Rafael Rubio

Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (133)595 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives We compared reasons for the choice of regimen, time to and reasons for third drug modification, virological response and change in CD4 T-cell counts in patients started on atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r)- vs. efavirenz (EFV)-based first-line regimens.Methods We included patients from the Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network (CoRIS), a multicentre cohort of HIV-positive treatment-naïve subjects, in the study. We used logistic regression to assess factors associated with choosing ATV/r vs. EFV, proportional hazards models on the subdistribution hazard to estimate subdistribution hazard ratios (sHRs) for third drug modification, logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for virological response and linear regression to assess mean differences in CD4 T-cell count increase from baseline.ResultsOf 2167 patients, 10.7% started on ATV/r. ATV/r was more likely than EFV to be prescribed in injecting drug users [adjusted OR 1.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–3.33], in 2009–2010 (adjusted OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.08–2.47) and combined with abacavir plus lamivudine (adjusted OR 1.53; 95% CI 0.98–2.43). Multivariate analyses showed no differences, comparing ATV/r vs. EFV, in the risk of third drug modification (sHR 1.04; 95% CI 0.74–1.46) or in virological response (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.46–1.41); differences in mean CD4 T-cell count increase from baseline were at the limit of statistical significance (mean difference 29.8 cells/μL; 95% CI −4.1 to 63.6 cells/μL). In patients changing from EFV, 48% of changes were attributable to toxicity/adverse events, 16% to treatment failure/resistance, 3% to simplification, and 8 and 12%, respectively, to patients' and physicians' decisions; these percentages were 24, 6, 12, 14 and 24%, respectively, in those changing from ATV/r.ConclusionsATV/r- and EFV-based regimens meet the requirements of both efficacy and safety for initial combination antiretroviral regimen, which relate to better durability.
    HIV Medicine 04/2014; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) threatens the efficacy of antiretroviral treatment. We aimed to assess the changes in TDR prevalence over the last decade in Madrid, Spain, to verify the role of the patients' risk groups in these changes. We analysed the trends of TDR between 2000 and 2011 in a cohort of 1,022 naïve HIV-infected patients in Madrid, Spain, whose pol sequences were available. They included, among others, 369 heterosexuals, 340 men who have sex with men (MSM), and 90 injection drug users (IDUs). TDR was reported following the WHO mutation list. The TDR rate in the whole cohort was 8.3 %, being the highest in MSM (9.1 %) and the lowest in IDUs (4.4 %). Over time, this rate decreased significantly (to 5.4 % in 2009-2011) since the period 2004-2006, when it peaked (10.7 %). Heterosexuals and IDUs showed similar trends, but in the 2009-2011 period, the TDR rate among MSM rebounded to 9.0 % (being absent among IDUs). TDR stabilized in the last years (2007-2011) for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The risk group also determined differences in the mutational profile, sex distribution, proportion of immigrants, and viral variants. In conclusion, the risk group caused different HIV sub-epidemics, determined by the patients' profiles. Despite the general decreasing trend in TDR, we observed a non-significant increase in TDR rate among MSM, a tendency that needs confirmation. Periodic TDR surveillance is important to prevent the widespread distribution of resistance, especially in MSM, given the growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in this high-risk population.
