[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neonates and juvenile ruminants are very susceptible to paratuberculosis infection. This is likely due to a high degree of exposure from their dams and an immature immune system. To test the influence of age on vaccine induced responses a cocktail of recombinant MAP proteins (MAP0217, MAP1508, MAP3701c, MAP3783 and MAP1609c/Ag85B) was formulated in a cationic liposome adjuvant (CAF01) and used to vaccinate animals of different age. Male jersey calves were divided into 3 groups that were vaccinated at 2, 8 or 16 weeks of age and boosted twice at week 4 and 12 relative to the first vaccination. Vaccine induced immune responses, the IFN-γ cytokine secretion and antibody responses were followed for 20 weeks. In general, the specific responses were significantly elevated in all three vaccination groups after the first booster vaccination with no or only minor effect of the second booster. However, significant differences were observed in the immunogenicity of the different proteins and it appears that the older age group produced a more consistent IFN-γ response. In contrast, the humoral immune response is seemingly independent of the vaccination age as we found no difference in the IgG1 responses when comparing the three vaccination groups. Combined, our results suggest that appropriate age of vaccination should be considered in vaccination protocols and there is a possible interference of vaccine induced immune responses with weaning (week 8).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This present study compares the efficacy of microsphere formulations, and their method of antigen presentation, for the delivery of the TB sub-unit vaccine antigen, Ag85B-ESAT-6. Microspheres based on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and chitosan incorporating dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA) were prepared by either the w/o/w double emulsion method (entrapped antigen) or the o/w single emulsion method (surface bound antigen), and characterised for their physico-chemical properties and their ability to promote an immune response to Ag85B-ESAT-6. The method of preparation, and hence method of antigen association, had a pronounced effect on the type of immune response achieved from the microsphere formulations, with surface bound antigen favouring a humoural response, whereas entrapped antigen favoured a cellular response.
Current Drug Delivery 02/2013; 10(3). DOI:10.2174/1567201811310030003 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To successfully enter the latent stage, Mycobacterium tuberculosis must adapt to conditions such as nutrient limitation and hypoxia. In vitro models which mimic latent infection are valuable tools to describe the changes in metabolism which occur when the bacterium exists in a non-growing form. We used two complementary proteomic approaches, label-free LC-MS/MS analysis and two-dimensional DIGE, to determine the proteome profile of extracellular proteins from M. tuberculosis cultured under nutrient starvation. By label-free LC-MS/MS analysis of fractionated samples, 1176 proteins were identified from culture filtrates of log phase and nutrient starved cultures, and the protein levels of 230 proteins were increased in nutrient starved culture filtrates, while 208 were decreased. By Gene Ontology clustering analysis, significant differences in the overall metabolism during nutrient starvation were detected. Notably, members of the toxin-antitoxin systems were present in larger quantities in nutrient starved cultures supporting a role for these global modules as M. tuberculosis switches its metabolism into dormancy. Besides, decreased abundance of proteins involved in amino acid and protein synthesis was apparent as well as changes in the lipid metabolism. Further analysis of the dataset identified increased abundance of lipoproteins and decreased abundance of ESAT-6 family proteins. Results from the two-dimensional DIGE based proteomics demonstrated an overall agreement with the LC-MS/MS data and added complementary insights about protein degradation and modification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of new vaccine adjuvants with immunopotentiating properties commonly involves in vitro evaluations of candidate compounds for their ability to stimulate cells of the immune system. Subsequent elaborate experiments are then performed on only the positive candidates. Here we show how this strategy may miss good candidates due to context-dependent supramolecular characteristics of the candidate compounds, since both a specific molecular structure and the correct presentation of specific parts of the compounds are required for successful stimulation of the cells. Nevertheless, the supramolecular structure is rarely evaluated although changes in this structure may have a drastic impact on the presentation of the compounds to the cells. Synthetic analogues of the mycobacterial cell wall lipid monomycoloyl glycerol (MMG) possess immunopotentiating properties, but their biophysical characteristics are largely unresolved and the structural features determining their immunoactivating properties have been poorly explored. In the present study, we demonstrate that the immunostimulatory activity in vitro correlates with the supramolecular characteristics of the self-assembled MMG nanostructures. Thus, a series of MMG analogues displaying different stereochemistry in the hydrophobic moiety and the polar headgroup were designed and synthesized with different alkyl chain lengths. Stimulation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro was clearly dependent on the stereochemistry of the hydrophobic part and on the alkyl chain length but not on the stereochemistry of the hydrophilic glycerol moiety. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis showed that the immunoactivating analogues self-assembled into lamellar phases whereas the biologically inert analogues adopted inverse hexagonal phases. Langmuir monolayers confirmed that analogues with opposite lipid acid configurations displayed different packing modes. These data demonstrate that the biophysical properties and the lipid molecular structure are major determinants for the ability of the MMG analogues to activate antigen-presenting cells. Our findings emphasize the importance of investigating the biophysical and structural properties when assessing the effect of adjuvants in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the potential of inducing additional T-cell immunity during chronic HIV-1 infection directed to subdominant HIV-1 epitopes from common HLA-supertypes. Ten treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals were immunized with peptides in the adjuvant CAF01. One individual received placebo. T-cell immunogenicity was examined longitudinally by a flow cytometry (CD107a, IFNγ, TNFα, IL-2 and/or MIP1β expression) as well as IFNγ ELISPOT. Safety was evaluated by clinical follow up combined with monitoring of biochemistry, hematology, CD4 T-cell counts and viral load. New CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses specific for one or more vaccine epitopes were induced in 10/10 vaccinees. The responses were dominated by CD107a and MIP1β expression. There were no significant changes in HIV-1 viral load or CD4 T-cell counts. Our study demonstrates that the peptide/CAF01 vaccine is safe and that it is possible to generate new HIV-1 T-cell responses to defined epitopes in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
There is a need for reliable markers to diagnose active and latent tuberculosis (TB). The interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are compared to the tuberculin skin test (TST) more specific, but cannot discriminate between recent or remote TB infection. Here the Flow-cytometric Assay for Specific Cell-mediated Immune-response in Activated whole blood (FASCIA), which quantifies expanded T-lymphoblasts by flow-cytometric analysis after long-term antigen stimulation of whole blood, is combined with cytokine/chemokine analysis in the supernatant by multiplex technology for diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection.
Methods and Findings
Consecutive patients with suspected TB (n = 85), with microbiologically verified active pulmonary TB (n = 33), extra pulmonary TB (n = 21), clinical TB (n = 11), presumed latent TB infection (LTBI) (n = 23), patients negative for TB (n = 8) and 21 healthy controls were studied. Blood samples were analyzed with FASCIA and multiplex technology to determine and correlate proliferative responses and the value of 14 cytokines for diagnosis of Mtb infection: IFN- γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IP-10, IL-12, IL-6, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, MIP-1β, GM-CSF, IFN-α2 and IL-10. Cytokine levels for IFN-γ, IP-10, MIP-1β, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13 and GM-CSF were significantly higher after stimulation with the Mtb specific antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10 in patients with active TB compared to healthy controls (p<0.05) and correlated with proliferative responses. IP-10 was positive in all patients with verified TB, if using a combination of ESAT-6 and CFP-10 and was the only marker significantly more sensitive in detecting active TB then IFN-γ (p = 0.012). Cytokine responses in patients with active TB were more frequent and detected at higher levels than in patients with LTBI.
IP-10 seems to be an important marker for diagnosis of active and latent TB. Patients with active TB and LTBI responded with similar cytokine profiles against TB antigens but proliferative and cytokine responses were generally higher in patients with active TB.
PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e43438. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043438 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared by diverse influenza A viruses, a vaccine (M2e-NSP4) was constructed linking M2e (in its consensus sequence) to the rotavirus fragment NSP4(98-135); due to its coiled-coil region this fragment is known to form tetramers in aqueous solution and in this manner we hoped to mimick the natural configuration of M2e as presented in membranes. M2e-NSP4 was then evaluated side-by-side with synthetic M2e peptide for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine influenza challenge model. Here we demonstrate that M2e fused to the tetramerizing protein induces an accelerated, augmented and more broadly reactive antibody response than does M2e peptide as measured in two different assays. Most importantly, vaccination with M2e-NSP4 caused a significant decrease in lung virus load early after challenge with influenza A virus and maintained its efficacy against a lethal challenge even at very low vaccine doses. Based on the results presented in this study M2e-NSP4 merits further investigation as a candidate for or as a component of a universal influenza A vaccine.
PLoS ONE 10/2012; 7(10):e46395. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0046395 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Th17 cells are increasingly being recognized as an important T helper subset for immune-mediated protection, especially against pathogens at mucosal ports of entry. In several cases, it would thus be highly relevant to induce Th17 memory by vaccination. Th17 cells are reported to exhibit high plasticity and may not stably maintain their differentiation program once induced, questioning the possibility of inducing durable Th17 memory. Accordingly, there is no consensus as to whether Th17 memory can be established unless influenced by continuous Th17 polarizing conditions. We have previously reported (T. Lindenstrøm, et al., J. Immunol. 182:8047-8055, 2009) that the cationic liposome adjuvant CAF01 can prime both Th1 and Th17 responses and promote robust, long-lived Th1 memory. Here, we demonstrate that subunit vaccination in mice with CAF01 leads to establishment of bona fide Th17 memory cells. Accordingly, Th17 memory cells exhibited lineage stability by retaining both phenotypic and functional properties for nearly 2 years. Antigen-specific, long-term Th17 memory cells were found to be mobilized from lung-draining lymph nodes to the lung following an aerosol challenge by Mycobacterium tuberculosis nearly 2 years after their induction and proliferated at levels comparable to those of Th1 memory cells. During the infection, the vaccine-induced Th17 memory cells expanded in the lungs and adapted Th1 characteristics, implying that they represent a metastable population which exhibits plasticity when exposed to prolonged Th1 polarizing, inflammatory conditions such as those found in the M. tuberculosis-infected lung. In the absence of overt inflammation, however, stable bona fide Th17 memory can indeed be induced by parenteral immunization.
Infection and immunity 07/2012; 80(10):3533-44. DOI:10.1128/IAI.00550-12 · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adjuvants are often composed of different constituents that can be divided into two groups based on their primary activity: the delivery system which carries and presents the vaccine antigen to antigen-presenting cells, and the immunostimulator that activates and modulates the ensuing immune response. Herein, we have investigated the importance of the delivery system and in particular its physical characteristics by comparing the delivery properties of two lipids which differ only in the degree of saturation of the acyl chains, rendering the liposomes either rigid (DDA, dimethyldioctadecylammonium) or highly fluid (DODA, dimethyldioleoylammonium) at physiological temperature. We show that these delivery systems are remarkably different in their ability to prime a Th1-directed immune response with the rigid DDA-based liposomes inducing a response more than 100 times higher compared to that obtained with the fluid DODA-based liposomes. Upon injection with a vaccine antigen, DDA-based liposomes form a vaccine depot that results in a continuous attraction of antigen-presenting cells that engulf a high amount of adjuvant and are subsequently efficiently activated as measured by an elevated expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86. In contrast, the fluid DODA-based liposomes are more rapidly removed from the site of injection resulting in a lower up-regulation of co-stimulatory CD40 and CD86 molecules on adjuvant-positive antigen-presenting cells. Additionally, the vaccine antigen is readily dissociated from the DODA-based liposomes leading to a population of antigen-presenting cells that are antigen-positive but adjuvant-negative and consequently are not activated. These studies demonstrate the importance of studying in vivo characteristics of the vaccine components and furthermore show that physicochemical properties of the delivery system have a major impact on the vaccine-induced immune response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The self-sufficient autotransporter (AT) pathway, ubiquitous in Gram-negative bacteria, combines a relatively simple protein secretion mechanism with a high transport capacity. ATs consist of a secreted passenger domain and a β-domain that facilitates transfer of the passenger across the cell-envelope. They have a great potential for the extracellular expression of recombinant proteins but their exploitation has suffered from the limited structural knowledge of carrier ATs. Capitalizing on its crystal structure, we have engineered the Escherichia coli AT Hemoglobin protease (Hbp) into a platform for the secretion and surface display of heterologous proteins, using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine target ESAT6 as a model protein.
Based on the Hbp crystal structure, five passenger side domains were selected and one by one replaced by ESAT6, whereas a β-helical core structure (β-stem) was left intact. The resulting Hbp-ESAT6 chimeras were efficiently and stably secreted into the culture medium of E. coli. On the other hand, Hbp-ESAT6 fusions containing a truncated β-stem appeared unstable after translocation, demonstrating the importance of an intact β-stem. By interrupting the cleavage site between passenger and β-domain, Hbp-ESAT6 display variants were constructed that remain cell associated and facilitate efficient surface exposure of ESAT6 as judged by proteinase K accessibility and whole cell immuno-EM analysis. Upon replacement of the passenger side domain of an alternative AT, EspC, ESAT6 was also efficiently secreted, showing the approach is more generally applicable to ATs. Furthermore, Hbp-ESAT6 was efficiently displayed in an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain upon chromosomal integration of a single encoding gene copy, demonstrating the potential of the Hbp platform for live vaccine development.
We developed the first structurally informed AT platform for efficient secretion and surface display of heterologous proteins. The platform has potential with regard to the development of recombinant live vaccines and may be useful for other biotechnological applications that require high-level secretion or display of recombinant proteins by bacteria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a veterinary student I always felt misplaced. Not until I attended a course in immunology did I really feel the urge and drive to dive into the matter. Almost by coincidence, as a brand new candidate, I had the fortune to get a position in Tuberculosis vaccine research, and never since have I doubted that it was the right choice for me. Since then I have been driven by scientific curiosity and the prospects of generating results that can be used for products for which there is a real need.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dendritic cell (DC) targeting/activation patterns required to elicit Th1/Th17 responses remain undefined. One postulated requirement was that of a physical linkage between Ags and immunomodulators. Accordingly, the separate same-site administration of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (hybrid-1 protein; H1), a mycobacterial fusion Ag, and the CAF01 liposome-based adjuvant induced similar Ab and weak Th2 responses as those of coformulated H1/CAF01 but failed to elicit Th1/Th17 responses. Yet, this separate same-site injection generated the same type and number of activated Ag(+)/adjuvant(+) DCs in the draining lymph nodes (LN) as that of protective H1/CAF01 immunization. Thus, targeting/activating the same DC population by Ag and adjuvant is not sufficient to elicit Th1/Th17 responses. To identify the determinants of Th1/Th17 adjuvanticity, in vivo tracking experiments using fluorescently labeled Ag and adjuvant identified that a separate same-site administration elicits an additional early Ag(+)/adjuvant(-) DC population with a nonactivated phenotype, resulting from the earlier targeting of LN DCs by H1 than by CAF01 molecules. This asynchronous targeting pattern was mimicked by the injection of free H1 prior to or with, but not after, H1/CAF01 or H1/CpG/ aluminum hydroxide immunization. The injection of soluble OVA similarly prevented the induction of Th1 responses by OVA/CAF01. Using adoptively transferred OT-2 cells, we show that the Ag targeting of LN DCs prior to their activation generates nonactivated Ag-pulsed DCs that recruit Ag-specific T cells, trigger their initial proliferation, but interfere with Th1 induction in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the synchronization of DC targeting and activation is a critical determinant for Th1/Th17 adjuvanticity.
The Journal of Immunology 04/2012; 188(10):4828-37. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1103183 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purified protein derivative (PPD) has served as a safe and effective diagnostic reagent for 60 years and is the only broadly available material to diagnose latent tuberculosis infections. This reagent is also used as a standard control for a number of in vitro immunological assays. Nevertheless, the molecular composition and specific products that contribute to the extraordinary immunological reactivity of PPD are poorly defined. Here, a proteomic approach was applied to elucidate the gene products in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) standard PPD-S2. Many known Mycobacterium tuberculosis T-cell antigens were detected. Of significance, four heat shock proteins (HSPs) (GroES, GroEL2, HspX, and DnaK) dominated the composition of PPD. The chaperone activities and capacity of these proteins to influence immunological responses may explain the exquisite solubility and immunological potency of PPD. Spectral counting analysis of three separate PPD reagents revealed significant quantitative variances. Gross delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in M. tuberculosis infected guinea pigs were comparable among these PPD preparations; however, detailed histopathology of the DTH lesions exposed unique differences, which may be explained by the variability observed in the presence and abundance of early secretory system (Esx) proteins. Variability in PPD reagents may explain differences in DTH responses reported among populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is estimated that one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection typically remains latent, but it can reactivate to cause clinical disease. The only vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), is largely ineffective, and ways to enhance its efficacy are being developed. Of note, the candidate booster vaccines currently under clinical development have been designed to improve BCG efficacy but not prevent reactivation of latent infection. Here, we demonstrate that administering a multistage vaccine that we term H56 in the adjuvant IC31 as a boost to vaccination with BCG delays and reduces clinical disease in cynomolgus macaques challenged with M. tuberculosis and prevents reactivation of latent infection. H56 contains Ag85B and ESAT-6, which are two of the M. tuberculosis antigens secreted in the acute phase of infection, and the nutrient stress-induced antigen Rv2660c. Boosting with H56/IC31 resulted in efficient containment of M. tuberculosis infection and reduced rates of clinical disease, as measured by clinical parameters, inflammatory markers, and improved survival of the animals compared with BCG alone. Boosted animals showed reduced pulmonary pathology and extrapulmonary dissemination, and protection correlated with a strong recall response against ESAT-6 and Rv2660c. Importantly, BCG/H56-vaccinated monkeys did not reactivate latent infection after treatment with anti-TNF antibody. Our results indicate that H56/IC31 boosting is able to control late-stage infection with M. tuberculosis and contain latent tuberculosis, providing a rationale for the clinical development of H56.
The Journal of clinical investigation 12/2011; 122(1):303-14. DOI:10.1172/JCI46252 · 13.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considerable effort has been put into targeting tumors through therapeutic vaccination using dendritic cell-, DNA-, protein-, or peptide-based vaccines. Purified peptides and proteins are generally not immunogenic and need to be administered with an adjuvant that will trigger an appropriate immune response. Safe adjuvants that favor induction of tumor reactive CD8(+) T cells with the capacity to directly kill tumor cells are therefore a high priority. We have previously reported on the effect and mechanism of a cationic adjuvant formulation, CAF01, which incorporates synthetic mycobacterial cord factor and primes protective Th1, Th17, and antibody responses in animal models of bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. The CAF01 adjuvant is currently in clinical trial. Using CAF01 as a backbone, we recently demonstrated that incorporating the TLR3 ligand polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] primes CD8(+) T cells specific to the SIINFEKL epitope of the model antigen ovalbumin. In the present study, we demonstrate that CAF01/poly(I:C), termed cationic adjuvant formulation 05 or CAF05, can induce CD8(+) T cells that efficiently lyse target cells and significantly reduce tumor growth in two different mouse tumor models: lung B16-OVA melanoma expressing ovalbumin and the self-antigen TRP2, and subcutaneous TC-1 tumors expressing the human papillomavirus-16 protein E7.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 11/2011; 61(6):893-903. DOI:10.1007/s00262-011-1156-6 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), but has varied efficacy in different geographical locations. Recombinant strategies to genetically modify the organism to enhance the quality of the immune response have aimed at improving BCG efficacy. Here we describe such a strategy using rBCGΔureC∷hly expressing defined latency-associated antigens and test this construct for long-term protection against an isolate of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Beijing/W lineage. Expression of the antigens Rv2659c, Rv3407 and Rv1733c by rBCGΔureC∷hly improved long-term efficacy in both lung and spleen at day 200 post-infection after intradermal vaccination of mice. Our data support expression of Mtb latency associated antigens by rBCG to improve protection against Mtb.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIV) against influenza are given to 350 million people every year. Most of these are non-adjuvanted vaccines whose immunogenicity and protective efficacy are considered suboptimal. Commercially available non-adjuvanted TIV are known to elicit mainly a humoral immune response, whereas the induction of cell-mediated immune responses is negligible. Recently, a cationic liposomal adjuvant (dimethyldioctadecylammonium/trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate, CAF01) was developed. CAF01 has proven to enhance both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to a number of different experimental vaccine candidates. In this study, we compared the immune responses in ferrets to a commercially available TIV with the responses to the same vaccine mixed with the CAF01 adjuvant. Two recently circulating H1N1 viruses were used as challenge to test the vaccine efficacy. CAF01 improved the immunogenicity of the vaccine, with increased influenza-specific IgA and IgG levels. Additionally, CAF01 promoted cellular-mediated immunity as indicated by interferon-gamma expressing lymphocytes, measured by flow cytometry. CAF01 also enhanced the protection conferred by the vaccine by reducing the viral load measured in nasal washes by RT-PCR. Finally, CAF01 allowed for dose-reduction and led to higher levels of protection compared to TIV adjuvanted with a squalene emulsion. The data obtained in this human-relevant challenge model supports the potential of CAF01 in future influenza vaccines.
PLoS ONE 08/2011; 6(8):e22891. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0022891 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic immunization of HIV-1-infected individuals with or without anti-retroviral therapy is a new promising disease prevention. To induce a new cytotoxic T(CD8) lymphocyte (CTL) immunity during chronic HIV-1 infection 15 infrequently targeted but conserved HLA-supertype binding CTL epitopes from Gag, Pol, Nef, Env, Vpu and Vif were identified. The 15 T(CD8) and three T(CD4) helper peptides were GMP synthesised and formulated with a new adjuvant CAF01 which is a synthetic two-component liposomic adjuvant comprising the quaternary ammonium dimethyl-dioctadecyl-ammonium (DDA) and the immune modulator trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB). Using IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, T-cell immune induction by the vaccine was found to both CD4 and CD8 T-cell restricted peptides in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. Comprehensive toxicity studies of the CAF01 adjuvant-alone and together with different vaccines showed that CAF01 when tested at human dose levels was safe and well tolerated with only local inflammation at the site of injection and no systemic reactions. No pharmacological safety issues were observed in Beagle dogs. The HIV-1 vaccine toxicity study in the Göttingen Minipig(®) showed no systemic toxicity from five repetitive i.m. injections, each with a 2-week interval, of either the 18 HIV-1 peptide antigen solution (AFO18) or the AFO18-CAF01, in which the 18 HIV-1 peptides were formulated with the CAF01 adjuvant. Distinct inflammatory responses were observed in the injected muscles of the AFO18-CAF01 vaccine treated animals as a result of the immune stimulating effect of the adjuvant on the vaccine. The results of the toxicity studies provide optimism for phase I clinical trials evaluating the therapeutic HIV-1 T-cell vaccination approach using multiple subdominant minimal epitope peptides applying the novel cationic adjuvant CAF01.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent pandemic caused by new influenza A (H1N1) has emphasized the need for improved influenza vaccines with enhanced immune responses that ideally include longlived humoral and CMI responses and mediate a broad protection. This study demonstrates that administration of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) with the cationic liposome adjuvant system CAF01 enhances the humoral immune response as measured by hemagglutinin inhibition titers and influenza-specific serum antibody titers, and promote a strong Th1 response with augmented levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Furthermore, high levels of IL-17 are detected in agreement with CAF01's ability to promote TH17 responses. Importantly, the Th1/Th17 cytokine profile is still maintained 20 weeks after the last vaccination. The CAF01 adjuvanted influenza vaccine reduces weight loss and temperature decrease and results in complete survival of mice challenged with the drifted H1N1 influenza strain A/PR/8/34. Overall, the results suggest that CAF01 is a potent adjuvant system for future, improved influenza vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is diagnosed in naturally infected populations exposed to a wide variety of other pathogens. This study describes the cell-mediated immune responses of cattle exposed to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium with particular reference to routine antefmortem Mycobacterium bovis diagnostic tests. The IFN-γ released in response to stimulated blood was found to peak later in the Map-exposed group and was more sustained when compared to the Maa-exposed group. There was a very close correlation between the responses to the purified protein derivatives (PPD) used for stimulation (PPDa, PPDb, and PPDj) with PPDa and PPDj most closely correlated. On occasion, in the Map-infected cattle, PPDb-biased responses were seen compared to PPDa suggesting that some Map-infected cattle could be misclassified as M. bovis infected using this test with these reagents. This bias was not seen when PPDj was used. SICCT results were consistent with the respective infections and all calves would have been classed skin test negative.
Veterinary Medicine International 06/2011; 2011(3):145092. DOI:10.4061/2011/145092