Peter Andersen

Statens Serum Institut, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (213)970.16 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Purified protein derivative (PPD) has served as a safe and effective diagnostic reagent for 60 years and is the only broadly available material to diagnose latent tuberculosis infections. This reagent is also used as a standard control for a number of in vitro immunological assays. Nevertheless, the molecular composition and specific products that contribute to the extraordinary immunological reactivity of PPD are poorly defined. Here, a proteomic approach was applied to elucidate the gene products in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standard PPD-S2. Many known Mycobacterium tuberculosis T-cell antigens were detected. Of significance, four heat shock proteins (HSPs) (GroES, GroEL2, HspX, and DnaK) dominated the composition of PPD. The chaperone activities and capacity of these proteins to influence immunological responses may explain the exquisite solubility and immunological potency of PPD. Spectral counting analysis of three separate PPD reagents revealed significant quantitative variances. Gross delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in M. tuberculosis infected guinea pigs were comparable among these PPD preparations; however, detailed histopathology of the DTH lesions exposed unique differences, which may be explained by the variability observed in the presence and abundance of early secretory system (Esx) proteins. Variability in PPD reagents may explain differences in DTH responses reported among populations.
    Proteomics 04/2012; 12(7):979-91. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201100544 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is estimated that one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection typically remains latent, but it can reactivate to cause clinical disease. The only vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), is largely ineffective, and ways to enhance its efficacy are being developed. Of note, the candidate booster vaccines currently under clinical development have been designed to improve BCG efficacy but not prevent reactivation of latent infection. Here, we demonstrate that administering a multistage vaccine that we term H56 in the adjuvant IC31 as a boost to vaccination with BCG delays and reduces clinical disease in cynomolgus macaques challenged with M. tuberculosis and prevents reactivation of latent infection. H56 contains Ag85B and ESAT-6, which are two of the M. tuberculosis antigens secreted in the acute phase of infection, and the nutrient stress-induced antigen Rv2660c. Boosting with H56/IC31 resulted in efficient containment of M. tuberculosis infection and reduced rates of clinical disease, as measured by clinical parameters, inflammatory markers, and improved survival of the animals compared with BCG alone. Boosted animals showed reduced pulmonary pathology and extrapulmonary dissemination, and protection correlated with a strong recall response against ESAT-6 and Rv2660c. Importantly, BCG/H56-vaccinated monkeys did not reactivate latent infection after treatment with anti-TNF antibody. Our results indicate that H56/IC31 boosting is able to control late-stage infection with M. tuberculosis and contain latent tuberculosis, providing a rationale for the clinical development of H56.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 12/2011; 122(1):303-14. DOI:10.1172/JCI46252 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable effort has been put into targeting tumors through therapeutic vaccination using dendritic cell-, DNA-, protein-, or peptide-based vaccines. Purified peptides and proteins are generally not immunogenic and need to be administered with an adjuvant that will trigger an appropriate immune response. Safe adjuvants that favor induction of tumor reactive CD8(+) T cells with the capacity to directly kill tumor cells are therefore a high priority. We have previously reported on the effect and mechanism of a cationic adjuvant formulation, CAF01, which incorporates synthetic mycobacterial cord factor and primes protective Th1, Th17, and antibody responses in animal models of bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. The CAF01 adjuvant is currently in clinical trial. Using CAF01 as a backbone, we recently demonstrated that incorporating the TLR3 ligand polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] primes CD8(+) T cells specific to the SIINFEKL epitope of the model antigen ovalbumin. In the present study, we demonstrate that CAF01/poly(I:C), termed cationic adjuvant formulation 05 or CAF05, can induce CD8(+) T cells that efficiently lyse target cells and significantly reduce tumor growth in two different mouse tumor models: lung B16-OVA melanoma expressing ovalbumin and the self-antigen TRP2, and subcutaneous TC-1 tumors expressing the human papillomavirus-16 protein E7.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 11/2011; 61(6):893-903. DOI:10.1007/s00262-011-1156-6 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), but has varied efficacy in different geographical locations. Recombinant strategies to genetically modify the organism to enhance the quality of the immune response have aimed at improving BCG efficacy. Here we describe such a strategy using rBCGΔureC∷hly expressing defined latency-associated antigens and test this construct for long-term protection against an isolate of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Beijing/W lineage. Expression of the antigens Rv2659c, Rv3407 and Rv1733c by rBCGΔureC∷hly improved long-term efficacy in both lung and spleen at day 200 post-infection after intradermal vaccination of mice. Our data support expression of Mtb latency associated antigens by rBCG to improve protection against Mtb.