    Archives of Virology 12/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Atazanavir (ATV) boosted with ritonavir (ATV/r) is a potent, well-tolerated, once-daily protease inhibitor (PI). Few data are available on this agent as a treatment simplification option for patients taking other PIs. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness and safety of ATV-containing regimens in patients who have simplified their antiretroviral treatment. Methods SIMPATAZ was a multicentre, prospective, noninterventional study in patients who had undetectable HIV RNA on their current PI-containing therapy and who were switched to an ATV/ r-based regimen. Patients underwent a routine physical examination, and data were collected on HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, liver function, lipid parameters, adverse reactions, adherence to treatment and patient satisfaction. Results A total of 183 patients were enrolled in the study and included in the analysis (80% were male, 29% had AIDS, and 52% were coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus). The median baseline CD4 count was 514 cells/mL. Median exposure to previous HIV therapy was 8 years, and 32% of patients had a history of PI failures. Lopinavir boosted with ritonavir was the most frequent PI replaced (62%) and tenofovir1lamivudine /emtricitabine the backbone most used during the study (29%). The study drug was discontinued early by 25 patients (14%), two of whom discontinued as a result of adverse events (Hodgkin lymphoma and vomiting). Two patients died (lung cancer and myocardial infarction). At month 12, 93% of the study population had an undetectable HIV RNA viral load. Hyperbilirubinaemia 43 mg/dL and increased alanine aminotransferase levels4200 IU/L were observed in 38.5% and 4.4% of patients, respectively. Median changes from baseline to month 12 in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were �13 mg/dL (�7%; Po0.0001), �19 mg/dL (�13%; Po0.0001) and �7 mg/dL (�6%; P50.021), respectively. Conclusions In a real-world setting, switching from other PIs to ATV/r is a well-tolerated and safe option for improving the lipid profile and for retaining virological resp
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    ABSTRACT: Background Day care units have become an usual way of medical care for AIDS patients. However,their influence on the incidence of hospital admissions has not been evaluated. Methods Observational and longitudinal study of a cohort of 308 patients with aids diagnosedbetween 1990 and 1994 and followed-up to June 1996. The incidence of hospital admissionsaccording to the hospital of follow-up (with or without day care unit) was analyzed. A multivariateanalysis of the number of hospital admissions was performed using regression model adjustedto a distribution of Poisson. Results After AIDS diagnosis, the incidence of hospital admissions was 108 per 100 patientyearsof follow up (21 days as inpatient per patient-year). Those patients controlled in the hospitalwith day care unit have less hospital admissions (relative risk after adjusting by CD4+cells count and type of diagnostic disease: 0.64; CI95% 0.55-0.76), and less days as inpatientthrough their follow-up (11 to 31 days less). There was no difference in survival among patientsfollowed in both hospitals. Conclusions A day care unit decrease the incidence of hospital admissions in aids patients.This positive impact is more evident in patients with lesser CD4+ cell counts.
    Medicina Clínica. 07/2013; 114(18):690–693.
  • Haematologica 05/2013; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sustained viral response (SVR) after therapy with interferon-ribavirin (IF-RB) reduces liver-related (LR) complications and mortality in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Here, we assess the impact of end-of-treatment response with subsequent relapse (REL) on LR events (LR death, liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver transplantation), and liver stiffness (LS) by transient elastography. METHODS: We analyzed the GESIDA 3603 Cohort (HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with IF-RB in 19 centers in Spain). Response to IF-RB was categorized as SVR, REL, and no response (NR). The study started when IF-RB was stopped and ended at death or the last follow-up visit. Multivariate regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, HIV category of transmission, CDC clinical category, nadir CD4+ cell count, HCV genotype, HCV RNA viral load, and liver fibrosis. RESULTS: Of 1599 patients included response was categorized as NR in 765, REL in 250 and SVR in 584. Median follow-up was more than 4 years in each group. Taking the group of patients with NR as reference, we found that the adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of liver-related events (liver-related death, liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation) for patients with REL and for patients with SVR were 0.17 (0.05; 0.50) and 0.03 (0; 0.20), respectively. We also found that SVR was followed by less liver stiffness than both REL and NR. However, REL was associated with less liver stiffness than NR. CONCLUSIONS: Best outcomes were achieved with an SVR. However, REL was associated with less LR mortality, decompensation, and liver stiffness than NR.
    Journal of Hepatology 02/2013; · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Lipoatrophy is a long-term adverse effect of some antiretrovirals that affects quality of life, compromises adherence and may limit the clinical impact of HIV treatments. This paper explores the effect of tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) on the amount of limb fat in patients with virological suppression. METHODS: A randomized, prospective clinical trial was performed to compare continuation on a zidovudine/lamivudine (ZDV/3TC)-based regimen with switching to a TDF/FTC-based regimen in terms of the effect on limb fat mass as assessed by DEXA over a 72-week period. RESULTS: Eighty patients were included (39 in the TDF/FTC arm and 41 in the ZDV/3TC arm) and 73 completed the study (37 and 36, respectively). In the switch arm, limb fat increased by a median of 540 g from baseline (P = 0.022), while in the ZDV/3TC arm it decreased by a median of 379 g (P = 0.112; p between groups = 0.007). Subjects with baseline limb fat ≤ 7200 g, previous time on ZDV > 5 years or a body mass index > 25 kg/m(2) experienced higher limb fat gains than other subjects, and these differences were statistically significant. Haemoglobin increased by a median of 1.0 g/dL in the TDF/FTC arm (P < 0.001) and remained unchanged in the ZDV/3TC arm (p between groups = 0.0002). There were no significant differences between groups in other secondary endpoints (body weight, total body and trunk fat content, total body bone mineral density, laboratory parameters, CD4 cell count and viral load). CONCLUSIONS: Switching from a ZDV/3TC-based to a TDF/FTC-based regimen led to a statistically significant improvement in limb fat, in contrast to the progressive loss of limb fat in subjects continuing ZDV/3TC.
    HIV Medicine 01/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients who remain virologically suppressed in plasma with triple-drug ART a switch to protease inhibitor monotherapy maintains high rates of suppression; however it is unknown if protease inhibitor monotherapy is associated to a higher rate of neurocognitive impairment. In this observational, cross-sectional study we included patients with plasma virological suppression (≥1 year) without concomitant major neurocognitive confounders, currently receiving for ≥1 year boosted lopinavir or darunavir as monotherapy or as triple ART. Neurocognitive impairment was defined as per the 2007 consensus of the American Association of Neurology. The association between neurocognitive impairment and protease inhibitor monotherapy, adjusted by significant confounders, was analysed. Of the 191 included patients - triple therapy: 96, 1-2 years of monotherapy: 40 and >2 years of monotherapy: 55 - proportions (95% CI) with neurocognitive impairment were: overall, 27.2% (20.9-33.6); triple therapy, 31.6% (22.1-41.0); short-term monotherapy, 25.0% (11.3-38.7); long-term monotherapy: 21.4% (10.5-32.3); p = 0.38. In all groups, neurocognitive impairment was mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic by self-report. There were not significant differences in Global Deficit Score by group. In the regression model confounding variables for neurocognitive impairment were years on ART, ethnicity, years of education, transmission category and the HOMA index. Adjusted by these variables the Odds Ratio (95% CI) for neurocognitive impairment of patients receiving short-term monotherapy was 0.85 (0.29-2.50) and for long-term monotherapy 0.40 (0.14-1.15). Compared to triple drug antiretroviral therapy, monotherapy with lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir in patients with adequate plasma suppression was not associated with a higher rate of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment than triple drug ART.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e69493. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A systematic screening for measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in HIV-positive adult immigrants in Spain was evaluated, and factors associated with MMR and VZV vaccines' indication were studied. Every HIV-positive immigrant was tested for VZV and MMR-IgG. MMR vaccine was indicated to patients with lymphocytes CD4+ >200 cells/mm(3) and a negative measles-IgG, a negative mumps-IgG and/or a negative rubella-IgG. VZV vaccine was indicated to every VZV-IgG negative patient with CD4+ >400 cells/mm(3). In total, 289 patients were screened; seroprevalence was 95.2%, 92.2%, 70.3% and 89.3% for VZV, measles, mumps and rubella IgG, respectively. Having a negative VZV-IgG was statistically associated with coming from sub-Saharan Africa (prevalence ratio [PR]: 6.52; 95% CI: 1.71-24.84; p=0.006), while having secondary education was a protective factor (PR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07-0.97; p=0.045). Fourteen patients (4.8%) had indication of VZV vaccine; vaccination was feasible in 21.4% of them at first visit. Eighty-one patients (29.7%) had indication of MMR vaccine, most of them due to mumps-IgG negative (53.1%) or rubella-IgG negative (24.7%). Age < 30 years at first visit was the only factor statistically associated with MMR vaccine indication (PR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.02-2.11; p=0.04). According to CD4+ cell counts, vaccination was feasible in 71.6% of patients at first visit. In conclusion, more than a third of HIV-infected immigrant patients are susceptible to at least one easily preventable infectious disease. Especial attention should be given to immigrant women of childbearing age.
    AIDS Care 12/2012; · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective was to evaluate the implementation of a systematic Strongyloides stercoralis screening programme in HIV infected immigrants attending an HIV Unit in Spain. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to assess the presence of Strongyloides IgG. Patients with a positive serology were treated with ivermectin; serologic follow-up testing was performed. 237 patients were screened (65.4 % men). Origin: 64.1 % came from Latin America, 16.5 % from Sub-Saharan Africa, 9.7 % from the Caribbean, 9.7 % from other areas. Strongyloides stercolaris IgG was positive in 13 cases (5.5 %). In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with a positive Strongyloides serology were illiteracy (OR: 23.31; p = 0.009) and eosinophilia (OR: 15.44; p < 0.0001). Nine of the 13 patients positive for S. stercoralis IgG and treated with ivermectin had a follow up serologic test: 77.8 % achieved a serologic response (55.5 % seroreversion). Screening of HIV-positive immigrants may be desirable, at least in those with higher risk of hyperinfection syndrome. Serologic testing seems a useful tool in both diagnosis and follow-up of these patients.
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 12/2012; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to analyse key HIV-related outcomes in migrants originating from Latin America and the Spanish-speaking Caribbean (LAC) or sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) living in Spain compared with native Spaniards (NSP). METHODS: The Cohort of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (CoRIS) is an open, prospective, multicentre cohort of antiretroviral-naïve patients representing 13 of the 17 Spanish regions. The study period was 2004-2010. Multivariate logistic or Fine and Gray regression models were fitted as appropriate to estimate the adjusted effect of region of origin on the different outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 6811 subjects in CoRIS, 6278 were NSP (74.2%), LAC (19.4%) or SSA (6.4%). For these patients, the follow-up time was 15870 person-years. Compared with NSP, SSA and LAC under 35 years of age had a higher risk of delayed diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-2.8) and OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.1), respectively], as did LAC aged 35-50 years [OR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6)]. There were no major differences in time to antiretroviral therapy (ART) requirement or initiation. SSA exhibited a poorer immunological and virological response [OR 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-1.0) and OR 0.7 (95% CI 0.6-0.9), respectively], while no difference was found for LAC. SSA and LAC showed an increased risk of AIDS for ages between 35 and 50 years [OR 2.0 (95% CI 1.1-3.7) and OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.1-2.4), respectively], which was attributable to a higher incidence of tuberculosis. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Migrants experience a disproportionate diagnostic delay, but no meaningful inequalities were identified regarding initiation of treatment after diagnosis. A poorer virological and immunological response was observed in SSA. Migrants had an increased risk of AIDS, which was mainly attributable to tuberculosis.
    HIV Medicine 11/2012; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ribavirin (RBV) exposure seems to be critical to maximize treatment response in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals naive to interferon were prospectively randomized to receive peginterferon-α-2a (180 μg/d) plus either RBV standard dosing (1000 or 1200 mg/d if <75 or ≥ 75 kg, respectively) or RBV induction (2000 mg/d) along with subcutaneous erythropoietin β (450 IU/kg/wk), both during the first 4 weeks, followed by standard RBV dosing until completion of therapy. Early stopping rules at weeks 12 and 24 were applied in patients with suboptimal virological response. A total of 357 patients received ≥ 1 dose of the study medication. No differences in main baseline characteristics were found when comparing treatment arms. Sustained virological response (SVR) was attained by 160 (45%) patients, with no significant differences between RBV induction and standard treatment arms (SVR in 72 of 169 patients [43%] vs 88 of 188 [47%], respectively). At week 4, undetectable HCV RNA (29% vs 25%) and mean RBV trough concentration (2.48 vs 2.14 μg/mL) were comparable in both arms, whereas mean hemoglobin decay was less pronounced in the RBV induction plus erythropoietin arm than in the RBV standard dosing arm (-1.7 vs -2.3 mg/dL; P < .005). Treatment discontinuation occurred in 91 (25%) patients owing to nonresponse and in 29 (8%) owing to adverse events. HCV relapse occurred in 34 patients (10%). Univariate and multivariate analyses identified HCV genotype 2 or 3 (odds ratio [OR], 10.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08-50.2; P = .004), IL28B CC variants (OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.33-6.41; P = .007), nonadvanced liver fibrosis (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.06-5.01; P = .03), and rapid virological response (OR, 40.3; 95% CI, 5.1-314.1; P < .001) as predictors of SVR. A 4-week course of induction therapy with high RBV dosing along with erythropoietin does not improve SVR rates in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Preemptive erythropoietin might blunt the benefit of RBV overdosing by enhancing erythrocyte uptake of plasma RBV.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2012; 206(6):961-8. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed at comparing overall and liver-related mortality rates, observed in HIV positive subjects followed-up in the Cohorts of Spanish Network on HIV/AIDS Research stratified by HCV co-infection status, with the expected mortality of the general population of same age and sex in Spain, for the period 1997 - 2008. We estimated standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and excess mortality, comparing death rates from our cohort (globally and by HCV co-infection) with death rates from the general population standardized by sex in 5year-age bands. Overall, 5914 HIV positive subjects were included, 37.3% of which were co-infected with HCV; 231 deaths occurred, 10.4% of which were liver-related. SMR for all causes mortality for the HIV positive subjects was 5.6 (CI 95% 4.9-6.4), 2.4 (1.9-3.1) for HCV negative subjects and 11.5 (9.9-13.4) for HCV positive ones. Having HCV co-infection and AIDS yielded an SMR of 20.8 (16.5-26.1) and having AIDS and being HCV negative had an SMR of 4.8 (3.5-6.7). SMR for liver-related mortality was 1.8 (0.6-5.7) for HCV negative subjects vs. 22.4 (14.6-34.3) for HCV positive ones. Overall, both mortality rates as SMR and excess mortality rates were higher for injecting drug users (IDUs) than men having sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals, patients with AIDS, with and without cART and for subjects included between 1997 and 2003. There was an excess of all-cause and liver-related mortality in our cohorts compared with the general population. Furthermore, HCV co-infection in HIV positive patients increased the risk of death for both all causes and liver-related causes.
    Journal of Hepatology 06/2012; 57(4):743-51. · 9.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The age of 50 has been considered as a cut-off to discriminate older subjects within HIV-infected people according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, the International AIDS Society (IAS) mentions 60 years of age and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) makes no consideration. We aimed to establish an age cut-off that could differentiate response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and, therefore, help to define advanced age in HIV-infected patients. CoRIS is an open, prospective, multicenter cohort of HIV adults naive to HAART at entry (January 2004 to October 2009). Survival, immunological response (IR) (CD4 increase of more than 100 cell/ml), and virological response (VR) (HIV RNA less than 50 copies/ml) were compared among 5-year age intervals at start of HAART using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by hospital and adjusted for potential confounders. Among 5514 patients, 2726 began HAART. During follow-up, 2164 (79.4%) patients experienced an IR, 1686 (61.8%) a VR, and 54 (1.9%) died. Compared with patients aged <25 years at start of HAART, those aged 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-59, and 70 or older were 32% (aHR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.87), 29% (aHR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.96), 34% (aHR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46-0.95), 39% (aHR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37-1.00), and 43% (aHR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.31-1.04) less likely to experience an IR. The VR was similar across all age groups. Finally, patients aged 50-59 showed a 3-fold increase (aHR: 3.58; 95% CI: 1.07-11.99) in their risk of death compared to those aged <30 years. In HIV infection, patients aged ≥50 years have a poorer immunological response to HAART and a poorer survival. This age could be used to define medically advanced age in HIV-infected people.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 05/2012; 28(9):1000-6. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sustained virological response (SVR) after therapy with interferon plus ribavirin reduces liver-related complications and mortality in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). We assessed the effect of SVR on HIV progression and mortality not related to liver disease. An observational cohort study including consecutive HIV/HCV-coinfected patients treated with interferon plus ribavirin between 2000 and 2008 in 19 centers in Spain. Of 1599 patients, 626 (39%) had an SVR. After a median follow-up of approximately 5 years, we confirmed that failure to achieve an SVR was associated with an increased risk of liver-related events and liver-related death. We also observed higher rates of the following events in nonresponders than in responders: AIDS-defining conditions (rate per 100 person years, 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), .59-1.10] vs 0.29 [.10-.48]; P= .003), non-liver-related deaths (0.65 [.42-.87] vs 0.16 [.02-.30]; P = .002), and non-liver-related, non-AIDS-related deaths (0.55 [.34-.75] vs 0.16 [.02-.30]; P = .002). Cox regression analysis showed that the adjusted hazard ratios of new AIDS-defining conditions, non-liver-related deaths, and non-liver-related, non-AIDS-related deaths for nonresponders compared with responders were 1.90 (95% CI, .89-4.10; P = .095), 3.19 (1.21-8.40; P = .019), and 2.85 (1.07-7.60; P = .036), respectively. Our findings suggest that eradication of HCV after therapy with interferon plus ribavirin in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients is associated not only with a reduction in liver-related events but also with a reduction in HIV progression and mortality not related to liver disease.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 05/2012; 55(5):728-36. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this work is to study the impact of HAART at a population level and to identify socio-demographic factors that may affect it, which is essential for deciding interventions. An open, prospective cohort of HIV seroconverters recruited in the Centro Sanitario Sandoval (1986-2009), and followed up in collaboration with referral hospitals in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Cumulative incidence of AIDS and death was calculated by the multiple decrements method, and predictive Fine & Gray models were developed to identify associated factors. A calendar period (<1997; ≥ 1997) was introduced as a proxy of HAART availability. A total of 479 HIV seroconverters were identified. Hazard Ratio (HR) for progression to AIDS was 0.215 (95% CI: 0.11-0.519; P<.01) for the period ≥ 1997. Risk increased with age at the time of seroconversion (for each year older HR=1.071; 95% CI: 1.038-1.105; P<.01), but only prior to 1997. In the following period, only a high educational level showed to be a protective factor (HR=0.982; 95% CI: 0.936-1.031; P=.06). HR for progression to death was 0.134 (95% CI: 0.052-0.346; P<.01) for the period after 1997, 0.383 (95% CI: 0.168-0.875; P=.02) in people with high educational level and 1.048 (95% CI: 1.014-1.084; P<.01) for each year increase in age at seroconversion, both latter effects being homogeneous throughout the two periods. HAART has had a great impact on the risk of progression to AIDS and death, but this benefit appears to be influenced by age at HIV infection and educational level of the patient, which highlights the importance of a global approach to case management and of the implementation of policies that address social inequities in health.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 03/2012; 30(3):117-23. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The number of HIV-positive immigrants have increased in Spain in the last few years, and now represent a significant proportion of the epidemic. Our objective is to describe the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of HIV-positive immigrants seen in a specialist unit in Madrid. Retrospective study. Every patient born in a country other than Spain and attended an HIV Unit in Madrid between 1992 and 2009 was included. Of the 371 patients included, 53.1% were Latin Americans, 24.5% Sub-Saharan Africans, and 22.4% others), and 60% were males. Immigrants represented 0.3% of new patients in 1992 and rose to 49.2% in 2009. The principal reason for HIV testing had been pregnancy/delivery among women (32.7%) and having a category-B disease among men (17.4%). Sexual transmission accounted for 92% of patients. Tuberculosis was the principal AIDS-diagnosing illness. Respectively 90%, 7.7%, 60%, 26.7%, 96% and 95% of patients had an IgG for HAV, HCV, Toxoplasma, Treponema, CMV and VZV. VHB-Ags+: 5.4%; PPD+: 17%. At least one syphilis episode was recorded in 62% of the men who have sex with men (MSM). Prevalence of HLA-B5701 was 6%, 0.9% and 3.8% in Caucasians, Amerindians and Afro-Americans, respectively. Immigrants represent a significant proportion of new HIV-positive patients. It is a very heterogeneous group according to their clinical and epidemiological characteristics.
    Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica 02/2012; 30(8):441-51. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chagas disease (CD) is an emergent disease in Europe that can behave as an opportunistic infection in HIV positive patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a CD screening programme in an HIV unit. An immunochromatography (ICT) of Trypanosoma cruzi was performed as a screening tool in HIV-positive patients born in CD endemic countries. ELISA and IFAT were used to confirm the diagnosis. A total of 155 patients, 116 males and 38 females, were included. Mean age was 36.9 years (± 8.4) and mean length of stay in Spain at the screening was 7.1 years (± 4.7). T. cruzi ICT was positive in four cases (2.6%), being confirmed (by ELISA and IFAT) in three of those (1.9%). Factors associated with confirmed positive T.cruzi serology were: Bolivia origin (p=0.016), Bolivia or Argentina origin (p=0.002), Southern Cone origin (p=0.015), rural origin (p=0.023), previously living in an adobe-made (p=0.001) or thatch-roofed house (p<0.0001), having a previous CD test (p=0.015), previous knowledge about CD (p=0.019), about vector (p=0.009) or recorded seeing vectors at home (p=0.012). Units dealing with HIV patients from endemic areas of American trypanosomiasis should implement CD screening protocols. Interviews of patients coming from endemic areas should include CD epidemiological questions.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 01/2012; 31(8):1991-7. · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Since subjects may have been diagnosed before cohort entry, analysis of late HIV diagnosis (LD) is usually restricted to the newly diagnosed. We estimate the magnitude and risk factors of LD in a cohort of seroprevalent individuals by imputing seroconversion dates. Methods. Multicenter cohort of HIV-positive subjects who were treatment naive at entry, in Spain, 2004-2008. Multiple-imputation techniques were used. Subjects with times to HIV diagnosis longer than 4.19 years were considered LD. Results. Median time to HIV diagnosis was 2.8 years in the whole cohort of 3,667 subjects. Factors significantly associated with LD were: male sex; Sub-Saharan African, Latin-American origin compared to Spaniards; and older age. In 2,928 newly diagnosed subjects, median time to diagnosis was 3.3 years, and LD was more common in injecting drug users. Conclusions. Estimates of the magnitude and risk factors of LD for the whole cohort differ from those obtained for new HIV diagnoses.
    AIDS research and treatment 01/2012; 2012:725412.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of the study: To investigate if boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy is associated with a higher risk of neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Methods: HIV-infected patients from two hospitals in Madrid (Spain) without concomitant major neurocognitive confounders, currently receiving for ≥1 year lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV) or darunavir/ritonavir (DRV) as monotherapy or with two N(t)RTIs were included if they had prolonged (≥1 year) plasma viral suppression (<50 c/mL, single blip allowed). Patients underwent full neurocognitive assessment (7 domains) by two psychologists blinded to the treatment group. NCI was defined as per 2007 Frascati criteria using demographically adjusted normative scores. Rates of NCI and the association between NCI and boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy, adjusted by significant confounders, were analyzed. Two categories of monotherapy duration were considered: short-term (1-2 years) and long-term (2-9 years). We evaluated as potential confounding variables: demographics, HIV risk factor, AIDS, CD4 (nadir/current), smoking, alcohol/illicit drug use, prior medical, neurological and psychiatric disease, HCV coinfection, years of ART, prior blips, time with HIV viral suppression, type of protease inhibitor, lipids and HOMA index. Summary of results: 191 patients (89.5% Caucasian) were included (Table 1). Proportion (95% CI) with NCI: Overall: 27.2% (20.9-33.6, all asymptomatic or mild). Triple therapy: 31.6 (22.1-41.0). 1-2 years of monotherapy (n=40): 25.0 (11.3-38.7). 2-9 years of monotherapy (n=56): 21.4 (10.5-32.3) No differences in rates of NCI were found by treatment group (p=0.38). In our regression model confounding variables for NCI were years on ART, ethnicity, years of education, transmission category and the HOMA index. Adjusted by those variables the odds ratio (95% CI) for NCI of patients receiving boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy monotherapy during 1-2 years was 0.85 (0.29-2.50) and for 2-9 years was 0.40 (0.14-1.15). Conclusions: Boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy, regardless of duration, was not associated with a higher rate of neurocognitive impairment than triple drug ART. These results call into question the ability of neuropenetrance scores to predict the neuroefficacy of antiretroviral regimens in HIV-infected patients with adequate blood viral suppression.
    Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2012; 15(6):18179. · 3.94 Impact Factor

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1k Citations
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Institutions

  • 1998–2013
    • Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1991–2013
    • Hospital 12 de Octubre
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2012
    • San Pedro Hospital
      Central, Davao, Philippines
    • Complutense University of Madrid
      • Department of Microbiology III
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2001–2012
    • Instituto de Salud Carlos III
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2004–2011
    • Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal
      • Departamento de Neumología
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2009
    • Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2000–2001
    • Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Consorci MAR Parc de Salut de Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • European University of Madrid
      • School of Health Sciences
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain