Uchenna Iloeje

Bristol-Myers Squibb, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (10)46.94 Total impact

  • Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 04/2013; 33(4):650-651. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity and alcohol interact to increase the risk of death from liver failure in men. In the present study, we aimed to examine whether obesity and alcohol were multiplicative or additive in increasing the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in both men and women. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 23,712 Taiwanese residents (50.3% men) from 7 townships who underwent an evaluation for liver disease and were followed for 11.6 years for incident HCC. The mean age was 47 (standard deviation, 10) years and the mean body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) was 24 (standard deviation, 3). Overall, 305 cases of HCC were identified over 275,126 person-years of follow-up. Age, male sex, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, elevated alanine aminotransferase, serum hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis C virus positivity, and diabetes mellitus were each statistically significant predictors of incident HCC in univariate analyses (P < 0.05). Alcohol use and obesity (body mass index ≥30) showed a synergistic association with the risk of incident HCC in both unadjusted analyses (hazard ratio = 7.19, 95% confidence interval: 3.69, 14.00; P < 0.01) and multivariable-adjusted analyses (age, sex, smoking, serum alanine aminotransferase, serum hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-hepatitis C virus antibody, and diabetes mellitus) (hazard ratio = 3.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.94, 7.52; P < 0.01). Relative excess risks due to interaction, attributable proportion, and synergy index were 4.83, 0.67, and 4.53, respectively, suggesting a multiplicative interaction between alcohol use and obesity. Obesity and alcohol synergistically increase the risk of incident HCC.
    American journal of epidemiology 01/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term treatment with entecavir resulted in durable virologic suppression and continued histologic improvement in nucleoside-naive chronic hepatitis B patients. Patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis, who received long-term entecavir treatment, were evaluated for improvement in liver histology. The study included a subset of patients from phase III and long-term rollover studies, who received entecavir for at least 3 years, had advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis, and evaluable biopsies at baseline and after long-term treatment. Ten patients had advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis at baseline (Ishak fibrosis score, ≥ 4). After approximately 6 years of cumulative entecavir therapy (range, 267-297 wk), all 10 patients showed improvement in liver histology and Ishak fibrosis score. The mean change from baseline in Ishak fibrosis and Knodell necroinflammatory scores were -2.2 and -7.6, respectively. A reduction in Ishak fibrosis score to 4 or less was observed for all 4 patients who had cirrhosis at baseline. Chronic hepatitis B patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis demonstrated histologic improvement and reversal of fibrosis and cirrhosis after long-term treatment with entecavir.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 03/2011; 9(3):274-6. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Body mass index (BMI) and alcohol use are risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed a prospective study to determine if these factors have synergistic effects on HCC risk. Over 14 years, we followed up 2260 Taiwanese men from the Risk Evaluation of Viral Load Elevation and Associated Liver Disease/Cancer-Hepatitis B Virus (REVEAL-HBV) Study Cohort who tested positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen (mean age, 46 ± 10 y; mean BMI, 24 ± 3 kg/m(2)); 20% reported alcohol use. Incident HCC cases were identified via linkage to the national cancer registry. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using Cox-proportional hazards models. In univariate analysis, the interaction between BMI and alcohol predicted incident HCC (P = .029). Alcohol use and extreme obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) had synergistic effects on the risk of incident HCC in analyses adjusted for age (HR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.25-9.27; P < .025) and multivariables (HR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.24-9.34; P < .025). The relative risk estimate for the interaction and the attributable proportion from the interaction and synergy index were 1.59, 0.52, and 4.40, respectively; these indicate a multiplicative interaction between alcohol use and extreme obesity. In an analysis stratified into 4 World Health Organization categories of BMI and alcohol use, the risk of incident HCC increased in overweight (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4), obese (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7), and extremely obese (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.0-8.0) users of alcohol (P for trend = .046). Obesity and alcohol have synergistic effects to increase the risk of incident HCC in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive men. Lifestyle interventions might reduce the incidence of HCC.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 10/2010; 8(10):891-8, 898.e1-2. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One year of treatment with entecavir (0.5 mg daily) in nucleoside-naive patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive or HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) resulted in significantly improved liver histology and virological and biochemical endpoints in comparison with lamivudine. Patients who received at least 3 years of cumulative entecavir therapy in phase 3 studies and a long-term rollover study and underwent long-term liver biopsy were evaluated for improvements in histological appearance. Sixty-nine patients [50 HBeAg-positive and 19 HBeAg-negative] receiving entecavir therapy underwent long-term liver biopsy (median time of biopsy = 6 years, range = 3-7 years). Histological improvement was analyzed for 57 patients who had adequate baseline biopsy samples, baseline Knodell necroinflammatory scores > or =2, and adequate long-term biopsy samples. At the time of long-term biopsy, all patients in the cohort had a hepatitis B virus DNA level <300 copies/mL, and 86% had a normalized alanine aminotransferase level. Histological improvement (> or =2-point decrease in the Knodell necroinflammatory score and no worsening of the Knodell fibrosis score) was observed in 96% of patients, and a > or =1-point improvement in the Ishak fibrosis score was found in 88% of patients, including all 10 patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis at the phase 3 baseline. CONCLUSION: The majority of nucleoside-naive patients with CHB who were treated with entecavir in this long-term cohort achieved substantial histological improvement and regression of fibrosis or cirrhosis.
    Hepatology 09/2010; 52(3):886-93. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sustained virologic suppression is a primary goal of therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). In study entecavir (ETV)-022, 48 weeks of entecavir 0.5 mg was superior to lamivudine for virologic suppression for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB. A total of 183 entecavir-treated patients from ETV-022 subsequently enrolled in study ETV-901. We present the results after up to 5 years (240 weeks) of continuous entecavir therapy. The entecavir long-term cohort consists of patients who received >or=1 year of entecavir 0.5 mg in ETV-022 and then entered ETV-901 with a treatment gap <or=35 days. In ETV-901 the entecavir dose was 1.0 mg daily. For patients with samples available at Year 5, proportions with hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA <300 copies/mL, normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, HBeAg loss, and HBeAg seroconversion were determined. In all, 146 patients met criteria for inclusion in the entecavir long-term cohort. At Year 5, 94% (88/94) had HBV DNA <300 copies/mL and 80% (78/98) had normal ALT levels. In addition to patients who achieved serologic responses during study ETV-022, 23% (33/141) achieved HBeAg seroconversion and 1.4% (2/145) lost hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) during study ETV-901. Through 5 years, entecavir resistance emerged in one patient. The safety profile of entecavir was consistent with previous reports. CONCLUSION: Extended therapy with entecavir through 5 years maintained or increased rates of HBV DNA suppression and ALT normalization. Additional patients also achieved HBeAg loss and seroconversion. Entecavir provides sustained viral suppression with minimal resistance during long-term treatment of HBeAg-positive CHB.
