Peter Andersen

Statens Serum Institut, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (313)1306.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is a need for reliable markers to diagnose active and latent tuberculosis (TB). The interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are compared to the tuberculin skin test (TST) more specific, but cannot discriminate between recent or remote TB infection. Here the Flow-cytometric Assay for Specific Cell-mediated Immune-response in Activated whole blood (FASCIA), which quantifies expanded T-lymphoblasts by flow-cytometric analysis after long-term antigen stimulation of whole blood, is combined with cytokine/chemokine analysis in the supernatant by multiplex technology for diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Consecutive patients with suspected TB (n = 85), with microbiologically verified active pulmonary TB (n = 33), extra pulmonary TB (n = 21), clinical TB (n = 11), presumed latent TB infection (LTBI) (n = 23), patients negative for TB (n = 8) and 21 healthy controls were studied. Blood samples were analyzed with FASCIA and multiplex technology to determine and correlate proliferative responses and the value of 14 cytokines for diagnosis of Mtb infection: IFN- γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IP-10, IL-12, IL-6, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, MIP-1β, GM-CSF, IFN-α2 and IL-10. Cytokine levels for IFN-γ, IP-10, MIP-1β, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13 and GM-CSF were significantly higher after stimulation with the Mtb specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10 in patients with active TB compared to healthy controls (p<0.05) and correlated with proliferative responses. IP-10 was positive in all patients with verified TB, if using a combination of ESAT-6 and CFP-10 and was the only marker significantly more sensitive in detecting active TB then IFN-γ (p = 0.012). Cytokine responses in patients with active TB were more frequent and detected at higher levels than in patients with LTBI. CONCLUSIONS: IP-10 seems to be an important marker for diagnosis of active and latent TB. Patients with active TB and LTBI responded with similar cytokine profiles against TB antigens but proliferative and cytokine responses were generally higher in patients with active TB.
    PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e43438. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043438 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared by diverse influenza A viruses, a vaccine (M2e-NSP4) was constructed linking M2e (in its consensus sequence) to the rotavirus fragment NSP4(98-135); due to its coiled-coil region this fragment is known to form tetramers in aqueous solution and in this manner we hoped to mimick the natural configuration of M2e as presented in membranes. M2e-NSP4 was then evaluated side-by-side with synthetic M2e peptide for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine influenza challenge model. Here we demonstrate that M2e fused to the tetramerizing protein induces an accelerated, augmented and more broadly reactive antibody response than does M2e peptide as measured in two different assays. Most importantly, vaccination with M2e-NSP4 caused a significant decrease in lung virus load early after challenge with influenza A virus and maintained its efficacy against a lethal challenge even at very low vaccine doses. Based on the results presented in this study M2e-NSP4 merits further investigation as a candidate for or as a component of a universal influenza A vaccine.
    PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e46395. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0046395 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Th17 cells are increasingly being recognized as an important T helper subset for immune-mediated protection, especially against pathogens at mucosal ports of entry. In several cases, it would thus be highly relevant to induce Th17 memory by vaccination. Th17 cells are reported to exhibit high plasticity and may not stably maintain their differentiation program once induced, questioning the possibility of inducing durable Th17 memory. Accordingly, there is no consensus as to whether Th17 memory can be established unless influenced by continuous Th17 polarizing conditions. We have previously reported (T. Lindenstrøm, et al., J. Immunol. 182:8047-8055, 2009) that the cationic liposome adjuvant CAF01 can prime both Th1 and Th17 responses and promote robust, long-lived Th1 memory. Here, we demonstrate that subunit vaccination in mice with CAF01 leads to establishment of bona fide Th17 memory cells. Accordingly, Th17 memory cells exhibited lineage stability by retaining both phenotypic and functional properties for nearly 2 years. Antigen-specific, long-term Th17 memory cells were found to be mobilized from lung-draining lymph nodes to the lung following an aerosol challenge by Mycobacterium tuberculosis nearly 2 years after their induction and proliferated at levels comparable to those of Th1 memory cells. During the infection, the vaccine-induced Th17 memory cells expanded in the lungs and adapted Th1 characteristics, implying that they represent a metastable population which exhibits plasticity when exposed to prolonged Th1 polarizing, inflammatory conditions such as those found in the M. tuberculosis-infected lung. In the absence of overt inflammation, however, stable bona fide Th17 memory can indeed be induced by parenteral immunization.
    Infection and immunity 07/2012; 80(10):3533-44. DOI:10.1128/IAI.00550-12 · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adjuvants are often composed of different constituents that can be divided into two groups based on their primary activity: the delivery system which carries and presents the vaccine antigen to antigen-presenting cells, and the immunostimulator that activates and modulates the ensuing immune response. Herein, we have investigated the importance of the delivery system and in particular its physical characteristics by comparing the delivery properties of two lipids which differ only in the degree of saturation of the acyl chains, rendering the liposomes either rigid (DDA, dimethyldioctadecylammonium) or highly fluid (DODA, dimethyldioleoylammonium) at physiological temperature. We show that these delivery systems are remarkably different in their ability to prime a Th1-directed immune response with the rigid DDA-based liposomes inducing a response more than 100 times higher compared to that obtained with the fluid DODA-based liposomes. Upon injection with a vaccine antigen, DDA-based liposomes form a vaccine depot that results in a continuous attraction of antigen-presenting cells that engulf a high amount of adjuvant and are subsequently efficiently activated as measured by an elevated expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86. In contrast, the fluid DODA-based liposomes are more rapidly removed from the site of injection resulting in a lower up-regulation of co-stimulatory CD40 and CD86 molecules on adjuvant-positive antigen-presenting cells. Additionally, the vaccine antigen is readily dissociated from the DODA-based liposomes leading to a population of antigen-presenting cells that are antigen-positive but adjuvant-negative and consequently are not activated. These studies demonstrate the importance of studying in vivo characteristics of the vaccine components and furthermore show that physicochemical properties of the delivery system have a major impact on the vaccine-induced immune response.
    Journal of Controlled Release 06/2012; 160(3):468-76. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.03.016 · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The self-sufficient autotransporter (AT) pathway, ubiquitous in Gram-negative bacteria, combines a relatively simple protein secretion mechanism with a high transport capacity. ATs consist of a secreted passenger domain and a β-domain that facilitates transfer of the passenger across the cell-envelope. They have a great potential for the extracellular expression of recombinant proteins but their exploitation has suffered from the limited structural knowledge of carrier ATs. Capitalizing on its crystal structure, we have engineered the Escherichia coli AT Hemoglobin protease (Hbp) into a platform for the secretion and surface display of heterologous proteins, using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine target ESAT6 as a model protein. Results Based on the Hbp crystal structure, five passenger side domains were selected and one by one replaced by ESAT6, whereas a β-helical core structure (β-stem) was left intact. The resulting Hbp-ESAT6 chimeras were efficiently and stably secreted into the culture medium of E. coli. On the other hand, Hbp-ESAT6 fusions containing a truncated β-stem appeared unstable after translocation, demonstrating the importance of an intact β-stem. By interrupting the cleavage site between passenger and β-domain, Hbp-ESAT6 display variants were constructed that remain cell associated and facilitate efficient surface exposure of ESAT6 as judged by proteinase K accessibility and whole cell immuno-EM analysis. Upon replacement of the passenger side domain of an alternative AT, EspC, ESAT6 was also efficiently secreted, showing the approach is more generally applicable to ATs. Furthermore, Hbp-ESAT6 was efficiently displayed in an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain upon chromosomal integration of a single encoding gene copy, demonstrating the potential of the Hbp platform for live vaccine development. Conclusions We developed the first structurally informed AT platform for efficient secretion and surface display of heterologous proteins. The platform has potential with regard to the development of recombinant live vaccines and may be useful for other biotechnological applications that require high-level secretion or display of recombinant proteins by bacteria.
    Microbial Cell Factories 06/2012; 11(1):85. DOI:10.1186/1475-2859-11-85 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has proved to be a powerful tool in tuberculosis surveillance, epidemiology, and control. Based on results obtained through 15 years of nationwide IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotyping of M. tuberculosis cases in Denmark, a country on the way toward tuberculosis elimination, we discuss M. tuberculosis transmission dynamics and point to areas for control interventions. Cases with 100% identical genotypes (RFLP patterns) were defined as clustered, and a cluster was defined as cases with an identical genotype. Of 4,601 included cases, corresponding to 76% of reported and 97% of culture-verified tuberculosis cases in the country, 56% were clustered, of which 69% were Danes. Generally, Danes were more often in large clusters (≥ 50 persons), older (mean age, 45 years), and male (male/female ratio, 2.5). Also, Danes had a higher cluster frequency within a 2-year observation window (60.8%), and higher clustering rate of new patterns over time, compared to immigrants. A dominant genotype, cluster 2, constituted 44% of all clustered and 35% of all genotyped cases. This cluster was primarily found among Danish males, 30 to 59 years of age, often socially marginalized, and with records of alcohol abuse. In Danes, cluster 2 alone was responsible for the high cluster frequency level. Immigrants had a higher incidence of clustered tuberculosis at a younger age (0 to 39 years). To achieve tuberculosis elimination in Denmark, high-risk transmission environments, like the cluster 2 environment in Danes, and specific transmission chains in immigrants in the capital area, e.g., homeless/socially marginalized Somalis/Greenlanders, often with alcohol abuse, must be targeted, including groups with a high risk of reactivation.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 06/2012; 50(8):2660-7. DOI:10.1128/JCM.06358-11 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • Peter Andersen
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    ABSTRACT: As a veterinary student I always felt misplaced. Not until I attended a course in immunology did I really feel the urge and drive to dive into the matter. Almost by coincidence, as a brand new candidate, I had the fortune to get a position in Tuberculosis vaccine research, and never since have I doubted that it was the right choice for me. Since then I have been driven by scientific curiosity and the prospects of generating results that can be used for products for which there is a real need.
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 05/2012; 8(5):547-53. DOI:10.4161/hv.20886 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The dendritic cell (DC) targeting/activation patterns required to elicit Th1/Th17 responses remain undefined. One postulated requirement was that of a physical linkage between Ags and immunomodulators. Accordingly, the separate same-site administration of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (hybrid-1 protein; H1), a mycobacterial fusion Ag, and the CAF01 liposome-based adjuvant induced similar Ab and weak Th2 responses as those of coformulated H1/CAF01 but failed to elicit Th1/Th17 responses. Yet, this separate same-site injection generated the same type and number of activated Ag(+)/adjuvant(+) DCs in the draining lymph nodes (LN) as that of protective H1/CAF01 immunization. Thus, targeting/activating the same DC population by Ag and adjuvant is not sufficient to elicit Th1/Th17 responses. To identify the determinants of Th1/Th17 adjuvanticity, in vivo tracking experiments using fluorescently labeled Ag and adjuvant identified that a separate same-site administration elicits an additional early Ag(+)/adjuvant(-) DC population with a nonactivated phenotype, resulting from the earlier targeting of LN DCs by H1 than by CAF01 molecules. This asynchronous targeting pattern was mimicked by the injection of free H1 prior to or with, but not after, H1/CAF01 or H1/CpG/ aluminum hydroxide immunization. The injection of soluble OVA similarly prevented the induction of Th1 responses by OVA/CAF01. Using adoptively transferred OT-2 cells, we show that the Ag targeting of LN DCs prior to their activation generates nonactivated Ag-pulsed DCs that recruit Ag-specific T cells, trigger their initial proliferation, but interfere with Th1 induction in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the synchronization of DC targeting and activation is a critical determinant for Th1/Th17 adjuvanticity.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2012; 188(10):4828-37. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1103183 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in Denmark in October 2007 in a 2+1 schedule with a catch-up programme for children up to 17 months of age. To assess the impact of PCV we evaluated on the whole population: (1) direct and indirect effects on incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), (2) changes in pneumococcal serotype distribution and (3) IPD related mortality. We compared disease incidence in pre-PCV (years 2000-2007) and PCV periods (years 2008-2010) based on national surveillance data. In children aged 0-5 years the overall incidence of IPD decreased from 26.7 to 16.3 cases per 100,000 (IRR 0.58; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.48-0.69]) and case fatality declined from 1.8% (12 deaths) in the eight-year pre-PCV period to 0% (no deaths) in the three-year PCV period. In the whole population the overall incidence of IPD and of IPD caused by vaccine serotypes declined significantly from 19.5 to 17.7 and from 7.7 to 3.8 cases per 100,000 persons comparing the two periods. The incidence of IPD due to non-vaccine serotypes (NVT-IPD) increased significantly from 11.8 to 13.9 cases per 100,000 in the whole population (incidence rate ratio 1.18; 95% CI [1.12-1.24]) with predominance of the serotypes 1.7F and 19A. We report a marked decline in incidence in IPD in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated age groups and a minor but statistically significant increase in incidence of IPD due to NVTs in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups with predominance of serotypes covered by higher valence pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.
    Vaccine 04/2012; 30(26):3944-50. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.03.060 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purified protein derivative (PPD) has served as a safe and effective diagnostic reagent for 60 years and is the only broadly available material to diagnose latent tuberculosis infections. This reagent is also used as a standard control for a number of in vitro immunological assays. Nevertheless, the molecular composition and specific products that contribute to the extraordinary immunological reactivity of PPD are poorly defined. Here, a proteomic approach was applied to elucidate the gene products in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standard PPD-S2. Many known Mycobacterium tuberculosis T-cell antigens were detected. Of significance, four heat shock proteins (HSPs) (GroES, GroEL2, HspX, and DnaK) dominated the composition of PPD. The chaperone activities and capacity of these proteins to influence immunological responses may explain the exquisite solubility and immunological potency of PPD. Spectral counting analysis of three separate PPD reagents revealed significant quantitative variances. Gross delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in M. tuberculosis infected guinea pigs were comparable among these PPD preparations; however, detailed histopathology of the DTH lesions exposed unique differences, which may be explained by the variability observed in the presence and abundance of early secretory system (Esx) proteins. Variability in PPD reagents may explain differences in DTH responses reported among populations.
    Proteomics 04/2012; 12(7):979-91. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201100544 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human migration caused by political unrest, wars and poverty is a major topic in international health. Infectious diseases like tuberculosis follow their host, with potential impact on both the migrants and the population in the recipient countries. In this study, we evaluate Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission between the national population and migrants in Denmark. Register study based on IS6110-RFLP results from nationwide genotyping of tuberculosis cases during 1992 through 2004. Cases with 100% identical genotypes were defined as clustered and part of a transmission chain. Origin of clusters involving both Danes and migrants was defined as Danish/migrant/uncertain. Subsequently, the proportion of cases likely infected by the "opposite" ethnic group was estimated. 4,631 cases were included, representing 99% of culture confirmed cases during 1992 through 2004. Migrants contributed 61.6% of cases. Up to 7.9% (95% CI 7.0-8.9) of migrants were infected by Danes. The corresponding figure was 5.8% (95% CI 4.8-7.0) for Danes. Thus, transmission from Danes to migrants occurred up to 2.5 (95% CI 1.8-3.5) times more frequent than vice versa (OR = 1). A dominant strain, Cluster-2, was almost exclusively found in Danes, particular younger-middle-aged males. Transmission between Danes and migrants is limited, and risk of being infected by the "opposite" ethnic group is highest for migrants. TB-control efforts should focus on continues micro-epidemics, e.g. with Cluster-2 in Danes, prevention of reactivation TB in high-risk migrants, and outbreaks in socially marginalized migrants, such as Somalis and Greenlanders. Fears that TB in migrants poses a threat for resident Danes seem exaggerated and unjustified. We believe this to be true for other low incidence countries as well.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 03/2012; 12:60. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-12-60 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is estimated that one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection typically remains latent, but it can reactivate to cause clinical disease. The only vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), is largely ineffective, and ways to enhance its efficacy are being developed. Of note, the candidate booster vaccines currently under clinical development have been designed to improve BCG efficacy but not prevent reactivation of latent infection. Here, we demonstrate that administering a multistage vaccine that we term H56 in the adjuvant IC31 as a boost to vaccination with BCG delays and reduces clinical disease in cynomolgus macaques challenged with M. tuberculosis and prevents reactivation of latent infection. H56 contains Ag85B and ESAT-6, which are two of the M. tuberculosis antigens secreted in the acute phase of infection, and the nutrient stress-induced antigen Rv2660c. Boosting with H56/IC31 resulted in efficient containment of M. tuberculosis infection and reduced rates of clinical disease, as measured by clinical parameters, inflammatory markers, and improved survival of the animals compared with BCG alone. Boosted animals showed reduced pulmonary pathology and extrapulmonary dissemination, and protection correlated with a strong recall response against ESAT-6 and Rv2660c. Importantly, BCG/H56-vaccinated monkeys did not reactivate latent infection after treatment with anti-TNF antibody. Our results indicate that H56/IC31 boosting is able to control late-stage infection with M. tuberculosis and contain latent tuberculosis, providing a rationale for the clinical development of H56.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 12/2011; 122(1):303-14. DOI:10.1172/JCI46252 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With high short-term mortality and substantial excess morbidity among survivors, tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The objective of this study was to assess the long-term mortality and causes of death in a TBM patient population compared to the background population. A nationwide cohort study was conducted enrolling patients notified with TBM in Denmark from 1972-2008 and alive one year after TBM diagnosis. Data was extracted from national registries. From the background population we identified a control cohort of individuals matched on gender and date of birth. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression analysis were used to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRR) and analyse causes of death. A total of 55 TBM patients and 550 individuals from the background population were included in the study. Eighteen patients (32.7%) and 107 population controls (19.5%) died during the observation period. The overall MRR was 1.79 (95%CI: 1.09-2.95) for TBM patients compared to the population control cohort. TBM patients in the age group 31-60 years at time of diagnosis had the highest relative risk of death (MRR 2.68; 95%CI 1.34-5.34). The TBM patients had a higher risk of death due to infectious disease, but not from other causes of death. Adult TBM patients have an almost two-fold increased long-term mortality and the excess mortality stems from infectious disease related causes of death.
    PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e27900. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0027900 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable effort has been put into targeting tumors through therapeutic vaccination using dendritic cell-, DNA-, protein-, or peptide-based vaccines. Purified peptides and proteins are generally not immunogenic and need to be administered with an adjuvant that will trigger an appropriate immune response. Safe adjuvants that favor induction of tumor reactive CD8(+) T cells with the capacity to directly kill tumor cells are therefore a high priority. We have previously reported on the effect and mechanism of a cationic adjuvant formulation, CAF01, which incorporates synthetic mycobacterial cord factor and primes protective Th1, Th17, and antibody responses in animal models of bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. The CAF01 adjuvant is currently in clinical trial. Using CAF01 as a backbone, we recently demonstrated that incorporating the TLR3 ligand polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] primes CD8(+) T cells specific to the SIINFEKL epitope of the model antigen ovalbumin. In the present study, we demonstrate that CAF01/poly(I:C), termed cationic adjuvant formulation 05 or CAF05, can induce CD8(+) T cells that efficiently lyse target cells and significantly reduce tumor growth in two different mouse tumor models: lung B16-OVA melanoma expressing ovalbumin and the self-antigen TRP2, and subcutaneous TC-1 tumors expressing the human papillomavirus-16 protein E7.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 11/2011; 61(6):893-903. DOI:10.1007/s00262-011-1156-6 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), but has varied efficacy in different geographical locations. Recombinant strategies to genetically modify the organism to enhance the quality of the immune response have aimed at improving BCG efficacy. Here we describe such a strategy using rBCGΔureC∷hly expressing defined latency-associated antigens and test this construct for long-term protection against an isolate of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Beijing/W lineage. Expression of the antigens Rv2659c, Rv3407 and Rv1733c by rBCGΔureC∷hly improved long-term efficacy in both lung and spleen at day 200 post-infection after intradermal vaccination of mice. Our data support expression of Mtb latency associated antigens by rBCG to improve protection against Mtb.
    Vaccine 08/2011; 29(47):8740-4. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.07.144 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIV) against influenza are given to 350 million people every year. Most of these are non-adjuvanted vaccines whose immunogenicity and protective efficacy are considered suboptimal. Commercially available non-adjuvanted TIV are known to elicit mainly a humoral immune response, whereas the induction of cell-mediated immune responses is negligible. Recently, a cationic liposomal adjuvant (dimethyldioctadecylammonium/trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate, CAF01) was developed. CAF01 has proven to enhance both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to a number of different experimental vaccine candidates. In this study, we compared the immune responses in ferrets to a commercially available TIV with the responses to the same vaccine mixed with the CAF01 adjuvant. Two recently circulating H1N1 viruses were used as challenge to test the vaccine efficacy. CAF01 improved the immunogenicity of the vaccine, with increased influenza-specific IgA and IgG levels. Additionally, CAF01 promoted cellular-mediated immunity as indicated by interferon-gamma expressing lymphocytes, measured by flow cytometry. CAF01 also enhanced the protection conferred by the vaccine by reducing the viral load measured in nasal washes by RT-PCR. Finally, CAF01 allowed for dose-reduction and led to higher levels of protection compared to TIV adjuvanted with a squalene emulsion. The data obtained in this human-relevant challenge model supports the potential of CAF01 in future influenza vaccines.
    PLoS ONE 08/2011; 6(8):e22891. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0022891 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic immunization of HIV-1-infected individuals with or without anti-retroviral therapy is a new promising disease prevention. To induce a new cytotoxic T(CD8) lymphocyte (CTL) immunity during chronic HIV-1 infection 15 infrequently targeted but conserved HLA-supertype binding CTL epitopes from Gag, Pol, Nef, Env, Vpu and Vif were identified. The 15 T(CD8) and three T(CD4) helper peptides were GMP synthesised and formulated with a new adjuvant CAF01 which is a synthetic two-component liposomic adjuvant comprising the quaternary ammonium dimethyl-dioctadecyl-ammonium (DDA) and the immune modulator trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB). Using IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, T-cell immune induction by the vaccine was found to both CD4 and CD8 T-cell restricted peptides in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. Comprehensive toxicity studies of the CAF01 adjuvant-alone and together with different vaccines showed that CAF01 when tested at human dose levels was safe and well tolerated with only local inflammation at the site of injection and no systemic reactions. No pharmacological safety issues were observed in Beagle dogs. The HIV-1 vaccine toxicity study in the Göttingen Minipig(®) showed no systemic toxicity from five repetitive i.m. injections, each with a 2-week interval, of either the 18 HIV-1 peptide antigen solution (AFO18) or the AFO18-CAF01, in which the 18 HIV-1 peptides were formulated with the CAF01 adjuvant. Distinct inflammatory responses were observed in the injected muscles of the AFO18-CAF01 vaccine treated animals as a result of the immune stimulating effect of the adjuvant on the vaccine. The results of the toxicity studies provide optimism for phase I clinical trials evaluating the therapeutic HIV-1 T-cell vaccination approach using multiple subdominant minimal epitope peptides applying the novel cationic adjuvant CAF01.
    Vaccine 07/2011; 29(40):7067-74. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.07.025 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recent pandemic caused by new influenza A (H1N1) has emphasized the need for improved influenza vaccines with enhanced immune responses that ideally include longlived humoral and CMI responses and mediate a broad protection. This study demonstrates that administration of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) with the cationic liposome adjuvant system CAF01 enhances the humoral immune response as measured by hemagglutinin inhibition titers and influenza-specific serum antibody titers, and promote a strong Th1 response with augmented levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Furthermore, high levels of IL-17 are detected in agreement with CAF01's ability to promote TH17 responses. Importantly, the Th1/Th17 cytokine profile is still maintained 20 weeks after the last vaccination. The CAF01 adjuvanted influenza vaccine reduces weight loss and temperature decrease and results in complete survival of mice challenged with the drifted H1N1 influenza strain A/PR/8/34. Overall, the results suggest that CAF01 is a potent adjuvant system for future, improved influenza vaccines.
    Vaccine 06/2011; 29(37):6283-91. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.06.040 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is diagnosed in naturally infected populations exposed to a wide variety of other pathogens. This study describes the cell-mediated immune responses of cattle exposed to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium with particular reference to routine antefmortem Mycobacterium bovis diagnostic tests. The IFN-γ released in response to stimulated blood was found to peak later in the Map-exposed group and was more sustained when compared to the Maa-exposed group. There was a very close correlation between the responses to the purified protein derivatives (PPD) used for stimulation (PPDa, PPDb, and PPDj) with PPDa and PPDj most closely correlated. On occasion, in the Map-infected cattle, PPDb-biased responses were seen compared to PPDa suggesting that some Map-infected cattle could be misclassified as M. bovis infected using this test with these reagents. This bias was not seen when PPDj was used. SICCT results were consistent with the respective infections and all calves would have been classed skin test negative.
    06/2011; 2011:145092. DOI:10.4061/2011/145092
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    ABSTRACT: There is a large and growing worldwide need for reliable tests to diagnose active and latent tuberculosis (TB). Improved methodology for identifying individuals with true latent TB (LTBI), particularly those with a recent infection, would pave the way for targeted prophylactic treatment. The traditionally used tuberculin skin test (TST) is unspecific and impractical. Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) are more specific than the TST but, like that test, cannot discriminate either between recent and remote TB infection, or between these and a mere immunological memory of previous TB infection. The Flow-cytometric Assay for Specific Cell-mediated Immune-response in Activated whole blood (FASCIA) combines long-term antigen stimulation of whole blood and flow-cytometric analysis with quantification of the expanded T-lymphoblasts and can also be employed for measurement of cytokine responses.
    Journal of immunological methods 05/2011; 370(1-2):55-64. DOI:10.1016/j.jim.2011.05.008 · 2.01 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17k Citations
1,306.96 Total Impact Points


  • 1997–2015
    • Statens Serum Institut
      • • Department of Infectious Disease Immunology
      • • Department of Epidemiology Research
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2013
    • Aston University
      • School of Life and Health Sciences
      Birmingham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2012
    • University of Geneva
      • Division of Paediatrics
      Versoix, GE, Switzerland
  • 2007
    • University of Greifswald
      • Institute for Microbiology
      Greifswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2006
    • Armauer Hansen Research Institute
      Ādīs Ābeba, Ādīs Ābeba, Ethiopia
  • 2001–2006
    • Leiden University
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Copenhagen Trial Unit
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • National Taiwan University
      • Graduate Institute of Immunology
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2004–2005
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Hvidovre, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2003
    • Department of Agriculture and Rural Development
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2003
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • • Department of Immunhematology and Blood Transfusion
      • • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Porto
      • Institute for Molecular and Cell Biology
      Oporto, Porto, Portugal
    • Queen's University Belfast
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2003
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2000–2003
    • Kuwait University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Kuwait, Muhafazat al `Asimah, Kuwait
    • Department of the Environment (Northern Ireland)
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2000
    • Technical University of Denmark
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • University of Oslo
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 1999
    • Odense University Hospital
      • Molecular biology laboratory
      Odense, South Denmark, Denmark
    • Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center
      Lebanon, New Hampshire, United States