C A Vedeler

University of Bergen, Bergen, Hordaland, Norway

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Publications (191)546.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectiveWe investigated if the paraneoplastic Hu and collapsin response mediator protein 5 (CRMP5) antibodies could be used as early markers for lung cancer in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Methods Hu and CRMP5 antibodies were measured by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) in sera from 552 smokers; 379 with and 173 without COPD. Three hundred blood donors served as controls. The positive sera were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence and line blot with recombinant proteins. The 552 smokers were matched with data from the Cancer Registry of Norway, and the hospital medical records from the subjects positive for Hu and CRMP5 antibodies were reviewed. The mean follow-up time was 4.4 years (range 2.5–5.7 years).ResultsThe RIPA showed that 5/379 (1.3%) smokers with COPD had Hu antibodies and 1/379 (0.3%) smokers with COPD had CRMP5 antibodies. Only the smoker with the highest RIPA index had Hu antibodies also detected by immunofluorescence and line blot. One of 173 (0.6%) smokers without COPD had Hu antibodies, but none had CRMP5 antibodies. None of the 300 controls had Hu antibodies, but 2/300 (0.7%) had CRMP5 antibodies. Hu antibodies remained positive for more than 5 years. No cancer or neurological disease was recorded in the Hu or CRMP5 positive patients. The total cancer frequency in the smokers with and without COPD was 70/552 (13%).Conclusions Hu and CRMP5 antibodies were not associated with cancer or neurological disease in a large cohort of smokers and are therefore not always paraneoplastic.
    Respirology 05/2014; · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in MS patients undergoing immunomodulatory treatment is not well studied. This explorative study investigated the influence of immunomodulatory treatment on MS patients receiving pandemic H1N1 (swine flu) vaccination in 2009 and seasonal influenza vaccination in 2010. We investigated the immune response to pandemic H1N1 vaccination among 113 MS patients and 216 controls during the pandemic of 2009. We also investigated the serological response to seasonal influenza vaccination (2010 - 2011 season) among 49 vaccinated and 62 non-vaccinated MS patients, versus 73 controls. We evaluated these vaccine responses by haemagglutination inhibition assay. MS patients receiving immunomodulatory treatment had reduced protection (27.4%), compared to controls (43.5%) (p = 0.006), after pandemic H1N1 vaccination (2009). The rates of protection were not influenced by interferon beta treatment (44.4% protected), but were reduced among patients receiving glatiramer acetate (21.6%), natalizumab (23.5%), and mitoxantrone (0.0%). A similar pattern emerged after MS patients received a seasonal influenza vaccination in 2010. These findings suggest that MS patients receiving immunomodulatory therapies other than interferon beta should be considered for a vaccine response analysis and perhaps be offered a second dose of the vaccine, in cases of insufficient protection.
    Multiple Sclerosis 01/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti interferon-beta (IFN-β) neutralizing antibodies (NAb) affect efficacy of treatment of multiple sclerosis patients, but exactly when the detrimental effects of NAbs offset therapeutic efficacy is debated. Quantification of intracellular pathway-specific phosphorylation by phospho-specific flow cytometry (phosphoflow) is a promising tool for evaluation of these effects in primary immune cells from treated patients at the single-cell level. Samples for phosphoflow and gene expression changes were collected before administration of IFN-β and at four, six, and eight hours thereafter. Patients were NAb negative (n = 3) or were NAb positive with low/medium (n = 1) or high (n = 2) NAb titers. Levels of phosphorylation of six Stat transcription factors (pStat) in seven cell subtypes and expression levels of 71 pathway-specific genes in whole blood were measured. The data was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), fifty-fifty MANOVA, ANOVA, and partial least square regression (PLSR). PCA of pStat levels clustered patients according to NAb class independently of time. PCA of gene expression data clustered patients according to NAb class but was affected by time and treatment. In the fifty-fifty MANOVA, NAb class was significant for both pStat levels and gene expression data. The ANOVA identified pStat1 protein in several cell subtypes as significantly affected by NAb class. The best fitting model for NAb prediction based on PLSR included pStat1 in monocytes, T cells, or lymphocytes and pStat3 in monocytes (r = 0.97). Gene expression data were slightly less predictive of NAb titers. Based on this proof of concept study, we hypothesize that NAb effects can be monitored by evaluation of a single biomarker, pStat1, in either monocytes or T cells by phosphoflow directly after IFN-β administration. The method will significantly reduce cost relative to labor intensive in vitro methods and offers a patient-specific approach to NAb evaluation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88632. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that is characterized mainly by recurrent optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. The aim of this article is to present current knowledge on the clinical features, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment of the condition.METHOD The article is based on a discretionary selection of English-language original articles, meta-analyses and review articles found in PubMed, and on the authors' own experience with the patient group.RESULTS Neuromyelitis optica was previously assumed to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), but the discovery of aquaporin-4 antibodies in patients with neuromyelitis optica has led to this view being revised. The cause of the condition is still unknown, but it has been shown that the antibodies bind selectively to a water channel expressed mainly on astrocytes at the blood-brain-barrier, which has an important role in the regulation of brain volume and ion homeostasis. Clinically, the condition presents as optic neuritis and/or transverse myelitis. A diagnosis is made on the basis of case history, clinical examination, MRI of the brain and spinal cord, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid, visual evoked potentials and a blood test with analysis of aquaporin-4 antibodies. Once a diagnosis has been made, rapid treatment is important. In the acute phase, intravenous methylprednisolone is recommended. There are several options for preventative treatment, but the primary recommendations are oral prednisolone and azathioprine or intravenous infusion of rituximab. Treatment is distinct from the treatment of MS and some of the immunomodulatory drugs commonly used in MS can lead to worsening of neuromyelitis optica.INTERPRETATION The condition is an important differential diagnosis of MS, but differs from MS in terms of clinical features, prognosis and treatment. Patients have a high risk of sequelae following relapses, and therefore early diagnosis and treatment is important.
    Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening 10/2013; 133(19):2057-2061.
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke in young adults is a major health problem being associated with a higher vascular morbidity and mortality compared to controls, and a stroke recurrence rate of 25% during the first decade. The assumed cause of infarction and the detected risk factors determine the early- and long-term treatment. However, for many patients the cause of stroke remains unknown. Risk factor profile and etiology differ in young and elderly ischemic stroke patients, and atherosclerosis is the determined underlying condition in 10 to 15%. However, subclinical atherosclerosis is probably more prevalent and may go unrecognized.Ultrasound imaging is a sensitive method for the detection of arterial disease and for measurement of adipose tissue. The relationship between intima-media thickness (IMT), plaques, cardiovascular risk factors including visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and ischemic events has repeatedly been shown.We have established The Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study (NOR-SYS) as a three-generation research program with the goal to increase our knowledge on heredity and the development of arterial disease and ischemic stroke. Extended standardized ultrasound examinations are done in order to find subclinical vessel disease for early and better prophylaxis.Methods/design: NOR-SYS is a prospective long-term research program. Standardized methods are used for anamnestic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and ultrasound data collection in ischemic stroke patients aged <=60 years, their partners and joint adult offspring. The ultrasound protocol includes the assessment of intracranial, carotid and femoral arteries, abdominal aorta, and the estimation of VAT. To date, the study is a single centre study with approximately 400 patients, 250 partners and 350 adult offspring expected to be recruited at our site. NOR-SYS aims to increase our knowledge about heredity and the development of arterial vascular disease in young patients with ischemic stroke and their families. Moreover, optimization of diagnostics, prophylaxis and early intervention are major targets with the intention to reduce stroke recurrence and other clinical arterial events, physical disability, cognitive impairment and death.NOR-SYS is reviewed and approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics, Western-Norway (REK-Vest 2010/74), and registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01597453.
    BMC Neurology 07/2013; 13(1):89. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Onconeural antibodies are important in the detection of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). The avidity of Hu, Yo, and CRMP5 antibodies from 100 patients was determined by immunoprecipitation (IP), and 13 of the Yo positive sera were also tested by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). There was a significant association between the results from IP and SPR. Yo antibodies had higher avidity than Hu and CRMP5 antibodies, and both high- and low-avidity antibodies were associated with tumors and PNS. High-avidity Yo antibodies were mainly associated with ovarian cancer, whereas high-avidity Hu and CRMP5 antibodies were mainly associated with small-cell lung cancer. Low-avidity CRMP5 and Yo antibodies were less often detected by a commercial line blot than high-avidity antibodies. The failure to detect low-avidity onconeural antibodies may result in under diagnosis of PNS.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 06/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We report a case of childhood onset, generalized dystonia due to slowly progressive bilateral striatal necrosis associated with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies. This clinical phenotype has not been previously associated with NMDA receptor autoimmunity. CASE PRESENTATION: An eighteen year old man presented with a history of childhood-onset, progressive generalized dystonia. Clinical examination revealed a pure generalized dystonia with no cognitive or other neurological findings. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral high T2 signal striatal lesions, which were slowly progressive over a period of nine years. New parts of the lesion showed restricted water diffusion suggesting cytotoxic oedema. Positron emission tomography of the brain showed frontal hypermetabolism and cerebellar hypometabolism. Antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor were detected in the patient's serum and cerebrospinal fluid. There was no neoplasia or preceding infection or vaccination. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of chronic progressive bilateral striatal necrosis associated with anti-NMDAR antibodies. Our findings expand the clinical spectrum of disease associated with anti-NMDAR antibodies and suggest that these should be included in the work-up of dystonia with striatal necrosis.
