical stress. ANP inhibited the adhesion of cancer cells to pulmonary arterial and micro-vascular endothelial cells by suppressing the E-selectin expression that is promoted by inflammation. These results suggest that ANP prevents cancer metastasis by inhibiting the adhesion of tumor cells to inflamed endothelial cells.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2015; 112(13). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1417273112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuromedin U (NMU) and S (NMS) display various physiological activities, including an anorexigenic effect, and share a common C-terminal heptapeptide-amide sequence that is necessary to activate two NMU receptors (NMUR1 and NMUR2). On the basis of this knowledge, we recently developed hexapeptide agonists 2 and 3, which are highly selective to human NMUR1 and NMUR2, respectively. However, the agonists are still less potent than the endogenous ligand, hNMU. Therefore, we performed an additional structure-activity relationship study, which led to the identification of the more potent hexapeptide 5d that exhibits similar NMUR1-agonistic activity as compared to hNMU. Additionally, we studied the stability of synthesized agonists, including 5d, in rat serum, and identified two major biodegradation sites: Phe(2)-Arg(3) and Arg(5)-Asn(6). The latter was more predominantly cleaved than the former. Moreover, substitution with 4-fluorophenylalanine, as in 5d, enhanced the metabolic stability at Phe(2)-Arg(3). These results provide important information to guide the development of practical hNMU agonists.
    ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 03/2015; 6(3):302-307. DOI:10.1021/ml500494j · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), secreted by vascular endothelial cells, belongs to a family of peptides that includes atrial and brain natriuretic peptides. CNP exhibits many vasoprotective effects against pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary fibrosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the prophylactic effects of CNP in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups as follows: normal control mice (n = 13), LPS mice treated with vehicle (n = 12), and LPS mice treated with CNP (n = 12). Twenty-four hours after tail vein injection of LPS, histopathologic, gene expression, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) assessments were performed on the lungs. To examine the neutrophils in the lungs, cells positive for myeloperoxidase staining were detected by immunohistochemistry. BALF cytokine levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Gene expression in lung tissue was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CNP significantly attenuated the elevation of leukocyte cell counts and levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine in the BALF after LPS injection. Furthermore, there were significantly fewer myeloperoxidase-positive cells in lungs treated with CNP after LPS injection. In lungs of CNP-treated mice, expression of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, S100A8, and E-selectin genes was significantly lower than that in vehicle-treated mice. CNP had a protective effect on ALI induced by LPS by reducing inflammatory cell infiltration. CNP may hold promise in therapeutic strategies for ALI after pulmonary resection surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Surgical Research 11/2014; 194(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2014.11.023 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the major toxicity associated with cisplatin and sometimes necessitates a reduction in dose or discontinuation of treatment. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is secreted by the heart and exerts a wide range of renoprotective effects, including anti-inflammatory activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of ANP on cisplatin-induced AKI in mice.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 11/2014; 75(1). DOI:10.1007/s00280-014-2624-4 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) occurs in 3–7% of all pregnancies. Recent human studies have indicated that neurodevelopmental disabilities, learning disorders, memory impairment, and mood disturbance are common in IUGR offspring. However, the interactions between IUGR and neurodevelopmental disorders are unclear because of the wide range of causes of IUGR, such as maternal malnutrition, placental insufficiency, pregnancy toxemia, and fetal malformations. Meanwhile, many studies have shown that moderate food restriction enhances spatial learning and improves mood disturbance in adult humans and animals. To date, the effects of maternal moderate food restriction on fetal brain remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that IUGR would be caused by even moderate food restriction in pregnant females, and that the offspring would have neurodevelopmental disabilities. Mid-pregnant mice received moderate food restriction through the early lactation period. The offspring were tested for aspects of physical development, behavior, and neurodevelopment. The results showed that moderate maternal food restriction induced IUGR. Offspring had low birth weight and delayed development of physical and coordinated movement. Moreover, IUGR offspring exhibited mental disabilities such as anxiety and poor cognitive function. In particular, male offspring exhibited significantly impaired cognitive function at 3 weeks of age. These results suggested that a restricted maternal diet could be a risk factor for developmental disability in IUGR offspring, and that male offspring might be especially susceptible.
    Nutrition Research 11/2014; 35(1). DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.10.014 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We identified two ghrelin receptor isoforms, the ghrelin receptor type-1a (GHS-R1a) and its alternative splice form (GHS-R1b) for West African lungfish, Protopterus annectens. Lungfish GHS-R1a and 1b comprised 361 and 281 amino acids, respectively. Lungfish GHS-R1a showed the highest identity to coelacanth GHS-R1a (80.4%). The highest expression of GHS-R1a mRNAs was seen in the brain, liver, ovary, heart, intestine, and gills. GHS-R1b mRNAs were also detected in the same tissues with GHS-R1a, but their expression level was 1/20 that of GHS-R1a. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells transiently expressing lungfish GHS-R1a, rat and bullfrog ghrelin, and two GHS-R1a agonists, GHRP-6 and hexarelin, increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. The intensity of the Ca(2+) increases induced by GHS-R1a agonists was twice when compared to that induced by ghrelin, although the median effective doses (ED50) were similar, suggesting a long-lasting effect of GHS-R1a agonists with similar affinity. We also examined changes in the GHS-R gene expression during an eight-week estivation. Body weight was slightly lowered, but plasma sodium and glucose concentrations decreased; plasma urea concentration increased significantly 4 weeks after the start of estivation. Overall, expression of GHS-R1a mRNA decreased, but changes in GHS-R1b mRNA expression were inconsistent with those of GHS-R1a during estivation, suggesting an involvement of GHS-R in energy homeostasis, as seen in mammals. Our results suggest that the ghrelin-GHS-R1a system is present in this lungfish although ghrelin has not yet been found. The structure of GHS-R1a is closer to that of tetrapods than Actinopterygian fish, indicating a process of evolution that follows the Crossopterygii such as coelacanth.
    General and Comparative Endocrinology 08/2014; 209. DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.07.021 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuromedin U (NMU) are bioactive peptides with a common C-terminal heptapeptide-sequence (FLFRPRN-amide, 1a) among mammals, which is responsible for receptor activation, namely NMU receptors types 1 (NMUR1) and 2 (NMUR2). Among the various physiological actions of NMU, the anorexigenic effect has recently attracted attention in drug discovery efforts for treating obesity. Although several structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been reported, receptor-selective small peptide agonists have yet to be disclosed. Herein an SAR study of 1a-derived peptide derivatives is described. We initially screened both human NMUR1 and NMUR2 selective peptides in calcium-mobilization assays with cells transiently expressing receptors. Then we performed a precise assay with a stable expression system of receptors, and consequently discovered hexapeptides 8d and 6b possessing selective agonist activity towards each respective receptor. Hexapeptide 6b, which selectively activates NMUR2 without significant NMUR1 activation, should aid in the development of anorexigenic drugs as well as advance NMU-related endocrinological research.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2014; 57(15). DOI:10.1021/jm500599s · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose Most therapeutic agents are administered intravenously (IV) in clinical settings and intraperitoneally (IP) in preclinical studies with neonatal rodents; however, it remains unclear whether intraperitoneal (IP) injection is truly an acceptable alternative for intravenous (IV) injection in preclinical studies. The objective of our study is to clarify the differences in the therapeutic effects of drugs and in the distribution of infused cells after an IP or IV injection in animals with brain injury. Methods Dexamethasone or MK-801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist was administered either IP or IV in a mouse model of neonatal hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy. Green fluorescent protein-expressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or mononuclear cells (MNCs) were injected IP or IV in the mouse model. Two hours and 24 h after the administration of the cells, we investigated the cell distributions by immunohistochemical staining. We also investigated distribution of IV administered MNCs labeled with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose in a juvenile primate, a macaque with stroke 1 h after the administration. Results IP and IV administration of dexamethasone attenuated the brain injury to a similar degree. IP administration of MK-801 attenuated brain injury, whereas IV administration of MK-801 did not. The IV group showed a significantly greater number of infused cells in the lungs and brains in the MSC cohort and in the spleen, liver, and lung in the MNC cohort compared to the IP group. In the macaque, MNCs were detected in the spleen and liver in large amounts, but not in the brain and lungs. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the administration route influences the effects of drugs and cell distribution. Therefore, a preclinical study may need to be performed using the optimal administration route used in a clinical setting.
    Brain and Development 07/2014; 37(4). DOI:10.1016/j.braindev.2014.06.010 · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 06/2014; 18(suppl 1):S53-S53. DOI:10.1093/icvts/ivu167.201 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both hexarelin and its natural analog ghrelin exert comparable cardioprotective activities. A single dose of ghrelin administered at the very acute phase after experimental myocardial infarction positively affects cardiac function in chronic heart failure. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether a single dose of oral hexarelin has the same effect in the chronic disease phase. Myocardial infarction or sham operation was generated by left coronary artery ligation in male C57BL/6J mice, which subsequently received one dose of hexarelin or vehicle treatment by oral gavage 30minutes after operation. Although the mortality within 14 days after myocardial infarction did not differ between the groups, hexarelin treatment protected cardiac function in the chronic phase as evidenced by higher ejection fraction and fractional shortening, as well as lower lung weight/body weight and lung weight/tibial length ratios, compared with vehicle treatment. Hexarelin treatment concurrently lowered plasma epinephrine and dopamine levels, and shifted the balance of autonomic nervous activity toward parasympathetic nervous activity as evidenced by a smaller low/high-frequency power ratio and larger normalized high-frequency power on heart rate variability analysis. The results first demonstrate that one dose of oral hexarelin treatment potentially protects chronic cardiac function after acute myocardial infarction, and implicate that activating growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a might be beneficial for cardioprotection, although other mechanism may also be involved.
