[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is a need for reliable markers to diagnose active and latent tuberculosis (TB). The interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are compared to the tuberculin skin test (TST) more specific, but cannot discriminate between recent or remote TB infection. Here the Flow-cytometric Assay for Specific Cell-mediated Immune-response in Activated whole blood (FASCIA), which quantifies expanded T-lymphoblasts by flow-cytometric analysis after long-term antigen stimulation of whole blood, is combined with cytokine/chemokine analysis in the supernatant by multiplex technology for diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Consecutive patients with suspected TB (n = 85), with microbiologically verified active pulmonary TB (n = 33), extra pulmonary TB (n = 21), clinical TB (n = 11), presumed latent TB infection (LTBI) (n = 23), patients negative for TB (n = 8) and 21 healthy controls were studied. Blood samples were analyzed with FASCIA and multiplex technology to determine and correlate proliferative responses and the value of 14 cytokines for diagnosis of Mtb infection: IFN- γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IP-10, IL-12, IL-6, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, MIP-1β, GM-CSF, IFN-α2 and IL-10. Cytokine levels for IFN-γ, IP-10, MIP-1β, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13 and GM-CSF were significantly higher after stimulation with the Mtb specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10 in patients with active TB compared to healthy controls (p<0.05) and correlated with proliferative responses. IP-10 was positive in all patients with verified TB, if using a combination of ESAT-6 and CFP-10 and was the only marker significantly more sensitive in detecting active TB then IFN-γ (p = 0.012). Cytokine responses in patients with active TB were more frequent and detected at higher levels than in patients with LTBI. CONCLUSIONS: IP-10 seems to be an important marker for diagnosis of active and latent TB. Patients with active TB and LTBI responded with similar cytokine profiles against TB antigens but proliferative and cytokine responses were generally higher in patients with active TB.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e43438. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is estimated that one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection typically remains latent, but it can reactivate to cause clinical disease. The only vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), is largely ineffective, and ways to enhance its efficacy are being developed. Of note, the candidate booster vaccines currently under clinical development have been designed to improve BCG efficacy but not prevent reactivation of latent infection. Here, we demonstrate that administering a multistage vaccine that we term H56 in the adjuvant IC31 as a boost to vaccination with BCG delays and reduces clinical disease in cynomolgus macaques challenged with M. tuberculosis and prevents reactivation of latent infection. H56 contains Ag85B and ESAT-6, which are two of the M. tuberculosis antigens secreted in the acute phase of infection, and the nutrient stress-induced antigen Rv2660c. Boosting with H56/IC31 resulted in efficient containment of M. tuberculosis infection and reduced rates of clinical disease, as measured by clinical parameters, inflammatory markers, and improved survival of the animals compared with BCG alone. Boosted animals showed reduced pulmonary pathology and extrapulmonary dissemination, and protection correlated with a strong recall response against ESAT-6 and Rv2660c. Importantly, BCG/H56-vaccinated monkeys did not reactivate latent infection after treatment with anti-TNF antibody. Our results indicate that H56/IC31 boosting is able to control late-stage infection with M. tuberculosis and contain latent tuberculosis, providing a rationale for the clinical development of H56.
The Journal of clinical investigation 12/2011; 122(1):303-14. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considerable effort has been put into targeting tumors through therapeutic vaccination using dendritic cell-, DNA-, protein-, or peptide-based vaccines. Purified peptides and proteins are generally not immunogenic and need to be administered with an adjuvant that will trigger an appropriate immune response. Safe adjuvants that favor induction of tumor reactive CD8(+) T cells with the capacity to directly kill tumor cells are therefore a high priority. We have previously reported on the effect and mechanism of a cationic adjuvant formulation, CAF01, which incorporates synthetic mycobacterial cord factor and primes protective Th1, Th17, and antibody responses in animal models of bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. The CAF01 adjuvant is currently in clinical trial. Using CAF01 as a backbone, we recently demonstrated that incorporating the TLR3 ligand polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] primes CD8(+) T cells specific to the SIINFEKL epitope of the model antigen ovalbumin. In the present study, we demonstrate that CAF01/poly(I:C), termed cationic adjuvant formulation 05 or CAF05, can induce CD8(+) T cells that efficiently lyse target cells and significantly reduce tumor growth in two different mouse tumor models: lung B16-OVA melanoma expressing ovalbumin and the self-antigen TRP2, and subcutaneous TC-1 tumors expressing the human papillomavirus-16 protein E7.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 11/2011; 61(6):893-903. · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), but has varied efficacy in different geographical locations. Recombinant strategies to genetically modify the organism to enhance the quality of the immune response have aimed at improving BCG efficacy. Here we describe such a strategy using rBCGΔureC∷hly expressing defined latency-associated antigens and test this construct for long-term protection against an isolate of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Beijing/W lineage. Expression of the antigens Rv2659c, Rv3407 and Rv1733c by rBCGΔureC∷hly improved long-term efficacy in both lung and spleen at day 200 post-infection after intradermal vaccination of mice. Our data support expression of Mtb latency associated antigens by rBCG to improve protection against Mtb.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analysed Danish surveillance data to estimate influenza-associated morbidity and mortality in 2009. To obtain population-based estimates of the clinical attack rate, we combined data from two different primary health care surveillance systems, national numbers of the proportion of positive influenza tests, and data from a web-based interview on health care seeking behaviour during the pandemic. From a national registry, we obtained data on hospital admissions (ICD-10 codes) for influenza related conditions. Admission to intensive care was monitored by a dedicated surveillance scheme. Mortality was estimated among laboratory confirmed cases but was also expressed as excess all-cause mortality attributed to influenza-like illness in a multivariable time series analysis. In total, we estimated that 274,000 individuals (5%) in Denmark experienced clinical illness. The highest attack rate was found in children 5-14 years (15%). Compared with the expected number of hospital admissions, there was an 80% increase in number of influenza related hospital admissions in this age group. The numbers of patients admitted to intensive care approached 5% of the national capacity. Estimates of the number of deaths ranged from 30 to 312 (0.5-5.7 per 100,000 population) depending on the methodology. In conclusion, the pandemic was characterised by high morbidity and unprecedented high rates of admissions to hospitals for a range of influenza-related conditions affecting mainly children. Nonetheless, the burden of illness was lower than assumed in planning scenarios, and the present pandemic compares favourable with the 20th century pandemics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic immunization of HIV-1-infected individuals with or without anti-retroviral therapy is a new promising disease prevention. To induce a new cytotoxic T(CD8) lymphocyte (CTL) immunity during chronic HIV-1 infection 15 infrequently targeted but conserved HLA-supertype binding CTL epitopes from Gag, Pol, Nef, Env, Vpu and Vif were identified. The 15 T(CD8) and three T(CD4) helper peptides were GMP synthesised and formulated with a new adjuvant CAF01 which is a synthetic two-component liposomic adjuvant comprising the quaternary ammonium dimethyl-dioctadecyl-ammonium (DDA) and the immune modulator trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB). Using IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, T-cell immune induction by the vaccine was found to both CD4 and CD8 T-cell restricted peptides in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. Comprehensive toxicity studies of the CAF01 adjuvant-alone and together with different vaccines showed that CAF01 when tested at human dose levels was safe and well tolerated with only local inflammation at the site of injection and no systemic reactions. No pharmacological safety issues were observed in Beagle dogs. The HIV-1 vaccine toxicity study in the Göttingen Minipig(®) showed no systemic toxicity from five repetitive i.m. injections, each with a 2-week interval, of either the 18 HIV-1 peptide antigen solution (AFO18) or the AFO18-CAF01, in which the 18 HIV-1 peptides were formulated with the CAF01 adjuvant. Distinct inflammatory responses were observed in the injected muscles of the AFO18-CAF01 vaccine treated animals as a result of the immune stimulating effect of the adjuvant on the vaccine. The results of the toxicity studies provide optimism for phase I clinical trials evaluating the therapeutic HIV-1 T-cell vaccination approach using multiple subdominant minimal epitope peptides applying the novel cationic adjuvant CAF01.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent pandemic caused by new influenza A (H1N1) has emphasized the need for improved influenza vaccines with enhanced immune responses that ideally include longlived humoral and CMI responses and mediate a broad protection. This study demonstrates that administration of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) with the cationic liposome adjuvant system CAF01 enhances the humoral immune response as measured by hemagglutinin inhibition titers and influenza-specific serum antibody titers, and promote a strong Th1 response with augmented levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Furthermore, high levels of IL-17 are detected in agreement with CAF01's ability to promote TH17 responses. Importantly, the Th1/Th17 cytokine profile is still maintained 20 weeks after the last vaccination. The CAF01 adjuvanted influenza vaccine reduces weight loss and temperature decrease and results in complete survival of mice challenged with the drifted H1N1 influenza strain A/PR/8/34. Overall, the results suggest that CAF01 is a potent adjuvant system for future, improved influenza vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a large and growing worldwide need for reliable tests to diagnose active and latent tuberculosis (TB). Improved methodology for identifying individuals with true latent TB (LTBI), particularly those with a recent infection, would pave the way for targeted prophylactic treatment. The traditionally used tuberculin skin test (TST) is unspecific and impractical. Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) are more specific than the TST but, like that test, cannot discriminate either between recent and remote TB infection, or between these and a mere immunological memory of previous TB infection. The Flow-cytometric Assay for Specific Cell-mediated Immune-response in Activated whole blood (FASCIA) combines long-term antigen stimulation of whole blood and flow-cytometric analysis with quantification of the expanded T-lymphoblasts and can also be employed for measurement of cytokine responses.
Journal of immunological methods 05/2011; 370(1-2):55-64. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adjuvanticity of liposomes can be directed through formulation to develop a safe yet potent vaccine candidate. With the addition of the cationic lipid dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) to stable neutral distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC):cholesterol (Chol) liposomes, vesicle size reduces while protein entrapment increases. The addition of the immunomodulator, trehalose 6,6-dibehenate (TDB) to either the neutral or cationic liposomes did not affect the physiochemical characteristics of these liposome vesicles. However, the protective immune response, as indicated by the amount of IFN-γ production, increases considerably when TDB is present. High levels of IFN-γ were observed for cationic liposomes; however, there was a marked reduction in IFN-γ release over time. Conversely, for neutral liposomes containing TDB, although the initial amount of IFN-γ was slightly lower than the cationic equivalent, the overall protective immune responses of these neutral liposomes were effectively maintained over time, generating good levels of protection. To that end, although the addition of DSPC and Chol reduced the protective immunity of DDA:TDB liposomes, relatively high protection was observed for the neutral counterpart, DSPC:Chol:TDB, which may offer an effective neutral alternative to the DDA:TDB cationic system, especially for the delivery of either zwitterionic (neutral) or cationic molecules or antigens.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 05/2011; 100(5):1856-65. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The application of cationic liposomes as vaccine delivery systems and adjuvants has been investigated extensively over the last few decades. However, cationic liposomes are, in general, not sufficiently immunostimulatory, which is why the combination of liposomes with immunostimulating ligands has arisen as a strategy in the development of novel adjuvant systems. Within the last 5 years, two novel adjuvant systems based on cationic liposomes incorporating Toll-like receptor or non-Toll-like receptor immunostimulating ligands have progressed from preclinical testing in smaller animal species to clinical testing in humans. The immune responses that these clinical candidates induce are primarily of the Th1 type for which there is a profound unmet need. Furthermore, a number of new cationic liposome-forming surfactants with notable immunostimulatory properties have been discovered. In this article we review the recent progress on the application of cationic liposomes as vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants.
Expert Review of Vaccines 04/2011; 10(4):513-21. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Liposomes remain at the forefront of drug and vaccine design owing to their well-documented abilities to act as delivery vehicles. Nevertheless, the concept of liposomes as delivery vehicles is not a new one, with most works focusing on their use for the delivery of genes and drugs. However, in the last 10 years a significant amount of research has focused on using liposomes as vaccine adjuvants, not only as an antigen delivery vehicle but also as a tool to increase the immunogenicity of peptide and protein antigens. AREAS COVERED: This paper reviews liposomal adjuvants now in vaccine development, with particular emphasis on their adjuvant mechanism and how specific physicochemical characteristics of liposomes affect the immune response. The inclusion of immunomodulators is also discussed, with prominence given to Toll-like receptor ligands. EXPERT OPINION: The use of liposomes as vaccine delivery systems is evolving rapidly owing to the combined increase in technological advances and understanding of the immune system. Liposomes that contain and deliver immunostimulators and antigens are now being developed to target diseases that require stimulation of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The CAF liposomal system, described in detail in this review, is one liposomal model that shows such flexibility.
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2011; 8(4):505-19. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculous meningitis is the most severe manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with a high mortality rate and a high rate of sequelae among survivors. The aim of this study is to assess the current epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic procedures, treatment and outcome in patients with tuberculous meningitis in Denmark, a country with a low tuberculosis incidence.
A nationwide retrospective study was conducted, comprising all patients notified with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in Denmark from 2000-2008. Medical records were reviewed using a standardised protocol.
Fifty patients, including 12 paediatric patients, were identified. 78% of the patients were immigrants from countries of high tuberculosis endemicity. 64% of all patients had a pre-existing immunosuppressive condition; 10% were HIV positive, 48% were HIV seronegative and 42% had an unknown HIV status. Median symptom duration before admission was 14 days in the Danish patient population and 20 days in the immigrant group. Biochemical analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples revealed pleocytosis in 90% with lymphocyte predominance in 66%. Protein levels were elevated in 86%. The most common findings on neuro-radiological imaging were basal meningeal enhancement, tuberculomas and hydrocephalus. Lumbar puncture was performed on 42 patients; 31 of these specimens (74%) had a positive CSF culture for mycobacteria and 9.5% were smear positive for acid-fast bacilli. The overall mortality rate was 19% and 48% of the remaining patients had neurological sequelae of varying degree.
TBM is a rare but severe manifestation of extrapulmonary TB in Denmark. The clinician must be prepared to treat empirically if the suspicion of TBM has arisen to improve treatment outcome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunostimulatory capacities of cationic liposomes are well-documented and are attributed both to inherent immunogenicity of the cationic lipid and more physical capacities such as the formation of antigen depots and antigen delivery. Very few studies have however been conducted comparing the immunostimulatory capacities of different cationic lipids. In the present study we therefore chose to investigate three of the most well-known cationic liposome-forming lipids as potential adjuvants for protein subunit vaccines. The ability of 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)carbomyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP), and dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) liposomes incorporating immunomodulating trehalose dibehenate (TDB) to form an antigen depot at the site of injection (SOI) and to induce immunological recall responses against coadministered tuberculosis vaccine antigen Ag85B-ESAT-6 are reported. Furthermore, physical characterization of the liposomes is presented. Our results suggest that liposome composition plays an important role in vaccine retention at the SOI and the ability to enable the immune system to induce a vaccine specific recall response. While all three cationic liposomes facilitated increased antigen presentation by antigen presenting cells, the monocyte infiltration to the SOI and the production of IFN-γ upon antigen recall was markedly higher for DDA and DC-Chol based liposomes which exhibited a longer retention profile at the SOI. A long-term retention and slow release of liposome and vaccine antigen from the injection site hence appears to favor a stronger Th1 immune response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All tuberculosis vaccines currently in clinical trials are designed as prophylactic vaccines based on early expressed antigens. We have developed a multistage vaccination strategy in which the early antigens Ag85B and 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) are combined with the latency-associated protein Rv2660c (H56 vaccine). In CB6F1 mice we show that Rv2660c is stably expressed in late stages of infection despite an overall reduced transcription. The H56 vaccine promotes a T cell response against all protein components that is characterized by a high proportion of polyfunctional CD4(+) T cells. In three different pre-exposure mouse models, H56 confers protective immunity characterized by a more efficient containment of late-stage infection than the Ag85B-ESAT6 vaccine (H1) and BCG. In two mouse models of latent tuberculosis, we show that H56 vaccination after exposure is able to control reactivation and significantly lower the bacterial load compared to adjuvant control mice.
Nature medicine 02/2011; 17(2):189-94. · 28.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To enhance surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI)in Denmark, a year-round electronic reporting system was established in collaboration with the Danish medical on-call service (DMOS). In order to achieve real-time surveillance of ILI, a checkbox for ILI was inserted in the electronic health record and a system for daily transfer of data to the national surveillance centre was implemented. The weekly number of all consultations in DMOS was around 60,000, and activity of ILI peaked in week 46 of 2009 when 9.5% of 73,723 consultations were classified as ILI. The incidence of ILI reached a maximum on 16 November 2009 for individuals between five and 24 years of age, followed by peaks in children under five years, adults aged between 25 and 64 years and on 27 November in senior citizens(65 years old or older). In addition to the established influenza surveillance system, this novel system was useful because it was timelier than the sentinel surveillance system and allowed for a detailed situational analysis including subgroup analysis on a daily basis.
Euro surveillance: bulletin europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin 01/2011; 16(3). · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been clearly demonstrated that in vitro, virulent M. tuberculosis can favor necrosis over apoptosis in infected macrophages, and this has been suggested as a mechanism for evading the host immune response. We recently reported that an effect consistent with this hypothesis could be observed in cells from the blood of TB patients, and in this paper, we review what is known about evasion strategies employed by M. tuberculosis and in particular consider the possible interaction of the apoptosis-inhibiting effects of M. tuberculosis infection with another factor (IL-4) whose expression is thought to play a role in the failure to control M. tuberculosis infection. It has been noted that IL-4 may exacerbate TNF-α-induced pathology, though the mechanism remains unexplained. Since pathology in TB typically involves inflammatory aggregates around infected cells, where TNF-α plays an important role, we predicted that IL-4 would inhibit the ability of cells to remove M. tuberculosis by apoptosis of infected cells, through the extrinsic pathway, which is activated by TNF-α. Infection of human monocytic cells with mycobacteria in vitro, in the presence of IL-4, appears to promote necrosis over apoptosis in infected cells-a finding consistent with its suggested role as a factor in pathology during M. tuberculosis infection.
Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2011; 2011:678570. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is diagnosed in naturally infected populations exposed to a wide variety of other pathogens. This study describes the cell-mediated immune responses of cattle exposed to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium with particular reference to routine antefmortem Mycobacterium bovis diagnostic tests. The IFN-γ released in response to stimulated blood was found to peak later in the Map-exposed group and was more sustained when compared to the Maa-exposed group. There was a very close correlation between the responses to the purified protein derivatives (PPD) used for stimulation (PPDa, PPDb, and PPDj) with PPDa and PPDj most closely correlated. On occasion, in the Map-infected cattle, PPDb-biased responses were seen compared to PPDa suggesting that some Map-infected cattle could be misclassified as M. bovis infected using this test with these reagents. This bias was not seen when PPDj was used. SICCT results were consistent with the respective infections and all calves would have been classed skin test negative.
Veterinary medicine international. 01/2011; 2011:145092.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New TB vaccines are urgently needed because of the apparent lack of effect of the BCG vaccine on rates of adult contagious pulmonary tuberculosis and the risk of disseminated BCG disease in immunocompromised individuals. Since BCG appears to protect children, the primary target for vaccine development is a booster vaccine for adults but such vaccines ideally need to be able to efficiently prime mycobacterially naïve individuals as well as boost individuals previously vaccinated with BCG and those latently infected with TB. Protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends mainly on the generation of a Th1-type cellular immune response characterized by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production. In the present study, we monitored safety and IFN-γ responses in healthy BCG-vaccinated and prior or latently TB-infected individuals receiving a novel vaccine composed of the fusion protein Ag85B-ESAT-6 combined with the adjuvant IC31(®), administered at 0 and 2 months. Vaccination caused few local or systemic adverse effects besides transient soreness at the injection site, but it elicited strong antigen-specific T cell responses against Ag85B-ESAT-6 and both the Ag85B and ESAT-6 components, that could be augmented by second vaccination. The strong responses persisted through 32 weeks of follow-up, indicating the induction of a persistent memory response in the vaccine recipients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIV) against influenza are given to 350 million people every year. Most of these are non-adjuvanted vaccines whose immunogenicity and protective efficacy are considered suboptimal. Commercially available non-adjuvanted TIV are known to elicit mainly a humoral immune response, whereas the induction of cell-mediated immune responses is negligible. Recently, a cationic liposomal adjuvant (dimethyldioctadecylammonium/trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate, CAF01) was developed. CAF01 has proven to enhance both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to a number of different experimental vaccine candidates. In this study, we compared the immune responses in ferrets to a commercially available TIV with the responses to the same vaccine mixed with the CAF01 adjuvant. Two recently circulating H1N1 viruses were used as challenge to test the vaccine efficacy. CAF01 improved the immunogenicity of the vaccine, with increased influenza-specific IgA and IgG levels. Additionally, CAF01 promoted cellular-mediated immunity as indicated by interferon-gamma expressing lymphocytes, measured by flow cytometry. CAF01 also enhanced the protection conferred by the vaccine by reducing the viral load measured in nasal washes by RT-PCR. Finally, CAF01 allowed for dose-reduction and led to higher levels of protection compared to TIV adjuvanted with a squalene emulsion. The data obtained in this human-relevant challenge model supports the potential of CAF01 in future influenza vaccines.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e22891. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major killer worldwide. The only available TB-vaccine, the nearly century-old Mycobacterium bovis BCG, has had only a limited effect on TB incidence. Therefore, developing new TB vaccines is a key priority, and the first new generation TB vaccines are now being tested in clinical trials. Here we describe the development and first testing in humans of a novel, wholly synthetic TB subunit vaccine. This vaccine has proven safe and highly immunogenic in all species in which it was tested, including mice, guinea pigs, non-human primates and humans. Most encouragingly, following vaccination in humans, strong IFN-γ responses persisted through at least 2½ years of follow-up, indicating induction of a substantial memory response by this new TB vaccine. These findings encourage further preclinical and clinical studies with TB subunit vaccines and cellular immunity-stimulating new adjuvants.
Human vaccines 12/2010; 6(12):1007-15. · 3.14 Impact Factor