    BMC Neurology 05/2013; 13(1):55. · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 04/2013; · 4.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Our population-based long-term follow-up of young ischaemic stroke patients and controls showed 10-fold increased mortality and fivefold increased arterial event rate nearly 12 years after study inclusion. We now assess memory, anxiety, depression and sleep in relation to employment and functional outcome, treatment goals and results from a last alive-dead survey. METHODS: Patients (n = 232) ≤ 49 years with an index-stroke between 1988 and 1997 were retrospectively selected and compared with age- and sex-matched controls (n = 453). At follow-up from 2004 to 2005, 144 (77%) of 187 patients were clinically examined. Self-assessment information about memory problems, anxiety, depression, sleeping problems, education and employment was compared with answers from standardized questionnaires from 167 controls. Functional outcome was measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). RESULTS: Patients compared with controls had more memory problems (41.0% vs. 5.4%, P < 0.001), anxiety (19.4% vs. 9%, P = 0.009), depression (29.2% vs. 13.2%, P = 0.001) and sleeping problems (36.1% vs. 19.2%, P = 0.001). In the multiple regression analysis male gender (OR 9.3, 95%CI 0.10-0.61, P = 0.002), normal memory (OR 12.7, 95%CI 0.07-0.47, P < 0.001) and mRS 0-1 (OR 15.7, 95%CI 0.002-0.12, P < 0.001) were factors for full-time employment. Blood pressure was < 140/90 mmHg in 39% of patients, 49% stopped smoking and 38.2% used statins. After a mean observation time of 18.3 years, 63 (27.2%) of 232 patients were dead. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show a heterogeneous prognosis and high mortality even for long-time survivors of ischaemic stroke at a young age. Prospective studies of young stroke patients and controls are necessary for direct comparison.
    European Journal of Neurology 01/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • C A Vedeler, E Farbu, S I Mellgren
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic immune-mediated demyelinating polyneuropathies can often lead to severe neurologic disability. Literature review and personal experience with these types of neuropathies. It is important to recognize these immune-mediated neuropathies as they respond to treatment.
    Acta neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Yo antibodies are associated with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD). We have characterized Yo sera by measuring CDR2 and CDR2L antibodies and the localization of their antigens. Forty-two Yo sera from patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS), 179 sera from ovarian and 114 sera from breast cancer patients without PNS and 100 blood donors were screened for CDR2 and CDR2L antibodies by radioactive immune assay (RIA). Fluorescence microscopy was also used to determine the presence of CDR2 or CDR2L antibodies by staining of HeLa cells transfected with CDR2 or CDR2L fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Confocal microscopy was further used to localize the CDR2 and CDR2L proteins. RIA showed that 36 of the 42 Yo positive sera contained CDR2 and CDR2L antibodies whereas 6 sera contained only CDR2 antibodies. Five of the ovarian cancer patients had CDR2L antibodies and 4 of the breast cancer patients had either CDR2 or CDR2L antibodies. Only patients with both antibodies had PCD. RIA and staining of transfected cells showed similar results. Yo antibodies were not present in the 100 blood donors. Confocal microscopy showed that CDR2 and CDR2L were localized to the cytoplasm, whereas CDR2L was also present on the cell membrane. Yo sera usually contain CDR2 and CDR2L antibodies and both antibodies are associated with PCD. Since only CDR2L is localized to the cell membrane it is likely that CDR2L antibodies may be of primary pathogenic importance for the development of PCD.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e66002. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Neurology 12/2012; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we aimed to discover cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins with significant abundance difference between early multiple sclerosis patients and controls, and do an initial verification of these proteins using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). iTRAQ and Orbitrap MS were used to compare the CSF proteome of patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) (n=5), patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that had CIS at the time of lumbar puncture (n=5), and controls with other inflammatory neurological disease (n=5). Of more than 1200 identified proteins, five proteins were identified with significant abundance difference between the patients and controls. In the initial verification using SRM we analyzed a larger patient and control cohort (n=132) and also included proteins reported as differentially abundant in multiple sclerosis in the literature. We found significant abundance difference for 11 proteins after verification, of which the five proteins alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, contactin-1, apolipoprotein D, clusterin, and kallikrein-6 were significantly differentially abundant in several of the group comparisons. This initial study form the basis for further biomarker verification studies in even larger sample cohorts, to determine if these proteins have relevance as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for multiple sclerosis.