    Vaccine 08/2011; 29(47):8740-4. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.07.144 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIV) against influenza are given to 350 million people every year. Most of these are non-adjuvanted vaccines whose immunogenicity and protective efficacy are considered suboptimal. Commercially available non-adjuvanted TIV are known to elicit mainly a humoral immune response, whereas the induction of cell-mediated immune responses is negligible. Recently, a cationic liposomal adjuvant (dimethyldioctadecylammonium/trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate, CAF01) was developed. CAF01 has proven to enhance both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to a number of different experimental vaccine candidates. In this study, we compared the immune responses in ferrets to a commercially available TIV with the responses to the same vaccine mixed with the CAF01 adjuvant. Two recently circulating H1N1 viruses were used as challenge to test the vaccine efficacy. CAF01 improved the immunogenicity of the vaccine, with increased influenza-specific IgA and IgG levels. Additionally, CAF01 promoted cellular-mediated immunity as indicated by interferon-gamma expressing lymphocytes, measured by flow cytometry. CAF01 also enhanced the protection conferred by the vaccine by reducing the viral load measured in nasal washes by RT-PCR. Finally, CAF01 allowed for dose-reduction and led to higher levels of protection compared to TIV adjuvanted with a squalene emulsion. The data obtained in this human-relevant challenge model supports the potential of CAF01 in future influenza vaccines.
    PLoS ONE 08/2011; 6(8):e22891. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0022891 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic immunization of HIV-1-infected individuals with or without anti-retroviral therapy is a new promising disease prevention. To induce a new cytotoxic T(CD8) lymphocyte (CTL) immunity during chronic HIV-1 infection 15 infrequently targeted but conserved HLA-supertype binding CTL epitopes from Gag, Pol, Nef, Env, Vpu and Vif were identified. The 15 T(CD8) and three T(CD4) helper peptides were GMP synthesised and formulated with a new adjuvant CAF01 which is a synthetic two-component liposomic adjuvant comprising the quaternary ammonium dimethyl-dioctadecyl-ammonium (DDA) and the immune modulator trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB). Using IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, T-cell immune induction by the vaccine was found to both CD4 and CD8 T-cell restricted peptides in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. Comprehensive toxicity studies of the CAF01 adjuvant-alone and together with different vaccines showed that CAF01 when tested at human dose levels was safe and well tolerated with only local inflammation at the site of injection and no systemic reactions. No pharmacological safety issues were observed in Beagle dogs. The HIV-1 vaccine toxicity study in the Göttingen Minipig(®) showed no systemic toxicity from five repetitive i.m. injections, each with a 2-week interval, of either the 18 HIV-1 peptide antigen solution (AFO18) or the AFO18-CAF01, in which the 18 HIV-1 peptides were formulated with the CAF01 adjuvant. Distinct inflammatory responses were observed in the injected muscles of the AFO18-CAF01 vaccine treated animals as a result of the immune stimulating effect of the adjuvant on the vaccine. The results of the toxicity studies provide optimism for phase I clinical trials evaluating the therapeutic HIV-1 T-cell vaccination approach using multiple subdominant minimal epitope peptides applying the novel cationic adjuvant CAF01.
    Vaccine 07/2011; 29(40):7067-74. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.07.025 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recent pandemic caused by new influenza A (H1N1) has emphasized the need for improved influenza vaccines with enhanced immune responses that ideally include longlived humoral and CMI responses and mediate a broad protection. This study demonstrates that administration of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) with the cationic liposome adjuvant system CAF01 enhances the humoral immune response as measured by hemagglutinin inhibition titers and influenza-specific serum antibody titers, and promote a strong Th1 response with augmented levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Furthermore, high levels of IL-17 are detected in agreement with CAF01's ability to promote TH17 responses. Importantly, the Th1/Th17 cytokine profile is still maintained 20 weeks after the last vaccination. The CAF01 adjuvanted influenza vaccine reduces weight loss and temperature decrease and results in complete survival of mice challenged with the drifted H1N1 influenza strain A/PR/8/34. Overall, the results suggest that CAF01 is a potent adjuvant system for future, improved influenza vaccines.
    Vaccine 06/2011; 29(37):6283-91. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.06.040 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is diagnosed in naturally infected populations exposed to a wide variety of other pathogens. This study describes the cell-mediated immune responses of cattle exposed to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium with particular reference to routine antefmortem Mycobacterium bovis diagnostic tests. The IFN-γ released in response to stimulated blood was found to peak later in the Map-exposed group and was more sustained when compared to the Maa-exposed group. There was a very close correlation between the responses to the purified protein derivatives (PPD) used for stimulation (PPDa, PPDb, and PPDj) with PPDa and PPDj most closely correlated. On occasion, in the Map-infected cattle, PPDb-biased responses were seen compared to PPDa suggesting that some Map-infected cattle could be misclassified as M. bovis infected using this test with these reagents. This bias was not seen when PPDj was used. SICCT results were consistent with the respective infections and all calves would have been classed skin test negative.
    06/2011; 2011:145092. DOI:10.4061/2011/145092
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    ABSTRACT: There is a large and growing worldwide need for reliable tests to diagnose active and latent tuberculosis (TB). Improved methodology for identifying individuals with true latent TB (LTBI), particularly those with a recent infection, would pave the way for targeted prophylactic treatment. The traditionally used tuberculin skin test (TST) is unspecific and impractical. Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) are more specific than the TST but, like that test, cannot discriminate either between recent and remote TB infection, or between these and a mere immunological memory of previous TB infection. The Flow-cytometric Assay for Specific Cell-mediated Immune-response in Activated whole blood (FASCIA) combines long-term antigen stimulation of whole blood and flow-cytometric analysis with quantification of the expanded T-lymphoblasts and can also be employed for measurement of cytokine responses.
    Journal of immunological methods 05/2011; 370(1-2):55-64. DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2011.05.008 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The adjuvanticity of liposomes can be directed through formulation to develop a safe yet potent vaccine candidate. With the addition of the cationic lipid dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) to stable neutral distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC):cholesterol (Chol) liposomes, vesicle size reduces while protein entrapment increases. The addition of the immunomodulator, trehalose 6,6-dibehenate (TDB) to either the neutral or cationic liposomes did not affect the physiochemical characteristics of these liposome vesicles. However, the protective immune response, as indicated by the amount of IFN-γ production, increases considerably when TDB is present. High levels of IFN-γ were observed for cationic liposomes; however, there was a marked reduction in IFN-γ release over time. Conversely, for neutral liposomes containing TDB, although the initial amount of IFN-γ was slightly lower than the cationic equivalent, the overall protective immune responses of these neutral liposomes were effectively maintained over time, generating good levels of protection. To that end, although the addition of DSPC and Chol reduced the protective immunity of DDA:TDB liposomes, relatively high protection was observed for the neutral counterpart, DSPC:Chol:TDB, which may offer an effective neutral alternative to the DDA:TDB cationic system, especially for the delivery of either zwitterionic (neutral) or cationic molecules or antigens.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 05/2011; 100(5):1856-65. DOI:10.1002/jps.22427 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The application of cationic liposomes as vaccine delivery systems and adjuvants has been investigated extensively over the last few decades. However, cationic liposomes are, in general, not sufficiently immunostimulatory, which is why the combination of liposomes with immunostimulating ligands has arisen as a strategy in the development of novel adjuvant systems. Within the last 5 years, two novel adjuvant systems based on cationic liposomes incorporating Toll-like receptor or non-Toll-like receptor immunostimulating ligands have progressed from preclinical testing in smaller animal species to clinical testing in humans. The immune responses that these clinical candidates induce are primarily of the Th1 type for which there is a profound unmet need. Furthermore, a number of new cationic liposome-forming surfactants with notable immunostimulatory properties have been discovered. In this article we review the recent progress on the application of cationic liposomes as vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 04/2011; 10(4):513-21. DOI:10.1586/erv.11.17 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most novel vaccines against infectious diseases are based on recombinant Ag; however, only few studies have compared Ag-specific immune responses induced by natural infection with that induced by the same Ag in a recombinant form. Here, we studied the epitope recognition pattern of the tuberculosis vaccine Ag, TB10.4, in a recombinant form, or when expressed by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), or by the current anti-tuberculosis vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis BCG. We showed that BCG and M.tb induced a similar CD4+ T-cell specific TB10.4 epitope-pattern, which differed completely from that induced by recombinant TB10.4. This difference was not due to post-translational modifications of TB10.4 or because TB10.4 is secreted from BCG and M.tb as a complex with Rv0287. In addition, BCG and TB10.4/CAF01 were both taken up by DC and macrophages in vivo, and in vitro uptake experiments revealed that both TB10.4 and BCG were transported to Lamp+-compartments. BCG and TB10.4 however, were directed to different types of Lamp+-compartments in the same APC, which may lead to different epitope recognition patterns. In conclusion, we show that different vectors can induce completely different recognition of the same protein.
    European Journal of Immunology 03/2011; 40(5):1342-54. DOI:10.1002/eji.200939830 · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New TB vaccines are urgently needed because of the apparent lack of effect of the BCG vaccine on rates of adult contagious pulmonary tuberculosis and the risk of disseminated BCG disease in immunocompromised individuals. Since BCG appears to protect children, the primary target for vaccine development is a booster vaccine for adults but such vaccines ideally need to be able to efficiently prime mycobacterially naïve individuals as well as boost individuals previously vaccinated with BCG and those latently infected with TB. Protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends mainly on the generation of a Th1-type cellular immune response characterized by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production. In the present study, we monitored safety and IFN-γ responses in healthy BCG-vaccinated and prior or latently TB-infected individuals receiving a novel vaccine composed of the fusion protein Ag85B-ESAT-6 combined with the adjuvant IC31(®), administered at 0 and 2 months. Vaccination caused few local or systemic adverse effects besides transient soreness at the injection site, but it elicited strong antigen-specific T cell responses against Ag85B-ESAT-6 and both the Ag85B and ESAT-6 components, that could be augmented by second vaccination. The strong responses persisted through 32 weeks of follow-up, indicating the induction of a persistent memory response in the vaccine recipients.
    Vaccine 03/2011; 29(11):2100-9. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.12.135 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Liposomes remain at the forefront of drug and vaccine design owing to their well-documented abilities to act as delivery vehicles. Nevertheless, the concept of liposomes as delivery vehicles is not a new one, with most works focusing on their use for the delivery of genes and drugs. However, in the last 10 years a significant amount of research has focused on using liposomes as vaccine adjuvants, not only as an antigen delivery vehicle but also as a tool to increase the immunogenicity of peptide and protein antigens. AREAS COVERED: This paper reviews liposomal adjuvants now in vaccine development, with particular emphasis on their adjuvant mechanism and how specific physicochemical characteristics of liposomes affect the immune response. The inclusion of immunomodulators is also discussed, with prominence given to Toll-like receptor ligands. EXPERT OPINION: The use of liposomes as vaccine delivery systems is evolving rapidly owing to the combined increase in technological advances and understanding of the immune system. Liposomes that contain and deliver immunostimulators and antigens are now being developed to target diseases that require stimulation of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The CAF liposomal system, described in detail in this review, is one liposomal model that shows such flexibility.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 03/2011; 8(4):505-19. DOI:10.1517/17425247.2011.558081 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: All tuberculosis vaccines currently in clinical trials are designed as prophylactic vaccines based on early expressed antigens. We have developed a multistage vaccination strategy in which the early antigens Ag85B and 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) are combined with the latency-associated protein Rv2660c (H56 vaccine). In CB6F1 mice we show that Rv2660c is stably expressed in late stages of infection despite an overall reduced transcription. The H56 vaccine promotes a T cell response against all protein components that is characterized by a high proportion of polyfunctional CD4(+) T cells. In three different pre-exposure mouse models, H56 confers protective immunity characterized by a more efficient containment of late-stage infection than the Ag85B-ESAT6 vaccine (H1) and BCG. In two mouse models of latent tuberculosis, we show that H56 vaccination after exposure is able to control reactivation and significantly lower the bacterial load compared to adjuvant control mice.
    Nature medicine 02/2011; 17(2):189-94. DOI:10.1038/nm.2285 · 28.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The immunostimulatory capacities of cationic liposomes are well-documented and are attributed both to inherent immunogenicity of the cationic lipid and more physical capacities such as the formation of antigen depots and antigen delivery. Very few studies have however been conducted comparing the immunostimulatory capacities of different cationic lipids. In the present study we therefore chose to investigate three of the most well-known cationic liposome-forming lipids as potential adjuvants for protein subunit vaccines. The ability of 3β-[N-(N',N'-dimethylaminoethane)carbomyl] cholesterol (DC-Chol), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP), and dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) liposomes incorporating immunomodulating trehalose dibehenate (TDB) to form an antigen depot at the site of injection (SOI) and to induce immunological recall responses against coadministered tuberculosis vaccine antigen Ag85B-ESAT-6 are reported. Furthermore, physical characterization of the liposomes is presented. Our results suggest that liposome composition plays an important role in vaccine retention at the SOI and the ability to enable the immune system to induce a vaccine specific recall response. While all three cationic liposomes facilitated increased antigen presentation by antigen presenting cells, the monocyte infiltration to the SOI and the production of IFN-γ upon antigen recall was markedly higher for DDA and DC-Chol based liposomes which exhibited a longer retention profile at the SOI. A long-term retention and slow release of liposome and vaccine antigen from the injection site hence appears to favor a stronger Th1 immune response.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 02/2011; 8(1):153-61. DOI:10.1021/mp100208f · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been clearly demonstrated that in vitro, virulent M. tuberculosis can favor necrosis over apoptosis in infected macrophages, and this has been suggested as a mechanism for evading the host immune response. We recently reported that an effect consistent with this hypothesis could be observed in cells from the blood of TB patients, and in this paper, we review what is known about evasion strategies employed by M. tuberculosis and in particular consider the possible interaction of the apoptosis-inhibiting effects of M. tuberculosis infection with another factor (IL-4) whose expression is thought to play a role in the failure to control M. tuberculosis infection. It has been noted that IL-4 may exacerbate TNF-α-induced pathology, though the mechanism remains unexplained. Since pathology in TB typically involves inflammatory aggregates around infected cells, where TNF-α plays an important role, we predicted that IL-4 would inhibit the ability of cells to remove M. tuberculosis by apoptosis of infected cells, through the extrinsic pathway, which is activated by TNF-α. Infection of human monocytic cells with mycobacteria in vitro, in the presence of IL-4, appears to promote necrosis over apoptosis in infected cells-a finding consistent with its suggested role as a factor in pathology during M. tuberculosis infection.
    Clinical and Developmental Immunology 01/2011; 2011:678570. DOI:10.1155/2011/678570 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major killer worldwide. The only available TB-vaccine, the nearly century-old Mycobacterium bovis BCG, has had only a limited effect on TB incidence. Therefore, developing new TB vaccines is a key priority, and the first new generation TB vaccines are now being tested in clinical trials. Here we describe the development and first testing in humans of a novel, wholly synthetic TB subunit vaccine. This vaccine has proven safe and highly immunogenic in all species in which it was tested, including mice, guinea pigs, non-human primates and humans. Most encouragingly, following vaccination in humans, strong IFN-γ responses persisted through at least 2½ years of follow-up, indicating induction of a substantial memory response by this new TB vaccine. These findings encourage further preclinical and clinical studies with TB subunit vaccines and cellular immunity-stimulating new adjuvants.
    Human vaccines 12/2010; 6(12):1007-15. DOI:10.4161/hv.6.12.13143 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bioneedles are small hollow sugar based needles administered with a simple compressed air device. In the present study we investigate how incorporation of a subunit vaccine based on TB vaccine hybrid Ag85B-ESAT-6 adjuvated with CAF01 into Bioneedles affects its immunogenicity as well as its ability to protect against TB in a mouse model. The CMI response measured by IFN-γ and antigen specific CD4+ T-cells was, two weeks after the last vaccination, significantly lower in the group immunized with Bioneedle-incorporated vaccine compared to the conventional vaccine, using syringe and needle. However, at four, nine and 52 weeks after vaccination we observed similar high IFN-γ levels in the Bioneedle group and the group vaccinated using syringe and needle and comparable levels of antigen specific T-cells. Furthermore, the protective efficacy for the two vaccination methods was comparable and similar to BCG vaccination both six and 52 weeks after vaccination. These results therefore advocate the further development of the Bioneedle devises and applicators for the delivery of human vaccines.
    PLoS ONE 11/2010; 5(11):e15043. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0015043 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many functional proteins are at least partially disordered prior to binding. Although the structural transitions upon binding of disordered protein regions can influence the affinity and specificity of protein complexes, their precise energetic contributions to binding are unknown. Here, we use a model protein-protein interaction system in which a locally disordered region has been modified by directed evolution to quantitatively assess the thermodynamic and structural contributions to binding of disorder-to-order transitions. Through X-ray structure determination of the protein binding partners before and after complex formation and isothermal titration calorimetry of the interactions, we observe a correlation between protein ordering and binding affinity for complexes along this affinity maturation pathway. Additionally, we show that discrepancies between observed and calculated heat capacities based on buried surface area changes in the protein complexes can be explained largely by heat capacity changes that would result solely from folding the locally disordered region. Previously developed algorithms for predicting binding energies of protein-protein interactions, however, are unable to correctly model the energetic contributions of the structural transitions in our model system. While this highlights the shortcomings of current computational methods in modeling conformational flexibility, it suggests that the experimental methods used here could provide training sets of molecular interactions for improving these algorithms and further rationalizing molecular recognition in protein-protein interactions.
    Biochemistry 11/2010; 49(43):9256-68. DOI:10.1021/bi1008968 · 3.19 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
970.16 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2015
    • Statens Serum Institut
      • Department of Infectious Disease Immunology
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2013
    • Aston University
      • School of Life and Health Sciences
      Birmingham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2012
    • University of Geneva
      • Division of Paediatrics
      Versoix, GE, Switzerland
  • 2007
    • University of Greifswald
      • Institute for Microbiology
      Greifswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2006
    • Armauer Hansen Research Institute
      Ādīs Ābeba, Ādīs Ābeba, Ethiopia
  • 2004–2006
    • Leiden University
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2003
    • Symphogen
      Gjentofte, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2002–2003
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • • Department of Immunhematology and Blood Transfusion
      • • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Queen's University Belfast
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
    • University of Porto
      • Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology
      Oporto, Porto, Portugal
  • 2001
    • Copenhagen Trial Unit
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1999
    • Odense University Hospital
      • Molecular biology laboratory
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark