[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gallic acid (GA) induces apoptosis in different types of cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigate the apoptotic effects induced by GA in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells, and clarify the underlying mechanism. Our results showed that GA reduced the viability of HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GA led to G(0)/G(1) phase arrest in HL-60 cells through promoting p21 and p27 and inhibiting the levels of cyclin D and cyclin E. GA caused DNA damage and fragmentation in HL-60 cells as assayed using DAPI staining and Comet assay. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that GA increased Ca(2+) levels and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) in HL-60 cells. Apoptotic protein expressions were determined by Western blotting. The results indicated that GA-mediated apoptosis of HL-60 cells mainly depended on mitochondrial pathway, by promoting the release of cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (Endo G) and by up-regulating the protein expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), caspase-4, caspase-9 and caspase-3. In addition, GA also activated the death receptor-dependent pathway by enhancing the protein expressions of fatty acid synthase (FAS), FAS ligand (FASL), caspase-8 and BCL-2 interacting domain (BID). We determined the mRNA expression of the gene levels of these proteins by real-time PCR. The results showed that GA-mediated apoptosis of HL-60 cells mainly depended on up-regulation of the mRNA of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, AIF and Endo G. In conclusion, GA-induced apoptosis occurs through the death receptor and mitochondria-mediated pathways. The evaluation of GA as a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of leukemia seems warranted.
Anticancer research 09/2011; 31(9):2821-32. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gypenosides (Gyp) are the major components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. The authors investigated the effects of Gyp on cell morphology, viability, cell cycle distribution, and induction of apoptosis in human oral cancer SAS cells and the determination of murine SAS xenograft model in vivo.
Flow cytometry was used to quantify the percentage of viable cells; cell cycle distribution; sub-G1 phase (apoptosis); caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity; reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, intracellular Ca(2+) determination; and the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)). Western blotting was used to examine levels of apoptosis-associated proteins, and confocal laser microscopy was used to examine the translocation of proteins in cells.
Gyp induced morphological changes, decreased the percentage of viable cells, caused G0/G1 phase arrest, and triggered apoptotic cell death in SAS cells. Cell cycle arrest induced by Gyp was associated with apoptosis. The production of ROS, increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels, and the depolarization of ΔΨ(m) were observed. Gyp increased levels of the proapoptotic protein Bax but inhibited the levels of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Gyp also stimulated the release of cytochrome c and Endo G. Translocation of GADD153 to the nucleus was stimulated by Gyp. Gyp in vivo attenuated the size and volume of solid tumors in a murine xenograft model of oral cancer.
Gyp-induced cell death occurs through caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptotic signaling pathways, and the compound reduced tumor size in a xenograft nu/nu mouse model of oral cancer.
Integrative Cancer Therapies 06/2011; 11(2):129-40. DOI:10.1177/1534735411403306 · 2.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gypenosides (Gyp), found in Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, has been used as a folk medicine in the Chinese population for centuries and is known to have diverse pharmacologic effects, including anti-proliferative and anti-cancer actions. However, the effects of Gyp on prevention from invasion and migration of oral cancer cells are still unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of Gyp treatment on migration and invasion of SAS human oral cancer cells. SAS cells were cultured in the presence of 90 and 180 μg/mL Gyp for 24 and 48 hours. Gyp induced cytotoxic effects and inhibited SAS cells migration and invasion in dose- and time-dependent response. Wound-healing assay and boyden chamber assay were carried out to investigate Gyp-inhibited migration and invasion of SAS cells. Gyp decreased the abundance of several proteins, including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/ 2), matrix metalloproteinase-9, -2 (MMP-9, -2), sevenless homolog (SOS), Ras, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt), in a time-dependent manner. In addition, Gyp decreased mRNA levels of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 but did not affect FAK and Rho A mRNA levels in SAS cells. These results provide evidences for the role of Gyp as a potent anti-metastatic agent, which can markedly inhibit the metastatic and invasive capacity of oral cancer cells. The inhibition of NF-κB and MMP-2, -7 and -9 signaling may be one of the mechanisms that is present in Gyp-inhibited cancer cell invasion and migration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gypenosides (Gyp) are the major components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, a Chinese medical plant. Recently, Gyp has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. However, there is no available information to address the effects of Gyp on DNA damage and DNA repair-associated gene expression in human oral cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Gyp induced DNA damage and DNA repair gene expression in human oral cancer SAS cells. The results from flow cytometric assay indicated that Gyp-induced cytotoxic effects led to a decrease in the percentage of viable SAS cells. The results from comet assay revealed that the incubation of SAS cells with Gyp led to a longer DNA migration smear (comet tail) when compared with control and this effect was dose-dependent. The results from real-time PCR analysis indicated that treatment of SAS cells with 180 mug/ml of Gyp for 24 h led to a decrease in 14-3-3sigma, DNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase (DNAPK), p53, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) and breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) mRNA expression. These observations may explain the cell death caused by Gyp in SAS cells. Taken together, Gyp induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair-associated gene expressions in human oral cancer SAS cells in vitro.
In vivo (Athens, Greece) 05/2010; 24(3):287-91. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Capsaicin, a pungent ingredient of red pepper, has been reported to possess antitumor activities. In this study, the effects of capsaicin on human HepG2 cells were investigated. Capsaicin reduced viability by PI incorporation in HepG2 cells in a dose and time dependent manner. Capsaicin promoted intracellular Ca2+ production and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The alpha psi(m) significantly decreased after capsaicin treatment for 24 h. Co-treatment of HepG2 cells with capsaicin and BAPTA (an intracellular Ca2+ chelator) significantly reduced intracellular Ca2+ levels, prevented alpha psi(m) disruption and inhibited apoptosis induction. The protein levels of Bcl-2 decreased and Bax increased in the mitochondrial fraction while the Bax protein decreased, and p53 and cytochrome c protein levels increased in the cytosolic fraction in HepG2 cells after capsaicin treatment for 24 h by Western blot. Immunostaining and confocal microscopic analysis also showed that capsaicin promoted cytoplasmic GADD153 expression and GRP78 nuclear translocation. The caspase-3 activity significantly increased after capsaicin treatment for 24 h. Our results indicated that the capsaicin-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells may result from the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ production, ROS, disruption of alpha psi(m), regulation of Bcl-2 family protein expression and caspase-3 activity.
Anticancer research 02/2009; 29(1):165-74. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Some patients are resistant to interferon-α (IFN-α) treatment, and thus there is urgent need to improve anti-HCV therapies and discover novel therapeutic approaches in the form of new antiviral agents. Using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and the MTS assay, we examined the suppression of HCV replication and the cytotoxicity of 11 aqueous extracts and eight compounds using Chinese herbs traditionally used for liver protection. Curcuma aromatica Salisb. (Zingiberaceae), Canna indica L. (Cannaceae), and two commercial extracts from Ganoderma tsugae Murr. (Aphyllophoromycetideae), Triterpenoids Enterprise (Shuang Hor Lingzhi®) and Polysaccharides Enterprise (Shuang Hor Supreme Lingzhi®) substantially inhibited HCV replication at 1 mg/ml in Huh-7 human hepatoma cells containing an HCV subgenomic replicon. In addition, HCV-Huh-7 cells treated with a combination of a low dose (10 IU/ml) of IFN-α and 1 mg/ml of one of the four herbal extracts also exhibited significant inhibition of HCV replication. Thus, C. aromatica, C. indica, Triterpenoids Enterprise (Shuang Hor Lingzhi®), and Polysaccharides Enterprise (Shuang Hor Supreme Lingzhi®) are possible sources of potent anti-HCV agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gypenosides (Gyp), a component of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, was selected for examining the effects on the cell viability, cell cycle and induction of apoptosis in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells. Gyp induced cytotoxicity (decreased the percentage of viable cells) in SCC-4 cells appeared to be associated with induction of cell cycle arrest (G0/G1 arrest), apoptotic cell death based on Gyp induced morphological changes and DNA fragmentation and increased the sub-G1 group in examined SCC-4 cells. The production of reactive oxygen species and Ca(2+) and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential were observed, dose- and time-dependently, after treatment of SCC-4 cells with various concentrations of Gyp. Gyp inhibited the levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, but promoted the levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Western blotting showed the releases of cytochrome c and Endo G and both were also confirmed by confocal laser microscopic systems. The GADD153 moved to nuclei (nuclear translocation). In conclusion, Gyp induced ER stress and production of reactive oxygen species and Ca(2+), change the ratio of Bcl-2 and Bax, followed by the dysfunction of mitochondria, caused cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-3 before leading to apoptosis. These results provide information towards an understanding of the mechanisms by which Gyp induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human tongue cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino is known in Asia for its effect on the treatment of hepatitis and cardiovascular diseases. Gypenosides (Gyp) are the major components extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the Gyp-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptotic process is unclear. In this study, the chemopreventive role of Gyp in human lung cancer (A549) cells in vitro was evaluated by studying the regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis. Gyp induced GO/G1 arrest and apoptosis in the human lung cancer A549 cells. Investigation of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitors by Western blotting showed that p16, p21, p27 and p53 proteins were increased with the increasing time of incubation with Gyp in the A549 cells. This increase may be the major factor by which Gyp caused GO/G1 arrest in the examined cells. Flow cytometric assay and gel electrophoresis of DNA fragmentation also confirmed that Gyp induced apoptosis in the A549 cells. Our data demonstrated that Gyp-induced apoptotic cell death was accompanied by up-regulation of Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9, but down-regulation of the Bcl-2 levels. Taken together, Gyp appears to exert its anticancer properties by inducing GO/GI-phase arrest and apoptosis via activation of caspase-3 in human lung A549 cancer cells.
In vivo (Athens, Greece) 03/2008; 22(2):215-21. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gypenosides (Gyp), components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, were found to induce suppression of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma SCC4 cell growth and induce apoptosis in response to overexpression of reactive oxygen species, calcium (Ca(+2)) and to decrease mitochondrial membrane potential in vitro. In this study, the effect of Gyp on cell migration and invasion of human tongue SCC4 cells was examined. SCC4 cells treated in vitro with Gyp migrated and invaded less than cells treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as a control. Gyp inhibited migration and invasion by down-regulating the production of RAS, NFkappaB, COX2, ERK1/2 and MMP-9 relative to PBS only. These results show that Gyp inhibits invasion and migration of human tongue SCC4 cells by down-regulating proteins associated with these processes, resulting in reduced metastasis.
Anticancer research 03/2008; 28(2A):1093-9. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of the gypenosides (Gyp), a component of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, on the cell viability, cell cycle and induction of apoptosis were investigated in human colon cancer colo 205 cells. Gyp was cytotoxic to colo 205 cells with an IC50 of 113.5 microg/ml. The decreasing number of viable cells appeared to be due to the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death, since Gyp induced morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and increased the sub-G1 group. The production of reactive oxygen species and Ca2+ and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential were observed, dose- and time-dependently, after treatment with various concentrations of Gyp. Gyp treatment also gradually decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, but increased the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Gyp increased the levels of p53 and promoted the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-3 before leading to apoptosis. These results provide information towards an understanding of the mechanisms by which Gyp induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.
Anticancer research 11/2006; 26(6B):4313-26. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-acetylation plays an important role in the metabolism of arylamine drugs and carcinogens and is catalyzed by cytosolic N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Gypenosides are the major components of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino which had been used as a natural folk medicine in the Chinese populations. Gypenosides were selected for examining the inhibition on the N-acetylation of 2-aminofluorene (AF), DNA-AF adduct formation and NAT gene expression in the human cervix epithelioid carcinoma cell line (HeLa). Various concentrations of gypenosides were individually added to the culture medium of human cervix epithelioid carcinoma cells (HeLa). The N-acetylation of AF was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assaying for the amounts of acetylated 2-aminofluorene (AAF) and nonacetylated 2-aminofluorene (AF). The N-acetylation of AF in the human HeLa cancer cells was suppressed by gypenosides in a dose-dependent manner. The data also demonstrated that gene expression (NAT1 mRNA) of NAT in human cervix epithelioid carcinoma cells (HeLa) was inhibited and decreased by gypenosides. After the incubation of HeLa cells with 30 or 60 microM AF and with or without 350 microg/ml gypenosides cotreatment, DNA was isolated and hydrolyzed to nucleotides, adducted nucleotides were extracted into butanol and analyzed DNA-AF adducts by HPLC. The data demonstrated that gypenosides decrease the levels of DNA-AF adduct formation in HeLa cells.
Research communications in molecular pathology and pharmacology 02/2004; 115-116:157-74.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of gypenosides on the inhibition of N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, AF-DNA adduct formation and NAT gene expression in a human cervix cancer cell line (Ca Ski) were studied. Various concentrations of gypenosides were added to the cytosols or individually to the culture medium of human cervix cancer cells. The NAT activity was determined by high performance liquid chromatography, assaying for the amounts of acetylated 2-aminofluorene (AAF) and non-acetylated 2-aminofluorene (AF). The NAT activity in the human cervix intact cancer cells and cytosols was suppressed by gypenosides in a dose-dependent manner. The results also demonstrated that gene expression (NAT1 mRNA) in human cervix cancer cells was decreased by gypenosides in a dose-dependent manner. The apparent values of Km and Vmax of NAT of human cervix cancer cells were also decreased by gypenosides in cytosols. Gypenosides may act as noncompetitive inhibitors. After the incubation of human cervix cancer cells with 30 or 60 microM AF and with or without 350 micrograms/ml gypenosides co-treatment, the cells were recovered, DNA was prepared and hydrolyzed to nucleotides; adducted nucleotides were extracted in butanol and AF-DNA adducts were analyzed by HPLC. The results demonstrated that gypenosides decreased the levels of AF-DNA adduct formation in these cells. The NAT PCR and cDNA microarray also demonstrated that gypenosides inhibited NAT mRNA expression in human cervix cancer cells.
In vivo (Athens, Greece) 05/2003; 17(3):281-8. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of Saikosaponin-A on human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) were investigated. Results demonstrated that Saikosaponin-A inhibited the proliferation or viability of the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Saikosaponin-A treatment of MDA-MB-231 for 3 hours and of MCF-7 cells for 2 hours, respectively caused an obvious increase in the sub-G1 population of cell cycles. Apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells was independent of the P53/p21 pathway mechanism and was accompanied by an increased ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 and c-myc levels and activation of caspase-3. In contrast, apoptosis of MCF-7 cells may have been initiated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins and involved p53/p21 dependent pathway mechanism, and was accompanied by an increased level of c-myc protein. Both the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells showed a difference worthy of further research.
The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 02/2003; 31(3):363-77. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X03001065 · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of curcumin on the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, AF-DNA adduct formation and NAT gene expression were examined using the human colon tumor cell line (colo 205). Various concentrations of curcumin were added to the cytosols or to the medium of human colon tumor cells. The NAT activity was determined by high performance liquid chromatography assaying for the amounts of acetylated 2-aminofluorene (AAF) and p-aminobenzoic acid (N-Ac-PABA) and nonacetylated 2-aminofluorene (AF) and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). The NAT activity in the human colon tumor cells and cytosols was suppressed by curcumin in a dose-dependent manner. The results demonstrated that gene expression (NAT1 mRNA) in human colon tumor cells was inhibited by curcumin. The apparent values of Km and Vmax of NAT of human colon tumor cells were also decreased by curcumin in cytosols. Curcumin may act as a noncompetitive inhibitor. After the incubation of human colon tumor cells with AF with or without curcumin cotreatment, the cells were recovered and DNA was prepared, hydrolyzed to nucleotides, the adducted nucleotides were extracted into butanol and AF-DNA adducts analyzed by HPLC. The results also demonstrated that when curcumin was added to the media a decrease in AF-DNA adduct formation was seen in the human colon tumor cells. The finding of AF-DNA adduct formation in cultured human colon tumor cells suggests the usefulness of cultured cells for assessing arylamine-induced DNA damage.
In vivo (Athens, Greece) 01/2003; 17(3):301-9. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shao-Fu-Zhu-Yu-Tang (SFZYT) is reportedly beneficial to sperm. In this study, we examined sperm acrosomal activity and serum free radical changes to evaluate the possible mechanism of SFZYT. A clinical study evaluated the sperm count and motility in 36 patients with chronic prostatitis before and after treatment for 60 days. The results revealed a significant increase in sperm motility after treatment as evaluated by computer-assisted semen analysis (17.27 +/- 9.00 versus 28.29 +/- 10.00, p < 0.01). An increase in sperm quantity and quality was observed by count and morphology with a high-powered intravital microscope. To gain an understanding of the mechanisms that caused this effect, we assessed sperm acrosin activity levels before (10.6 micro lu/10(6)) and after medication (28.6 micro lu/10(6)) (p < 0.01). The levels of the free radicals was relatively higher before medication, 2144, compared to a normal value of 780 after medication (p < 0.01). In conclusion, SFZYT increased the motility and quality of human semen and this increase is related to an increase in sperm acrosin activity. SFZYT also works as a sperm antioxidant and antiaging agent.
The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 01/2003; 31(4):573-9. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X03001223 · 2.63 Impact Factor