    Journal of proteomics 10/2012; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HuD antibodies are associated with small cell lung cancer. To identify relevant epitopes of HuD antibodies, patient sera and a monoclonal antibody were analyzed for their reactivity to linear 20mer peptides spanning the human HuD protein. The HuD monoclonal antibody recognized a single fragment located in the first RNA recognition motif. Thorough analysis identified VRDKITQGSL as the actual epitope. Screening of anti-HuD positive patients and healthy controls identified eight peptides as potential subdominant epitopes. The majority of these peptides were located in the N-terminal end as well as in the linker region between the second and third RNA recognition motifs.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 02/2012; 243(1-2):25-33. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunogenicity of recombinant interferon-β (IFN-β) is a known complication in the therapy of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that can interfere with efficacy are quantified using in vitro bioassays; however, these assays do not reveal the immunogenic state of the patient and are not predictive of treatment outcome. Assessment of the impact of NAbs on IFN-β responsive cells and signalling pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with phospho-specific flow cytometry. PBMCs from 10 IFN-β-treated patients with RRMS, two untreated patients, and two healthy controls were re-stimulated in autologous sera and media with a serial dilution of IFN-β (0-8000 U/ml) and levels of phosphorylation of STAT1/3/4/5/6 transcription factors were quantified in PBMC subtypes (NAb titres 0 to > 6000 neutralizing units). Data was subjected to principal component analysis, Hotelling's T (2), and partial least squares analysis. Three significantly distinct clusters of individuals were revealed in autologous sera: therapy-naïve and healthy, treated NAb-negative, and treated NAb-positive. Compared with controls STATs signalling patterns were modulated in treated NAb-negative patients and inhibited in all treated NAb-positive patients independently of NAb titres. In media no clustering of patients could be found. The predictability of NAb titres based on the phospho-flow data was 74%. Phospho-specific flow cytometry can delineate subset-specific cell responses that can act as surrogates for NAb exposure in blood. Immunogenic effects alter the response in primary cells even at low NAb levels. Cell line-based immunogenicity testing is not readily transferable to the immunogenic response in patients.
    Multiple Sclerosis 01/2012; 18(8):1116-24. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system in genetically susceptible persons. Fcγ receptors (FcγR) are involved in autoimmune diseases. Sixteen Norwegian patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) were studied to see whether treatment with either interferon-beta (INF-β) or glatiramer acetate (GA) influenced the proportion of FcγR1a, FcγR2a, and FcγR3b positive monocytes, granulocytes, or lymphocytes or FcγR1a, FcγR2a, and FcγR2b mRNA levels in leukocytes. One hundred and twenty-seven patients with RRMS and 54 Norwegian healthy blood donors were also analyzed for FcγR2b polymorphisms. Interferon-beta or GA treatment initiated an increase in the proportion of FcγR positive lymphocytes, but did not cause major influence of the long-term proportion of FcγR positive leukocytes or their FcγR mRNA levels. No significant differences were observed between RRMS patients and healthy controls for the genotype and allele frequencies of FcγR2b polymorphisms. INF-β or GA treatment probably has no major role in the regulation of FcγRs on immune cells in RRMS. Furthermore, polymorphisms of the inhibitory FcγR2b do not seem to influence the susceptibility for MS.
    Acta neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to identify proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with different abundance between patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and controls. Such proteins may be diagnostic biomarkers and contribute with novel information about the disease pathogenesis. Cerebrospinal fluid from patients with RRMS (n = 17) and controls (n = 17) were trypsin digested and analyzed in a label-free fashion using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The resulting data were analyzed using SearchGUI, PeptideShaker, and the Progenesis software. Two hundred and ninety-one proteins were identified, of which 32 were significantly differentially abundant between the patients with RRMS and controls (P-value ≤ 0.05, two or more peptides quantified). Among these were proteins which previously have been linked to MS, including immunoglobulin subunits, vitamin D-binding protein, apolipoprotein D, kallikrein-6, neuronal pentraxin receptor, Dickkopf-related protein 3, and contactin-1. The study provides an overview of differentially abundant proteins between RRMS and controls, and a few of these are further discussed. It should be stressed that a larger verification study is needed to reveal the potential value of these proteins as biomarkers for RRMS and their involvement in the disease pathogenesis.
    Acta neurologica Scandinavica. Supplementum 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: It is not unusual to observe peripheral nervous system involvement in people with tumours outside the nervous system. Any part of the peripheral nervous system can be involved, from sensory and motor neurons to nerve roots and plexuses, from distal trunks to neuromuscular junctions. Pathogenesis also varies from direct infiltration by cancer cells, to treatment toxicity, to metabolic derangement, cachexia, infections and paraneoplastic syndromes.Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are symptoms or signs resulting from damage to organs or tissues that are remote from the site of the malignancy or its metastases. The pathogenesis is thought to be immune-mediated as a result of a cross-reaction against antigens shared by the tumour and nervous system cells.Paraneoplastic neuropathies are the most frequently reported paraneoplastic syndromes. They are, however, heterogeneous and require several therapeutic approaches. This review was undertaken to systematically assess any data available from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of paraneoplastic syndromes of the peripheral nervous system and not the whole range of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. To assess the benefits and harms of treatments for paraneoplastic neuropathies. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (14 February 2012), CENTRAL (2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2012) and LILACS (January 1982 to February 2012) for RCTs, quasi-RCTs, historically controlled studies and trials with concurrent controls.We adapted this strategy to search MEDLINE from 1966 and EMBASE from 1980 for comparative cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. We planned to include all RCTs and quasi-RCTs (in which allocation is not random but is intended to be unbiased, for example alternate allocation) of any treatment for paraneoplastic neuropathies. Since we expected there to be few or no included studies, we also planned to assess and summarise observational studies, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, case-control studies and case series that met minimum criteria in the discussion. Three review authors selected the trials for inclusion. When there was any disagreement we reached an agreement by discussion. Two review authors extracted data independently onto a specially designed data extraction form. We would have collected adverse event data from included studies. Despite many reports on paraneoplastic neuropathy, we identified no RCT or quasi-RCTs for inclusion in this review. We found only six studies, involving 54 participants, from among the non-randomised evidence that were judged by predefined criteria to be of suitable quality for inclusion in the discussion. These studies were not readily comparable. The treatments focused on tumour treatment and immunomodulation, mainly intravenous immunoglobulin. At present there are no RCTs or quasi-RCTs of treatment for paraneoplastic neuropathies on which to base practice. There is only evidence from case series, case reports or expert opinion (class IV evidence) for the effect of immunomodulation (intravenous immunoglobulin, plasma exchange, steroid treatment or chemotherapy) on paraneoplastic neuropathy.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2012; 12:CD007625. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the clinical trials about 9% of natalizumab treated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients generated anti-natalizumab antibodies, of which 6% were persistent and 3% transient. The occurrence of antibodies reduced serum levels of natalizumab, decreased bio-efficacy, and abrogated the therapeutic efficacy. The objective was to assess the frequency of anti-natalizumab antibodies in an unselected cohort of patients from four different countries. We measured anti-natalizumab antibodies in a large cohort of 4881 unselected patients from four MS centres that systematically measured antibodies in patients treated with natalizumab. We applied the same ELISA assay developed by Biogen Idec and used in the pivotal trials of natalizumab. Antibodies occurred in 4.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: 4.0-5.1%) of the patients, and were persistent in 3.5% (95% CI: 3.0-4.0%) and transient in 1.0% (95% CI: 0.7-1.3%) of the patients. The frequencies of permanently antibody positive patients did not show statistically significant differences between the four centres, whereas the frequencies of transiently antibody positive patients showed some variations. The frequencies of antibodies appeared to be of the same magnitude in the four centres, but might be less than in the pivotal studies of natalizumab.
    Multiple Sclerosis 04/2011; 17(9):1074-8. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    Christian Vedeler, Laurence Bindoff
    Journal of Neurology 04/2011; 258(10):1888-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
546.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1982–2014
    • University of Bergen
      • • Department of Clinical Medicine
      • • Centre for International Health
      • • The Gade Institute
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 1989–2013
    • Haukeland University Hospital
      • • Department of Neurology
      • • Centre for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine
      Bergen, Hordaland Fylke, Norway
  • 2005–2007
    • Sørlandet Hospital
      Arendal, Aust-Agder county, Norway
  • 1994–2004
    • Høgskolen i Bergen
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2003
    • University Hospital of North Norway
      • Department of Neurology
      Tromsø, Troms Fylke, Norway
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Microbiology and Immunology (College of Medicine)
      Charleston, SC, United States
  • 1992
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • Department of Neurology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Neurology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Neurological Sciences
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1988
    • Uppsala University
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden