Kåre E Tvedt

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Nidaros, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway

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Publications (5)15.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Ischaemic preconditioning may protect the intestine from subsequent prolonged ischaemia. This study evaluates whether a much longer initial ischaemia, encountered clinically, may modify intestinal resistance to further ischaemia in a pig model. After cross-clamping of the superior mesenteric artery for 1 h, the intestine was either reperfused for 8 h or a second cross-clamping for 1 h was performed at 4 h of reperfusion. Based on microarray analysis of intestinal samples at 1, 4 and 8 h of reperfusion, mRNA of selected genes was measured with QRT-PCR. The first ischaemic period caused exfoliation of surface epithelial cells from the basement membrane comprising about 90 % of the villi tips, a marked increase in permeability and depletion of ATP. The second ischaemic challenge caused about 30 % less denudation of the basement membrane (p = 0.008), no increase in permeability (p = 0.008) and less depletion of ATP (p = 0.039). mRNAs for superoxide dismutase 2, heat shock proteins and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which may protect against ischaemia/reperfusion injury, were up-regulated throughout the reperfusion period. mRNAs for matrix metalloproteinase 1, connexin 43 and peripheral myelin 22, which may be associated with cell migration or tight junctions, showed a particular up-regulation at 4 h of reperfusion. One hour of initial ischaemia followed by 4 h of reperfusion is associated with increased intestinal resistance to further ischaemia. The differential regulation of genes identified in this study provides working hypotheses for mechanisms behind this observation.
    Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 02/2008; 68(2):106-16. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The object of this study was to compare the effect of chitosans of different number-average molecular weights (MWs) and degrees of acetylation (F(A)) on transepithelial transport of morphine in Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 monolayers on polycarbonate (PC) membranes (0.5 cm(2)) were incubated with morphine (10 microM) or mannitol (55 microM) for 180 min. Samples for analysis of morphine (LCMSMS) and mannitol (liquid scintillation) were drawn at 45, 90, 120 and 180 min. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and transmission electron microscopy were used to monitor cell integrity. In controls, morphine transport was half that of mannitol. Chitosans affected the transport of morphine and mannitol similarly. For chitosans with similar F(A) (0.32-0.43) and varying MWs (7-200 kD), transport was increased at MWs of 29 kD or more. Among chitosans of similar MWs (180-300 kD) and varying F(A) (0.01-0.61), those with the highest F(A) (0.61) had the least effect, while chitosans with F(A)/MW 0.01/250 and 0.17/300 promoted the greatest transport. An F(A)/MW of 0.32/200 and 0.43/170 induced a high and stable transport rate. Chitosans may enhance transepithelial transport of morphine by the same mechanism as for mannitol. Chitosans with F(A) of 0.3-0.4 and MW of approx. 200 kD seem favourable in this respect.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 08/2006; 58(7):909-15. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may be associated with increased risk of colon cancer, whereas n-3 PUFAs may have a protective effect. We examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on the colon carcinoma cell lines SW480 derived from a primary tumour, and SW620 derived from a metastasis of the same tumour. DHA had the strongest growth-inhibitory effect on both cell lines. SW620 was relatively more growth-inhibited than SW480, but SW620 also had the highest growth rate in the absence of PUFAs. Flow cytometry revealed an increase in the fraction of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, particularly for SW620 cells. Growth inhibition was apparently not caused by increased lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione or low activity of glutathione peroxidase. Transmission electron microscopy revealed formation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets after DHA treatment. In SW620 cells an eightfold increase in total cholesteryl esters and a 190-fold increase in DHA-containing cholesteryl esters were observed after DHA treatment. In contrast, SW480 cells accumulated DHA-enriched triglycerides. Arachidonic acid accumulated in a similar manner, whereas the nontoxic oleic acid was mainly incorporated in triglycerides in both cell lines. Interestingly, nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (nSREBP1), recently associated with cell growth regulation, was downregulated after DHA treatment in both cell lines. Our results demonstrate cell-specific mechanisms for the processing and storage of cytotoxic PUFAs in closely related cell lines, and suggest downregulation of nSREBP1 as a possible contributor to the growth inhibitory effect of DHA.
    FEBS Journal 07/2006; 273(12):2749-65. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate microdialysis as a method to assess different degrees of intestinal damage and recovery during ischemia and reperfusion; to evaluate information obtained from microdialysis catheters in the peritoneum, the gut wall, and the gut lumen. Randomized, controlled animal experiment. University laboratory animal center. Twenty-seven domestic pigs. The superior mesenteric artery was cross-clamped for 60 mins (n = 14) or 120 mins (n = 10) followed by 2 or 4 hrs of reperfusion. Three pigs served as controls. Intestinal mucosal integrity was assessed by morphometry, adenosine triphosphate in the gut wall, and permeability of C-polyethylene glycol. Lactate, glycerol, pyruvate, and glucose were measured by microdialysis. Changes in adenosine triphosphate, permeability, or lactate did not correlate to different extents of intestinal damage caused by 60 or 120 mins of ischemia. During the reperfusion period, pigs with 60 mins of intestinal ischemia showed a faster recovery of these variables than pigs with 120 mins of intestinal ischemia. Glycerol increased with increasing duration of the ischemic insult. After 60 mins of intestinal ischemia, glycerol in the gut lumen decreased toward baseline but remained high after 120 mins of intestinal ischemia. There was a good correlation between gut luminal glycerol and recovery of mucosal damage throughout the reperfusion period. In the peritoneal cavity, both glycerol and lactate decreased to baseline relatively shortly after onset of reperfusion independent of the duration of intestinal ischemia. Microdialysis of glycerol provides information about the extent and severity of intestinal damage after ischemia and about the ensuing recovery. The gut lumen is to be preferred as a site for placement of microdialysis catheters.
    Critical Care Medicine 11/2005; 33(10):2278-85. · 6.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mucosal surface epithelium is an essential part of the functional intestinal barrier, but its structural response to ischemia/reperfusion is only partly characterized. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed morphological evaluation of intestinal surface epithelium after aortic cross-clamping. Pigs were subjected to thoracic aortic cross-clamping for 60 min and subsequent reperfusion for 120 min. Tissue blood flow and high-energy phosphates were measured with microspheres and HPLC, respectively. Urinary excretion of (14)C polyethylene glycol (MW 4000 Da) (PEG-4000), loaded into an intestinal loop, provided an index of intestinal permeability. Jejunal blood flow was restored at 10 min after aortic declamping. Denudation of the basement membrane of the intestinal villi tips, as a consequence of epithelial shedding, increased markedly during the initial 60 min of reperfusion (P = 0.002). During the following 45 min, the denuded basement membrane was partly covered with low cuboidal and squamous-shaped cells extending lamellipodia over a wavy basement membrane. Restoration of ATP at 60 min after aortic declamping correlated inversely to the extent of denuded basement membrane (r = 0.75, P = 0.032). Permeability of PEG-4000 increased markedly after aortic declamping and was linearly correlated to the area of denuded basement membrane (r = 0.87, P = 0.01). Reperfusion for 2 h after aortic cross-clamping is associated with initial aggravation of ischemia-induced injury in the porcine jejunum, but thereafter with restitution of the surface epithelium. Restoration of ATP may be important to avoid intestinal injury after ischemia. Increased permeability of a macromolecule in response to reperfusion is closely correlated to injury of the surface epithelium.
    Journal of Surgical Research 05/2004; 117(2):283-95. · 2.02 Impact Factor