[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c).Subjects and methodsThe IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of IDAA1c and age on partial C-peptide remission (stimulated C-peptide, SCP > 300 pmol/L).ResultsPR (IDAA1c ≤ 9) in the Danish and Hvidoere cohorts occurred in 62 vs. 61% (3 months, p = 0.80), 47 vs. 44% (6 months, p = 0.57), 26 vs. 32% (9 months, p = 0.32) and 19 vs. 18% (12 months, p = 0.69). The effect of age on SCP was significantly higher in the Danish cohort compared with the Hvidoere cohort (p < 0.0001), likely due to higher attained Boost SCP, so the sensitivity and specificity of those in PR by IDAA1c ≤ 9, SCP > 300 pmol/L was 0.85 and 0.62 at 6 months and 0.62 vs. 0.38 at 12 months, respectively. IDAA1c with age significantly improved the ROC analyses and the AUC reached 0.89 ± 0.04 (age) vs. 0.94 ± 0.02 (age + IDAA1c) at 6 months (p < 0.0004) and 0.76 ± 0.04 (age) vs. 0.90 ± 0.03 (age + IDAA1c) at 12 months (p < 0.0001).Conclusions
The diagnostic and prognostic power of the IDAA1c measure is kept but due to the higher Boost stimulation in the Danish cohort, the specificity of the formula is lower with the chosen limits for SCP (300 pmol/L) and IDAA1c ≤9, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin analogues have been developed to reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes who require insulin-based treatment, but their effect on this endpoint in patients with type 1 diabetes complicated by recurrent severe hypoglycaemia is unknown. We compared the occurrence of severe hypoglycaemic episodes in such patients during treatment with insulin analogues or human insulin.
In this investigator-initiated, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint crossover trial at seven medical centres in Denmark, we recruited patients (aged ≥18 years) with type 1 diabetes (diagnosed for >5 years) who had reported two or more episodes of severe hypoglycaemia in the preceding year. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using computer-generated site-specific randomisation lists in blocks of four to treatment with basal-bolus therapy with either analogue insulin (detemir and aspart) or human insulin (human neutral protamine Hagedorn and human regular) in a balanced crossover design. A 1-year plus 1-year treatment period was specified, consisting of two 3-month run-in periods, each followed by a 9-month maintenance period. The primary endpoint was the number of validated episodes of severe hypoglycaemia (defined by need for treatment assistance from others) reported during the maintenance periods, analysed by intention to treat. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00346996.
Between May 9, 2007, and Oct 30, 2009, 159 patients were randomly assigned. 18 patients discontinued during the first run-in period, leaving 141 patients in the intention-to-treat population. 136 severe hypoglycaemic episodes were reported during treatment with human insulin and 105 episodes were reported during treatment with insulin analogues, resulting in an absolute rate reduction of 0·51 episodes (95% CI 0·19-0·84) per patient-year with insulin analogues. This result corresponds to a relative rate reduction of 29% (95% CI 11-48; p=0·010).
Treatment with insulin detemir and aspart in patients with type 1 diabetes and recurrent severe hypoglycaemia resulted in a clinically significant reduced rate of severe hypoglycaemia compared with human insulin. Patients with the greatest chance of benefitting from improved insulin therapy should be offered treatment with insulin analogues and be included in future trials of new insulins.
Novo Nordisk A/S.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify whether the rate of decline in stimulated C-peptide (SCP) from 2 to 15 months after diagnosis has changed over an interval of 27 yr.
The rate of decline in SCP levels at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months after diagnosis was compared in four paediatric cohorts from Scandinavian and European countries including 446 children with new onset type 1 diabetes (T1D, 1982-2004). Findings were evaluated against 78 children (2004-2009) from the TrialNet studies.
The mean rate of decline [%/month (±SEM)] in SCP for a 10-yr-old child was 7.7%/month (±1.5) in the 1982-1985 Cohort, 6.3%/month (±1.7) in the 1995-1998 Cohort, 7.8%/month (±0.7) in the 1999-2000 Cohort, and 10.7%/month (±0.9) in the latest 2004-2005 Cohort (p = 0.05). Including the TrialNet Cohort with a rate of decline in SCP of 10.0%/month (±0.9) the differences between the cohorts are still significant (p = 0.039). The rate of decline in SCP was negatively associated with age (p < 0.0001), insulin antibodies (IA) (p = 0.003), and glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65A) (p = 0.03) initially with no statistically significant effect of body mass index (BMI) Z-score at 3 months. Also, at 3 months the time around partial remission, the effect of age on SCP was significantly greater in children ≤5 yr compared with older children (p ≤ 0.0001).
During the past 27 yr, initial C-peptide as well as the rate of C-peptide decline seem to have increased. The rate of decline was affected significantly by age, GAD65A, and IA, but not BMI Z-score or initial C-peptide.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to identify key miRNAs in circulation, which predict ongoing beta-cell destruction and regeneration in children with newly diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). We compared expression level of sera miRNAs from new onset T1D children and age-matched healthy controls and related the miRNAs expression levels to beta-cell function and glycaemic control. Global miRNA sequencing analyses were performed on sera pools from two T1D cohorts (
= 275 and 129, resp.) and one control group (
= 151). We identified twelve upregulated human miRNAs in T1D patients (miR-152, miR-30a-5p, miR-181a, miR-24, miR-148a, miR-210, miR-27a, miR-29a, miR-26a, miR-27b, miR-25, miR-200a); several of these miRNAs were linked to apoptosis and beta-cell networks. Furthermore, we identified miR-25 as negatively associated with residual beta-cell function (est.: −0.12,
= 0.0037), and positively associated with glycaemic control (HbA1c) (est.: 0.11,
= 0.0035) 3 months after onset. In conclusion this study demonstrates that miR-25 might be a “tissue-specific” miRNA for glycaemic control 3 months after diagnosis in new onset T1D children and therefore supports the role of circulating miRNAs as predictive biomarkers for tissue physiopathology and potential intervention targets.
Experimental Diabetes Research 12/2012; 2012(9):896362. DOI:10.1155/2012/896362 · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proinsulin is a marker of beta-cell distress and dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and transplanted islets. Proinsulin levels are elevated in patients newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to assess the relationship between proinsulin, insulin dose-adjusted haemoglobin A1c (IDAA1C), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, and remission status the first year after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes.
Juvenile patients (n = 275) were followed 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis. At each visit, partial remission was defined as IDAA1C ≤ 9%. The patients had a liquid meal test at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month visits, which included measurement of C-peptide, proinsulin, GLP-1, glucagon, and insulin antibodies (IA).
Patients in remission at 6 and 12 months had significantly higher levels of proinsulin compared to non-remitting patients (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0002). An inverse association between proinsulin and IDAA1C was found at 1 and 6 months (p = 0.0008, p = 0.0022). Proinsulin was positively associated with C-peptide (p < 0.0001) and IA (p = 0.0024, p = 0.0068, p < 0.0001) at 1, 6, and 12 months. Glucagon (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.02) as well as GLP-1 (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.002) were significantly lower in remitters than in non-remitters at 6 and 12 months. Proinsulin associated positively with GLP-1 at 1 month (p = 0.004) and negatively at 6 (p = 0.002) and 12 months (p = 0.0002).
In type 1 diabetes, patients in partial remission have higher levels of proinsulin together with lower levels of GLP-1 and glucagon compared to patients not in remission. In new onset type 1 diabetes proinsulin level may be a sign of better residual beta-cell function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies against the newly established autoantigen in type 1 diabetes, zinc transporter 8, ZnT8, are presented as two types, ZnT8RAb and ZnT8WAb. The rs13266634 variant of the SLC30A8 gene has recently been found to determine the type of ZnT8Ab. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of this genetic variant and the ZnT8Ab on the residual beta-cell function during disease progression the first year after disease diagnosis in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. This cohort consists of 257 children aged < 16 years, all patients were newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. A Boost-test was carried out at 1, 6, and 12 months to characterize the residual beta-cell function. Carriers of the CC and CT genotype groups of the rs13266634 SNP of the SLC30A8 gene had higher stimulated C-peptide levels the first year after onset compared with those of the TT genotype group (29%, p = 0.034). CC genotype carriers were highly associated with the presence of ZnT8RAb subtype during disease progression (compared with TT, p < 0.0001). On the other hand, the TT genotype was associated with the presence of ZnT8WAb subtype during disease progression (compared with CC, p < 0.0001). The C allele of the SLC30A8 gene is associated with preserved beta-cell function in type 1 diabetes patients. The genetic determination of the rs13266634 variant on the ZnT8Ab specificity is sustained the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in a pediatric cohort.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 2 (PTPN22) has been established as a type 1 diabetes susceptibility gene. A recent study found the C1858T variant of this gene to be associated with lower residual fasting C-peptide levels and poorer glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. We investigated the association of the C1858T variant with residual beta-cell function (as assessed by stimulated C-peptide, proinsulin and insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c), glycemic control, daily insulin requirements, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and diabetes-related autoantibodies (IA-2A, GADA, ICA, ZnT8Ab) in children during the first year after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes.
The C1858T variant was genotyped in an international cohort of children (n = 257 patients) with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes during 12 months after onset. We investigated the association of this variant with liquid-meal stimulated beta-cell function (proinsulin and C-peptide) and antibody status 1, 6 and 12 months after onset. In addition HbA1c and daily insulin requirements were determined 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after diagnosis. DKA was defined at disease onset.
A repeated measurement model of all time points showed the stimulated proinsulin level is significantly higher (22%, p = 0.03) for the T allele carriers the first year after onset. We also found a significant positive association between proinsulin and IA levels (est.: 1.12, p = 0.002), which did not influence the association between PTPN22 and proinsulin (est.: 1.28, p = 0.03).
The T allele of the C1858T variant is positively associated with proinsulin levels during the first 12 months in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes children.
BMC Medical Genetics 03/2011; 12:41. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-12-41 · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate disease progression the first 12 months after diagnosis in children with type 1 diabetes negative (AAB negative) for pancreatic autoantibodies [islet cell autoantibodies(ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) and insulinoma-associated antigen-2 antibodies (IA-2A)]. Furthermore the study aimed at determining whether mutations in KCNJ11, ABCC8, HNF1A, HNF4A or INS are common in AAB negative diabetes.
In 261 newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes, we measured residual β-cell function, ICA, GADA, and IA-2A at 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. The genes KCNJ11, ABCC8, HNF1A, HNF4A and INS were sequenced in subjects AAB negative at diagnosis. We expressed recombinant K-ATP channels in Xenopus oocytes to analyse the functional effects of an ABCC8 mutation.
Twenty-four patients (9.1%) tested AAB negative after one month. Patients, who were AAB-negative throughout the 12-month period, had higher residual β-cell function (P = 0.002), lower blood glucose (P = 0.004), received less insulin (P = 0.05) and had lower HbA1c (P = 0.02) 12 months after diagnosis. One patient had a heterozygous mutation leading to the substitution of arginine at residue 1530 of SUR1 (ABCC8) by cysteine. Functional analyses of recombinant K-ATP channels showed that R1530C markedly reduced the sensitivity of the K-ATP channel to inhibition by MgATP. Morover, the channel was highly sensitive to sulphonylureas. However, there was no effect of sulfonylurea treatment after four weeks on 1.0-1.2 mg/kg/24 h glibenclamide.
GAD, IA-2A, and ICA negative children with new onset type 1 diabetes have slower disease progression as assessed by residual beta-cell function and improved glycemic control 12 months after diagnosis. One out of 24 had a mutation in ABCC8, suggesting that screening of ABCC8 should be considered in patients with AAB negative type 1 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE
To find a simple definition of partial remission in type 1 diabetes that reflects both residual β-cell function and efficacy of insulin treatment.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 275 patients aged <16 years were followed from onset of type 1 diabetes. After 1, 6, and 12 months, stimulated C-peptide during a challenge was used as a measure of residual β-cell function.
By multiple regression analysis, a negative association between stimulated C-peptide and A1C (regression coefficient −0.21, P < 0.001) and insulin dose (−0.94, P < 0.001) was shown. These results suggested the definition of an insulin dose–adjusted A1C (IDAA1C) as A1C (percent) + [4 × insulin dose (units per kilogram per 24 h)]. A calculated IDAA1C ≤9 corresponding to a predicted stimulated C-peptide >300 pmol/l was used to define partial remission. The IDAA1C ≤9 had a significantly higher agreement (P < 0.001) with residual β-cell function than use of a definition of A1C ≤7.5%. Between 6 and 12 months after diagnosis, for IDAA1C ≤9 only 1 patient entered partial remission and 61 patients ended partial remission, for A1C ≤7.5% 15 patients entered partial remission and 53 ended, for a definition of insulin dose ≤0.5 units · kg−1 · 24 h−1 5 patients entered partial remission and 66 ended, and for stimulated C-peptide (>300 pmol/l) 9 patients entered partial remission and 49 ended. IDAA1C at 6 months has good predictive power for stimulated C-peptide concentrations after both 6 and 12 months.
A new definition of partial remission is proposed, including both glycemic control and insulin dose. It reflects residual β-cell function and has better stability compared with the conventional definitions.
Diabetes care 05/2009; 32(8):1384-90. DOI:10.2337/dc08-1987 · 8.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify predictors of residual beta-cell function and glycemic control during the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D).
Clinical information and blood samples were collected from 275 children. HbA1c, antibodies, HLA typing and mixed meal-stimulated C-peptide levels 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis were analyzed centrally.
Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 yr. DKA with standard bicarbonate <15 mmol/L was associated with significantly poorer residual beta-cell function 1 (p = 0.004) and 12 months (p = 0.0003) after diagnosis. At 12 months, the decline in stimulated C-peptide levels compared with the levels at 1 month was 69% in the youngest age group and 50% in patients 10 yr and above (p < 0.001). Stimulated C-peptide at 12 months was predicted by younger age (p < 0.02) and bicarbonate levels at diagnosis (p = 0.005), and by stimulated C-peptide (p < 0.0001), postmeal blood glucose (p = 0.0004), insulin antibodies (IA; p = 0.02) and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA; p = 0.0004) at 1 month. HbA1c at 12 months was predicted by HbA1c at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), GADA at 1 month (p = 0.01), and non-white Caucasian ethnicity (p = 0.002).
Younger age, ketoacidosis at diagnosis, and IA and GADA 1 month after diagnosis were the strongest explanatory factors for residual beta-cell function at 12 months. Glycemic control at 12 months was influenced predominantly by ethnicity, HbA1c at diagnosis, and GADA at 1 month.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Th1 related chemokines CCL3 and CCL5 and Th2 related CCL4 as ligands of the receptor CCR5 contribute to disease development in animal models of type 1 diabetes. In humans, no data are available addressing the role of these chemokines regarding disease progression and remission. We investigated longitudinally circulating concentrations of CCR5 ligands of 256 newly diagnosed patients with type 1 diabetes. CCR5 ligands were differentially associated with beta-cell function and clinical remission. CCL5 was decreased in remitters and positively associated with HbA1c suggestive of a Th1 associated progression of the disease. Likewise, CCL3 was negatively related to C-peptide and positively associated with the beta-cell stress marker proinsulin but increased in remitters. CCL4 associated with decreased beta-cell stress shown by negative association with proinsulin. Blockage of chemokines or antagonism of CCR5 by therapeutic agents such as maraviroc may provide a new therapeutic target to ameliorate disease progression in type 1 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conflicting evidence exists as to whether the Pro12Ala single nucleotide polymorphism of the type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) also confers risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D).
The objective of this study was to investigate the PPARG gene in relation to residual beta-cell function and glycemic control in newly diagnosed T1D.
Prospective, non-interventional, 12-month follow-up study, conducted in 18 centers in 15 countries.
Two hundred and fifty-seven children and adolescents (aged <16 yr) with newly diagnosed T1D.
Beta-cell function was determined as 90-min meal-stimulated C-peptide (Boost test) 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and daily insulin dose (IU/kg/d) were recorded at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after diagnosis. Haplotypes within PPARG were estimated by SNPHap program. Statistical analyses were performed in a repeated measurements model.
Five haplotypes within PPARG were generated (h1, 68.4%; h2, 16.3%; h3, 8.3%; h4, 3.5%; and hx, 3.5%). Compared with the most frequent h1 haplotype, the haplotypes h3 and h4 of the PPARG associated with residual beta-cell function during the first year of clinical disease: h3 with a 27% lower C-peptide (p = 0.02) and h4 with a 39% lower C-peptide (p = 0.01). Haplotype h4 also associated with a 0.86% (absolute) higher HbA1c, after adjustment for the insulin dose (p = 0.02).
Variation in the PPARG locus may influence disease progression during the first year after the presentation of T1D.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deletion-allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and elevated ACE activity are associated with increased risk of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. We explored whether genetic and phenotypic variations in other components of the renin-angiotensin system are similarly associated.
Episodes of severe hypoglycemia were recorded in 171 consecutive type 1 diabetic outpatients during a 1-year follow-up. Participants were characterized at baseline by gene polymorphisms in angiotensinogen, ACE, angiotensin-II receptor types 1 (AT1R) and 2 (AT2R), and by plasma angiotensinogen concentration and serum ACE activity.
Three risk factors for severe hypoglycemia were identified: plasma angiotensinogen concentration in the upper quartile (relative rate [RR] vs. lower quartile 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI,] 1.4-6.8), serum ACE activity in the upper quartile (RR vs. lower quartile 2.9, 95% CI, 1.3-6.2), and homo- or hemizygosity for the A-allele of the X chromosome-located AT2R 1675G/A polymorphism (RR vs. noncarriers 2.5, 95% CI, 1.4-5.0). The three risk factors contributed independently to prediction of severe hypoglycemia. A backward multiple regression analysis identified a high number of renin-angiotensin system-related risk factors and reduced ability to perceive hypoglycemic warning symptoms (impaired hypoglycemia awareness) as predictors of severe hypoglycemia.
High renin-angiotensin system activity and the A-allele of the AT2R 1675G/A polymorphism associate with high risk of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes. A potential preventive effect of renin-angiotensin system blocking drugs in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia merits further investigation.
The American journal of medicine 04/2008; 121(3):246.e1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.amjmed.2007.12.002 · 5.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of glucagon in hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetes is unresolved, and in vitro studies suggest that increasing blood glucose might stimulate glucagon secretion.
Our objective was to investigate the relationship between postprandial glucose and glucagon level during the first 12 months after diagnosis of childhood type 1 diabetes.
We conducted a prospective, noninterventional, 12-month follow-up study conducted in 22 centers in 18 countries.
Patients included 257 children and adolescents less than 16 yr old with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes; 204 completed the 12-month follow-up.
The study was conducted at pediatric outpatient clinics.
We assessed residual beta-cell function (C-peptide), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), blood glucose, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release in response to a 90-min meal stimulation (Boost) at 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis.
Compound symmetric repeated-measurements models including all three visits showed that postprandial glucagon increased by 17% during follow-up (P = 0.001). Glucagon levels were highly associated with postprandial blood glucose levels because a 10 mmol/liter increase in blood glucose corresponded to a 20% increase in glucagon release (P = 0.0003). Glucagon levels were also associated with GLP-1 release because a 10% increase in GLP-1 corresponded to a 2% increase in glucagon release (P = 0.0003). Glucagon levels were not associated (coefficient -0.21, P = 0.07) with HbA(1c), adjusted for insulin dose. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of Kir6.2/SUR1 in human alpha-cells.
Our study supports the recent in vitro data showing a stimulation of glucagon secretion by high glucose levels. Postprandial glucagon levels were not associated with HbA(1c), adjusted for insulin dose, during the first year after onset of childhood type 1 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ATP-dependent K+-channel (K(ATP)) is critical for glucose sensing and normal glucagon and insulin secretion from pancreatic endocrine alpha- and beta-cells. Gastrointestinal endocrine L- and K-cells are also glucose-sensing cells secreting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) respectively. The aims of this study were to 1) investigate the expression and co-localisation of the K(ATP) channel subunits, Kir6.2 and SUR1, in human L- and K-cells and 2) investigate if a common hyperactive variant of the Kir6.2 subunit, Glu23Lys, exerts a functional impact on glucose-sensing tissues in vivo that may affect the overall glycaemic control in children with new-onset type 1 diabetes.
Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses were performed for expression and co-localisation studies. Meal-stimulated C-peptide test was carried out in 257 children at 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Genotyping for the Glu23Lys variant was by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Kir6.2 and SUR1 co-localise with GLP-1 in L-cells and with GIP in K-cells in human ileum tissue. Children with type 1 diabetes carrying the hyperactive Glu23Lys variant had higher HbA1C at diagnosis (coefficient = 0.61%, P = 0.02) and 1 month after initial insulin therapy (coefficient = 0.30%, P = 0.05), but later disappeared. However, when adjusting HbA1C for the given dose of exogenous insulin, the dose-adjusted HbA1C remained higher throughout the 12 month study period (coefficient = 0.42%, P = 0.03).
Kir6.2 and SUR1 co-localise in the gastrointestinal endocrine L- and K-cells. The hyperactive Glu23Lys variant of the K(ATP) channel subunit Kir6.2 may cause defective glucose sensing in several tissues and impaired glycaemic control in children with type 1 diabetes.
European Journal of Endocrinology 07/2007; 156(6):663-71. DOI:10.1530/EJE-06-0756 · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assessment of quality of life (QOL) in adolescents with diabetes requires patient, parent and health professional input. Psychometrically robust instruments to assess parent and professional perspectives are required.
Questionnaires concerning adolescent QOL were developed for completion by parents and health professionals. In an international study assessing QOL in 2,101 adolescents with diabetes (median age 14 years, range 10-18; from 17 countries including Europe, Japan and North America), parents and health professionals completed their respective questionnaires between March and August 1998.
