[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
A suggested benefit of sublobar resection for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared to lobectomy is a relative preservation of pulmonary function. Very little objective data exist, however, supporting this supposition. We sought to evaluate the relative impact of both anatomic segmental and lobar resection on pulmonary function in patients with resected clinical stage I NSCLC.
The records of 159 disease-free patients who underwent anatomic segmentectomy (n = 89) and lobectomy (n = 70) for the treatment of stage I NSCLC with pre- and postoperative pulmonary function tests performed between 6 to 36 months after resection were retrospectively reviewed. Changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) were analyzed based upon the number of anatomic pulmonary segments removed: 1–2 segments (n = 77) or 3–5 segments (n = 82).
Preoperative pulmonary function was worse in the lesser resection cohort (1–2 segments) compared to the greater resection group (3–5 segments) (FEV1(%predicted): 79% vs. 85%, p = 0.038; DLCO(%predicted): 63% vs. 73%, p = 0.010). A greater decline in FEV1 was noted in patients undergoing resection of 3–5 segments (FEV1 (observed): 0.1 L vs. 0.3 L, p = 0.003; and FEV1 (% predicted): 4.3% vs. 8.2%, p = 0.055). Changes in DLCO followed this same trend (DLCO(observed): 1.3 vs. 2.4 mL/min/mmHg, p = 0.015; and DLCO(% predicted): 3.6% vs. 5.9%, p = 0.280).
Parenchymal-sparing resections resulted in better preservation of pulmonary function at a median of one year, suggesting a long-term functional benefit with small anatomic segmental resections (1–2 segments). Prospective studies to evaluate measurable functional changes, as well as quality of life, between segmentectomy and lobectomy with a larger patient cohort appear justified.
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 12/2015; 10(1). DOI:10.1186/s13019-015-0253-6 · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
A significant number of patients have recurrent or persistent lung cancer despite complete resection or treatment with definitive chemoradiation. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS)/stereotactic body radiation therapy is emerging as an important modality for the treatment of early-stage lung neoplasm; SRS may also offer an alternative treatment option for patients with recurrent lung disease. We evaluated outcomes after treatment with SRS for recurrent lung neoplasm in a large series of patients.
Selected patients with limited recurrent, persistent, or progressive disease after one or more prior treatments for lung cancer were offered SRS. Thoracic surgeons evaluated all patients, placed fiducials when needed, and planned treatment in close collaboration with radiation oncologists and medical physicists. In our early experience, a single fraction of 20 Gy radiation was prescribed and was subsequently increased to 45 to 60 Gy in three to five fractions. The primary endpoint evaluated was overall survival.
We treated 100 patients with recurrent lung cancer (median age 72 years) with SRS. The postprocedure 30-day mortality rate was 0%; median follow-up was 51 months (range, 5 to 123). The median overall survival for the entire group was 23 months (95% confidence interval: 19 to 41). The probability of 2-year and 5-year overall survival was 49% (95% confidence interval: 40% to 60%) and 31% (95% confidence interval: 23% to 43%), respectively.
Our experience indicates that SRS is safe, and offers an alternative modality for selected patients with recurrent oligometastatic or persistent lung cancer. Thoracic surgeons should actively participate in SRS and continue to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment strategy.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.04.113 · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Thoracic esophageal diverticula are uncommon, and controversies exist regarding their management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of a relatively large cohort of patients with thoracic esophageal diverticula treated with minimally invasive surgical techniques.
We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent minimally invasive surgical treatment for symptomatic esophageal diverticula during a 15-year period. The primary end point was 30-day mortality. In addition, we evaluated the morbidity, improvement in dysphagia (score: 1, best to 5, worst), and quality of life (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health-Related Quality of Life score: 0, best to 50, most symptoms).
Fifty-seven patients underwent minimally invasive surgical treatment of symptomatic thoracic esophageal diverticula. The most common symptom was dysphagia (45 of 57; 79%). A motility disorder or distal mechanical obstruction was identified in 49 patients (86%). Approaches used included video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (n = 33), laparoscopy (n = 18), and combined video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and laparoscopy (n = 6). The most common procedure performed was diverticulectomy and myotomy (47 of 57 patients; 82.5%). The 30-day mortality was 0%. There were 4 patients (7%) with postoperative leaks requiring reoperation. During follow-up, the median dysphagia score improved from 3 to 1 (p < 0.001). The median Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health-Related Quality of Life score after surgery was 5 (excellent).
A minimally invasive surgical approach for the management of thoracic esophageal diverticula is safe and effective during intermediate-term follow-up when performed by surgeons experienced in esophageal surgery and minimally invasive techniques. Further follow-up is required to assess the durability of these results. The optimal approach and procedures performed should be determined on an individualized basis after a thorough investigation.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 09/2015; 100(5). DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.04.122 · 3.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
Accurate cancer localization and negative resection margins are necessary for successful segmentectomy. In this study, we evaluate a newly developed software package that permits automated segmentation of the pulmonary parenchyma, allowing 3-dimensional assessment of tumor size, location, and estimates of surgical margins.