    Peptides 04/2014; 56. DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2014.04.004 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that administration of atrial natriuretic peptide during the perioperative period has prophylactic effects with respect to not only cardiovascular but also respiratory complications following pulmonary resection. However, its mechanisms are not well understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the prophylactic effects of atrial natriuretic peptide in an acute lung injury model. For the evaluation of the early phase of pulmonary inflammation, in vitro and in vivo studies using lipopolysaccharide were used. In the in vitro study, the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on the induction of E-selectin by lipopolysaccharide in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells were evaluated. In the in vivo study, the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and cytokine levels including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the lungs of C57/B6 mice were examined. The number of myeloperoxidase-positive staining cells in the tissue sections of the lung of lipopolysaccharide-administered C57/B6 mice was also evaluated. Atrial natriuretic peptide significantly attenuated the up-regulation of E-selectin expression induced by lipopolysaccharide in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells. There were significantly lower cell counts and levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of atrial natriuretic peptide-treated mice compared to control mice after lipopolysaccharide injection. In addition, there were significantly fewer myeloperoxidase-positive cells in atrial natriuretic peptide-treated mice than in control mice after lipopolysaccharide injection. Atrial natriuretic peptide had a protective effect in the lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury model. Atrial natriuretic peptide may be of value in therapeutic strategies aimed at the treatment of acute lung injury such as pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome.
    Pulmonary Pharmacology &amp Therapeutics 01/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1016/j.pupt.2014.01.003 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Both hexarelin and its natural analog ghrelin exert comparable cardioprotective activities. A single dose of ghrelin administered at the very acute phase after experimental myocardial infarction positively affects cardiac function in chronic heart failure. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether a single dose of oral hexarelin has the same effect in the chronic disease phase. Myocardial infarction or sham operation was generated by left coronary artery ligation in male C57BL/6J mice, which subsequently received one dose of hexarelin or vehicle treatment by oral gavage 30 min after operation. Although the mortality within 14 days after myocardial infarction did not differ between the groups, hexarelin treatment protected cardiac function in the chronic phase as evidenced by higher ejection fraction and fractional shortening, as well as lower lung weight/body weight and lung weight/tibial length ratios, compared with vehicle treatment. Hexarelin treatment concurrently lowered plasma epinephrine and dopamine levels, and shifted the balance of autonomic nervous activity toward parasympathetic nervous activity as evidenced by a smaller low/high-frequency power ratio and larger normalized high-frequency power on heart rate variability analysis. The results first demonstrate that one dose of oral hexarelin treatment potentially protects chronic cardiac function after acute myocardial infarction, and implicate that activating growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a might be beneficial for cardioprotection, although other mechanism may also be involved.
    Peptides 01/2014; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ghrelin is a peptide that was originally isolated from the stomach. It exerts potent growth hormone (GH)-releasing and orexigenic activities. Several studies have highlighted the therapeutic benefits of ghrelin for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In animal models of chronic heart failure, the administration of ghrelin improved cardiac function and remodeling; these findings were replicated in human patients with heart failure. Moreover, in an animal study, ghrelin administration effectively reduced pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia. In addition, repeated administration of ghrelin to cachectic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had positive effects on overall body function, including muscle wasting, functional capacity and sympathetic activity. The administration of ghrelin early after myocardial infarction (MI) reduced fatal arrhythmia and related mortality. In ghrelin-deficient mice, both exogenous and endogenous ghrelin were protective against fatal arrhythmia and promoted remodeling after MI. Although the mechanisms underlying the effects of ghrelin on the cardiovascular system remain unclear, there are indications that its beneficial effects are mediated through both direct physiological actions, including increased GH levels, improved energy balance and direct actions on cardiovascular cells, and regulation of autonomic nervous system activity. Therefore, ghrelin is a promising novel therapeutic agent for cardiovascular disease. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Frontiers of hormone research 01/2014; 43:125-33. DOI:10.1159/000360593 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    Hiroyuki Kaiya · Kenji Kangawa · Mikiya Miyazato
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    ABSTRACT: After the discovery in 1996 of the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor type-1a (GHS-R1a) as an orphan G-protein coupled receptor, many research groups attempted to identify the endogenous ligand. Finally, Kojima and colleagues successfully isolated the peptide ligand from rat stomach extracts, determined its structure, and named it ghrelin (Kojima et al. 1999). The GHS-R1a is now accepted to be the ghrelin receptor. The existence of the ghrelin system has been demonstrated in many animal classes through biochemical and molecular biological strategies as well as through genome projects. Our work, which has concentrated on identifying the ghrelin receptor and its ligand ghrelin in laboratory animals, particularly non-mammalian vertebrates, has provided new insights into the molecular evolution of the ghrelin receptor. In mammals, it is assumed that the ghrelin receptor evolution is in line with the plate tectonics theory. In contrast, the evolution of the ghrelin receptor in non-mammalian vertebrates differs from that of mammals: multiplicity of the ghrelin receptor isoforms is observed in non-mammalian vertebrates only. This multiplicity is due to genome duplication and polyploidization events that particularly occurred in Teleostei. Furthermore, it is likely that the evolution of the ghrelin receptor is distinct from that of its ligand, ghrelin, since only one ghrelin isoform has been detected in all species examined so far. In this review, we summarize current knowledge related to the molecular evolution of the ghrelin receptor in mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates.
    Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 12/2013; 52(3). DOI:10.1530/JME-13-0175 · 3.62 Impact Factor