Feasibility and acceptability of the new questionnaires were indicated by high questionnaire completion rates (adolescents 92%; parents 89%; health professionals 94%). Internal consistency was confirmed (Cronbach's alpha coefficients 0.80 parent; 0.86 health professional). Correlations of Diabetes Quality of Life Questionnaire for Youths (DQOLY) scores with parent and health professional global QOL ratings were generally low (r ranging from 0.12 to 0.36). Parent-rated burden decreased incrementally across adolescence, particularly for girls. Professional-rated burden followed a similar profile but only after age 15 years. Until then, burden was rated as uniformly high. Clinically relevant discrepancies in parent and professional burden scores were noted for one-parent families and families where adolescents had been referred for psychological help. In both cases, health professionals but not one-parent families perceived these as high burden situations. The clinical significance of this relates to the significantly poorer metabolic control recorded for adolescents in both situations.
Parent and health professional questionnaires were found to have adequate internal consistency, and convergent and discriminant validity in relation to key clinical and QOL outcomes. The questionnaires are brief, easy to administer and score. They may also enable comparisons across countries and languages to facilitate development of international health outcome parameters. The inclusion of the parent and health professional perspectives completes a comprehensive assessment of adolescent QOL relevant to diabetes.
Quality of Life Research 09/2006; 15(6):1033-42. DOI:10.1007/s11136-006-0042-8 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 2 gene (IDDM2) is a type 1 diabetes susceptibility locus contributed to by the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) upstream of the insulin gene (INS). We investigated the association between INS VNTR class III alleles (-23HphIA/T) and both insulin antibody presentation and residual beta cell function during the first year after diagnosis in 257 children with type 1 diabetes.
To estimate C-peptide levels and autoantibody presentation, patients underwent a meal-stimulated C-peptide test 1, 6, and 12 months after diagnosis. The insulin -23HphIA/T variant was used as a marker of class III alleles and genotyped by PCR-RFLP.
The insulin antibody titres at 1 and 6 months were significantly lower in the class III/III and class I/III genotype groups than in the class I/I genotype group (p = 0.01). Class III alleles were also associated with residual beta cell function 12 months after diagnosis and independently of age, sex, BMI, insulin antibody titres, and HLA-risk genotype group (p = 0.03). The C-peptide level was twice as high among class III/III genotypes as in class I/I and class I/III genotypes (319 vs 131 and 166 pmol/l, p=0.01). Furthermore, the class III/III genotype had a 1.1% reduction in HbA(1)c after adjustment for insulin dose (p = 0.04).
These findings suggest a direct connection in vivo between INS VNTR class III alleles, a decreased humoral immune response to insulin, and preservation of beta cell function in recent-onset type 1 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kidney International aims to inform the renal researcher and practicing nephrologists on all aspects of renal research. Clinical and basic renal research, commentaries, The Renal Consult, Nephrology sans Frontieres, minireviews, reviews, Nephrology Images, Journal Club. Published weekly online and twice a month in print.
Kidney International 11/2005; 68(4):1446-50. DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1755.2005.00556.x · 8.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differences between studies in rates of severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetic cohorts are common and poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of severe hypoglycaemia in unselected patients treated in different secondary care centres and to evaluate the influence of risk markers, clinical setting and selection.
Cross-sectional Danish-British multicentre survey of 1076 consecutive adult patients with clinical type 1 diabetes who completed a detailed questionnaire on hypoglycaemia and related issues. Key variable was the self-reported rate of severe hypoglycaemia during the preceding year.
The overall rate of severe hypoglycaemia in the preceding year was 1.3 episodes/patient-year and episodes were reported by 36.7% of subjects. The distribution was highly skewed with 5% of subjects accounting for 54% of all episodes. There were no significant differences between countries or centres. Reduced hypoglycaemia awareness, peripheral neuropathy and smoking were the only significant risk markers of severe hypoglycaemia in a stepwise multivariate analysis. In a subgroup selected to be similar to the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) cohort, the rate of severe hypoglycaemia was 0.35 episodes/patient-year and only retinopathy was a significant risk marker together with state of awareness.
Severe hypoglycaemia remains a significant clinical problem in type 1 diabetes. The rate of severe hypoglycaemia and the influence of risk markers are very sensitive to selection and differences in rates between centres or studies seem to disappear after correction for differences in clinical characteristics. Smoking is a novel overall risk marker of severe hypoglycaemia.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 05/2004; 20(6):479-86. DOI:10.1002/dmrr.482 · 2.97 Impact Factor