A pilot study using a newly developed 3-dimensional computed tomography analytic software package was performed to retrospectively evaluate preoperative computed tomography images of patients who underwent segmentectomy (n = 36) or lobectomy (n = 15) for stage 1 non-small cell lung cancer. The software accomplishes an automated reconstruction of anatomic pulmonary segments of the lung based on bronchial arborization. Estimates of anticipated surgical margins and pulmonary segmental volume were made on the basis of 3-dimensional reconstruction.
Autosegmentation was achieved in 72.7% (32/44) of preoperative computed tomography images with slice thicknesses of 3 mm or less. Reasons for segmentation failure included local severe emphysema or pneumonitis, and lower computed tomography resolution. Tumor segmental localization was achieved in all autosegmented studies. The 3-dimensional computed tomography analysis provided a positive predictive value of 87% in predicting a marginal clearance greater than 1 cm and a 75% positive predictive value in predicting a margin to tumor diameter ratio greater than 1 in relation to the surgical pathology assessment.
This preoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography analysis of segmental anatomy can confirm the tumor location within an anatomic segment and aid in predicting surgical margins. This 3-dimensional computed tomography information may assist in the preoperative assessment regarding the suitability of segmentectomy for peripheral lung cancers.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 08/2015; 150(3):523-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2015.06.051 · 4.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously regarded as a rare neoplasm, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has risen rapidly in recent decades. It is often discovered late in the disease process and has a dismal prognosis. Current prognostic markers including clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings have limited utility and do not consider the biology of this deadly disease. Genome-wide analyses have identified SMAD4 inactivation in a subset of tumors. Although Smad4 has been extensively studied in other gastrointestinal malignancies, its role in esophageal adenocarcinoma remains to be defined. Herein, we show, in a large cohort of esophageal adenocarcinomas, Smad4 loss by immunohistochemistry in 21 of 205 (10%) tumors and that Smad4 loss correlated with increased postoperative recurrence (P=0.040). Further, patients whose tumors lacked Smad4 had shorter time to recurrence (TTR) (P=0.007) and poor overall survival (OS) (P=0.011). The median TTR and OS of patients with Smad4-negative tumors was 13 and 16 months, respectively, as compared with 23 and 22 months, respectively, among patients with Smad4-positive tumors. In multivariate analyses, Smad4 loss was a prognostic factor for both TTR and OS, independent of histologic grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, tumor stage, and lymph node status. Considering Smad4 loss correlated with postoperative locoregional and/or distant metastases, Smad4 was also assessed in a separate cohort of 5 locoregional recurrences and 43 metastatic esophageal adenocarcinomas. In contrast to primary tumors, a higher prevalence of Smad4 loss was observed in metastatic disease (44% vs. 10%). In summary, loss of Smad4 protein expression is an independent prognostic factor for TTR and OS that correlates with increased propensity for disease recurrence and poor survival in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma after surgical resection.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology 01/2015; 39(4). DOI:10.1097/PAS.0000000000000356 · 5.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this trial was to assess the feasibility of minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) in a multi-institutional setting.
Esophagectomy is an important, potentially curative treatment for localized esophageal cancer, but is a complex operation. MIE may decrease the morbidity and mortality of resection, and single-institution studies have demonstrated successful outcomes with MIE.
We conducted a multicenter, phase II, prospective, cooperative group study (coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) to evaluate the feasibility of MIE. Patients with biopsy-proven high-grade dysplasia or esophageal cancer were enrolled at 17 credentialed sites. Protocol surgery consisted of either 3-stage MIE or Ivor Lewis MIE. The primary end point was 30-day mortality. Secondary end points included adverse events, duration of hospital-stay, and 3-year outcomes.
Protocol surgery was completed in 95 of the 104 patients eligible for the primary analysis (91.3%). The 30-day mortality in eligible patients who underwent MIE was 2.1%; perioperative mortality in all registered patients eligible for primary analysis was 2.9%. Median intensive care unit and hospital stay were 2 and 9 days, respectively. Grade 3 or higher adverse events included anastomotic leak (8.6%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (5.7%), pneumonitis (3.8%), and atrial fibrillation (2.9%). At a median follow-up of 35.8 months, the estimated 3-year overall survival was 58.4% (95% confidence interval: 47.7%-67.6%). Locoregional recurrence occurred in only 7 patients (6.7%).
This prospective multicenter study demonstrated that MIE is feasible and safe with low perioperative morbidity and mortality and good oncological results. This approach can be adopted by other centers with appropriate expertise in open esophagectomy and minimally invasive surgery.
Annals of surgery 01/2015; 261(4). DOI:10.1097/SLA.0000000000000993 · 8.33 Impact Factor