    Hepatology 02/2010; 51(2):422-30. · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    Yong Yuan, Uchenna Iloeje, Hong Li, Joel Hay, Guang B Yao
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    ABSTRACT: Of estimated 112 million persons infected with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China, 15% to 40% will eventually develop liver complications. Most patients do not actively seek antiviral agents for treatment due in part to lack of good understanding of the disease. Entecavir is a new therapeutic option for CHB patients and the purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of entecavir treatment in China, based on projected clinical benefits from its superior viral suppression efficacy. The analysis was based on the perspective of the Chinese Social Security program. Adjusted relative risks on the association between viral load (VL) and clinical end points (liver cirrhosis/hepatocellular carcinoma) were derived from a publication of a Taiwan CHB prospective cohort with 42,115 person-years of follow-up, and applied to patients enrolled in a randomized phase III trial in China. In this trial, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (by polymerase chain reaction assay) was the key efficacy end point after 48 weeks of treatment with either entecavir or lamivudine monotherapy. Entecavir and lamivudine daily prices were assumed to be Renminbi Yuan (RMB) 40 and 16.71, respectively. Life expectancy tables were based on China vital statistics. Direct medical cost and utility scores for different phases of CHB were estimated from published China specific data, and costs were adjusted to 2006 values using the Chinese Consumer Price Index. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate parameter uncertainty on event distribution and treatment failure rates beyond the trial period. A total of 519 subjects were enrolled in the study, comprising of 82% males, 87% HBeAg+, and a mean age of 30 years. Based on the efficacy measurement of the percentage of patients achieving HBV DNA <300 copies/ml at week 48, entecavir was superior to lamivudine (78.7% vs. 46.7%, respectively [P < 0.05]). In the base case, compared with lamivudine, 1 year of entecavir therapy gained 0.305 quality-adjusted life year (QALY) at an incremental cost of 5368 RMB, with a 3% annual discount. Compared with lamivudine, using entecavir cost an incremental 17,590 RMB per QALY gained (95% CI 6333-56,407). Based on the results of this study, entecavir is likely to be cost-effective in treating hepatitis B patients in China based on the World Health Organization's recommended maximum willingness to pay threshold.
    Value in Health 04/2008; 11 Suppl 1:S11-22. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection is a major global healthcare problem. The recent introduction of entecavir in Australia for the treatment of CHB patients in the naive treatment setting has triggered significant optimism with regards to improved clinical outcomes for CHB patients. To estimate, from an Australian healthcare perspective, the cost effectiveness of entecavir 0.5 mg/day versus lamivudine 100 mg/day in the treatment of CHB patients naive to nucleos(t)ide therapy. A cost-utility analysis to project the clinical and economic outcomes associated with CHB disease and treatment was conducted by developing two decision-tree models specific to hepatitis B e antigen-positive (HBeAg+ve) and HBeAg-ve CHB patient subsets. This analysis was constructed using the Australian payer perspective of direct costs and outcomes, with indirect medical costs and lost productivity not being included. The study population comprised a hypothetical cohort of 1000 antiviral treatment-naive CHB patients who received either entecavir 0.5 mg/day or lamivudine 100 mg/day at model entry. The population of patients used in this analysis was representative of those patients likely to receive initial antiviral therapy in clinical practice in Australia. The long-term cost effectiveness of entecavir compared with lamivudine in the first-line treatment of CHB patients was expressed as an incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG) or QALY gained. Results revealed that the availability of entecavir 0.5 mg/day as part of the Australian hepatologist's treatment armamentarium should result in significantly lower future rates of compensated cirrhosis (CC), decompensated cirrhosis (DC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) events (i.e. 54 fewer cases of CC, seven fewer cases of DC, and 20 fewer cases of HCC over the model's timeframe for HBeAg+ve CHB patients, and 69 fewer cases of CC, eight fewer cases of DC and 25 fewer cases of HCC over the model's timeframe for HBeAg-ve CHB patients). Compared with lamivudine 100 mg/day, entecavir 0.5 mg/day generated an estimated incremental cost per LYG of Australian dollars ($A, year 2006 values) 5046 and an estimated incremental cost per QALY of $A5952 in the HBeAg+ve CHB patient population, an estimated incremental cost per LYG of $A7063 and an estimated incremental cost per QALY of $A8003 in the HBeAg-ve CHB patient population, and an overall estimated incremental cost per LYG of $A5853 and an estimated incremental cost per QALY of $A6772 in the general CHB population. The availability of entecavir in Australian clinical practice should make long-term suppression of hepatitis B virus replication increasingly attainable, resulting in fewer CHB sequelae, at an acceptable financial cost.
    Applied Health Economics and Health Policy 02/2008; 6(4):231-46.
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    ABSTRACT: 1 (2 x Baseline ALT and >10 x ULN