[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phenotypic modulation or switching of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC) from contractile/quiescent to a proliferative/synthetic phenotype plays a key role in vascular proliferative disorders, such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Although several calcium handling proteins that control differentiation of SMCs have been identified, the role of protein phosphatase inhibitor 1 (I-1) in the acquisition and/or maintenance of the contractile phenotype modulation remain unknown.
In human coronary arteries, I-1 and Sarco/endoplasmic Reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) expression is specific to contractile VSMCs. In synthetic cultured human coronary artery SMC (hCASMCs), protein phosphatase inhibitor 1 (PP1; I-1 target) is highly expressed, leading to a decrease in Phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation, SERCA2 and cAMP Responsive Element Binding (CREB) activity. I-1 knock-out mice lack PLB phosphorylation and exhibit VSMC arrest in the synthetic state with excessive neointimal proliferation following carotid injury, and significant modifications of contractile properties and relaxant response to acetylcholine (ACh) of femoral artery in vivo. Constitutively active I-1 (I-1c) gene transfer decreased neointimal formation in an angioplasty rat model by preventing VSMC contractile to synthetic phenotype change CONCLUSIONS: I-1 and SERCA2a synergistically induce the VSMC contractile phenotype. Gene transfer of I-1c is a promising therapeutic strategy for preventing vascular proliferative disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS: our aim was to identify new miRNAs implicated in pathological vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation and characterize their mechanism of action. METHODS AND RESULTS: miRNA microarray and qRT-PCR results lead us to focus on miR-424 or its rat ortholog miR-322 (miR-424/322). In vitro mir-424/322 level was decreased shortly after induction of proliferation and increased in a time-dependent manner later on. In vivo its expression increased in the rat carotid artery from day 4 up to day 30 after injury. MiR-424/322 overexpression in vitro inhibited proliferation and migration without affecting apoptosis and prevented VSMC dedifferentiation. Furthermore miR-424/322 overexpression resulted in decreased expression of its predicted targets: cyclin D1 and Ca2+-regulating proteins calumenin and stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1). Using reporter luciferase assays we confirmed that cyclin D1 and calumenin mRNAs were direct targets of miR-322 whereas miR-322 effect on STIM1 was indirect. Nevertheless consistent with decreased STIM1 level, the store operated Ca2+ entry was reduced. We hypothesized that miR-424/322 could be a negative regulator of proliferation overridden in pathological situations. Thus we overexpressed miR-424/322 in injured rat carotid arteries using an adenovirus and demonstrated a protective effect against restenosis. CONCLUSIONS: our results demonstrate that miR-424/322 is up-regulated after vascular injury. This is likely an adaptive response to counteract proliferation although this mechanism is overwhelmed in pathological situations such as injury-induced restenosis.
Cardiovascular research 02/2013; · 5.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac hypertrophy and vascular proliferative diseases are associated with major alterations in calcium homeostasis and calcium signaling. The recent discovery of STIM and Orai has generated great enthusiasm concerning the role of these proteins in the cardiovascular system. We will review the major results concerning the existence and the role of these proteins in the cardiovascular system in normal and pathological situations and their implication in cardiovascular remodeling.
Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition) 01/2013; S5:766-773.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: Plasticity Related Gene-1 (PRG-1) protects neuronal cells from lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) effects. In vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), LPA was shown to induce phenotypic modulation in vitro and vascular remodeling in vivo. Thus, we explored the role of PRG-1 in modulating VSMC response to LPA. Methods and results: PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence experiments showed that PRG-1 is expressed in rat and human vascular media. PRG-1 expression was strongly inhibited in proliferating as compared with quiescent VSMCs both in vitro and in vivo (medial versus neointimal VSMCs) suggesting that PRG-1 expression is dependent on the cell phenotype. In vitro, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PRG-1 specifically inhibited LPA-induced rat VSMC proliferation and migration but not platelet-derived growth factor-induced proliferation. This effect was abolished by mutation of a conserved histidine in the LPP family which is essential for interaction with lipid phosphates. In vivo, balloon-induced neointimal formation in rat carotid was significantly decreased in vessels infected with PRG-1 adenovirus as compared with beta-galactosidase adenovirus (-71%, P<0.05). PRG-1 overexpression abolished the activation of the p42/p44 signalling pathway in LPA-stimulated rat VSMCs in culture and in balloon-injured rat carotids. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence of a protective role of PRG-1 in the vascular media under pathophysiological conditions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac gene transfer is a powerful molecular tool to improve our understanding of the role of new proteins and mutants in cardiac pathophysiology. There is a need for a simple efficient myocardial gene delivery technique in order to study the physiological role of proteins in their native environment. Here we tested a new method of myocardial nonviral gene delivery, by using the combination of ultrasound energy (USE), liposomes and high pressure injections to the rat heart. Wistar rats were subjected to intra-myocardial injections of liposomes-DNA or siRNA mix. The heart was exposed after an inter-costal incision, and then injections were conducted between two sets of USE heart exposure. Ultrasound application resulted in much higher transfection efficiency (2% of left ventricle) than the liposomes-DNA alone (0.12% of left ventricle) as shown by the beta-galactosidase staining. The ultrasonic based liposomes-DNA delivery resulted in low inflammatory response, as well as in low cardiac fibrosis as shown by total collagen staining. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that the ultrasonic delivery resulted in cardiac specific transduction. Moreover, 23,906±2197 and 71,883±4065 calcium tolerant transfected cardiac myocytes were isolated following the delivery of a GFP plasmid or tagged siRNA, respectively. This was sufficient to perform single cell physiological measurements and biochemical experiments on homogenates. We developed an interesting safe method for local gene transfer in the heart using ultrasound and liposomes gene delivery. This method is particularly useful to study the effect of gene transfer on cardiac myocytes maintained in their normal environment in animal models.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2012; · 5.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, we assessed whether SERPINE1 expression could be under the influence of microRNAs (miRNAs) predicted to bind the SERPINE1 3'UTR region. We specifically focused on the 3'UTR region harboring a common polymorphism, rs1050955, that have been found associated to SERPINE1 monocyte expression, and investigated whether the presence of different alleles at rs1050955 could modify the miRNAs binding efficiency and affect PAI-1 protein levels. We demonstrated that, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, both miR-421 and miR-30c directly interacted with PAI-1 mRNA to inhibit the expression of the associated protein. However, these inhibitory mechanisms were independent on the allele present at the rs1050955 locus. We further showed that miR-421 levels correlated with PAI-1 activity in the plasma sample of 40 patients with venous thrombosis. Our results strongly suggest that the regulation of PAI-1 molecule could be under the influence of several miRNAs whose measurement in the plasma of patients could be envisaged as a biomarker for inflammatory and thrombotic disorders.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e44532. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclic variations in calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations, through a process called excitation-contraction coupling, allow regulation of vascular smooth muscle cells contractility and thus modulation of vascular tone and blood pressure. As a second messenger, Ca(2+) also activates signaling cascades leading to transcription factors activation in a process called excitation-transcription coupling. Furthermore, recent evidences indicate an interaction between post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) and Ca(2+) signaling. All these actors, which are frequently altered in vascular diseases, will be reviewed here.
Advances in experimental medicine and biology 01/2012; 740:795-810. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicate that members of the multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) family belonging to ATP binding cassette type C (ABCC) membrane proteins extrude cyclic nucleotides from various cell types. This study aimed to determine whether MRP proteins regulate cardiac cAMP homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that MRP4 is the predominant isoform present at the plasma membrane of cardiacmyocytes and that it mediates the efflux of cAMP in these cells. MRP4-deficient mice displayed enhanced cardiac myocyte cAMP formation, contractility, and cardiac hypertrophy at 9 mo of age, an effect that was compensated transiently by increased phosphodiesterase expression at young age. These findings suggest that cAMP extrusion via MRP4 acts together with phosphodiesterases to control cAMP levels in cardiac myocytes.
The FASEB Journal 11/2011; 26(3):1009-17. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiomyocytes use Ca2+ not only in excitation-contraction coupling but also as a signaling molecule promoting, for example, cardiac hypertrophy. It is largely unclear how Ca2+ triggers signaling in cardiomyocytes in the presence of the rapid and large Ca2+ fluctuations that occur during excitation-contraction coupling. A potential route is store-operated Ca2+ entry, a drug-inducible mechanism for Ca2+ signaling that requires stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). Store-operated Ca2+ entry can also be induced in cardiomyocytes, which prompted us to study STIM1-dependent Ca2+ entry with respect to cardiac hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo.
Consistent with earlier reports, we found drug-inducible store-operated Ca2+ entry in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, which was dependent on STIM1. Although this STIM1-dependent, drug-inducible store-operated Ca2+ entry was only marginal in adult cardiomyocytes isolated from control hearts, it increased significantly in cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rats that had developed compensated cardiac hypertrophy after abdominal aortic banding. Moreover, we detected an inwardly rectifying current in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes that occurs under native conditions (i.e., in the absence of drug-induced store depletion) and is dependent on STIM1. By manipulating its expression, we found STIM1 to be both sufficient and necessary for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro and in the adult heart in vivo. Stim1 silencing by adeno-associated viruses of serotype 9-mediated gene transfer protected rats from pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.
By controlling a previously unrecognized sarcolemmal current, STIM1 promotes cardiac hypertrophy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial ischemic disease is the major cause of death worldwide. After myocardial infarction, reperfusion of infracted heart has been an important objective of strategies to improve outcomes. However, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is characterized by inflammation, arrhythmias, cardiomyocyte damage, and, at the cellular level, disturbance in Ca(2+) and redox homeostasis. In this study, we sought to determine how acute inflammatory response contributes to reperfusion injury and Ca(2+) homeostasis disturbance after acute ischemia. Using a rat model of I/R, we show that circulating levels of TNF-α and cardiac caspase-8 activity were increased within 6 h of reperfusion, leading to myocardial nitric oxide and mitochondrial ROS production. At 1 and 15 d after reperfusion, caspase-8 activation resulted in S-nitrosylation of the RyR2 and depletion of calstabin2 from the RyR2 complex, resulting in diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) leak. Pharmacological inhibition of caspase-8 before reperfusion with Q-LETD-OPh or prevention of calstabin2 depletion from the RyR2 complex with the Ca(2+) channel stabilizer S107 ("rycal") inhibited the SR Ca(2+) leak, reduced ventricular arrhythmias, infarct size, and left ventricular remodeling after 15 d of reperfusion. TNF-α-induced caspase-8 activation leads to leaky RyR2 channels that contribute to myocardial remodeling after I/R. Thus, early prevention of SR Ca(2+) leak trough normalization of RyR2 function is cardioprotective.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2011; 108(32):13258-63. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4, also known as Abcc4) regulates intracellular levels of cAMP and cGMP in arterial SMCs. Here, we report our studies of the role of MRP4 in the development and progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a severe vascular disease characterized by chronically elevated pulmonary artery pressure and accompanied by remodeling of the small pulmonary arteries as a prelude to right heart failure and premature death. MRP4 expression was increased in pulmonary arteries from patients with idiopathic PAH as well as in WT mice exposed to hypoxic conditions. Consistent with a pathogenic role for MRP4 in PAH, WT mice exposed to hypoxia for 3 weeks showed reversal of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (PH) following oral administration of the MRP4 inhibitor MK571, and Mrp4-/- mice were protected from hypoxic PH. Inhibition of MRP4 in vitro was accompanied by increased intracellular cAMP and cGMP levels and PKA and PKG activities, implicating cyclic nucleotide-related signaling pathways in the mechanism underlying the protective effects of MRP4 inhibition. Our data suggest that MRP4 could represent a potential target for therapeutic intervention in PAH.
The Journal of clinical investigation 06/2011; 121(7):2888-97. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wound healing after angioplasty or stenting is associated with increased production of thrombin and the activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1). The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a new selective PAR1 antagonist, 2-[5-oxo-5-(4-pyridin-2-ylpiperazin-1-yl)-penta-1,3-dienyl]-benzonitrile (F 16618), in restenosis and vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration using both in vivo and in vitro approaches. Daily oral administration of F 16618 inhibited the restenosis induced by balloon angioplasty on rat carotid artery in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, single intravenous administration of F 16618 during the angioplasty procedure was sufficient to protect the carotid artery against restenosis. In vitro, F 16618 inhibited the growth of human aortic SMCs in a concentration-dependent manner with maximal effects at 10 μM. At that concentration, F 16618 also prevented thrombin-mediated SMC migration. In vivo, oral and intravenous F 16618 treatments reduced by 30 and 50% the expression of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) 24 h after angioplasty. However, only acute intravenous administration prevented the induction of matrix metalloproteinase 7 expression. In contrast, F 16618 treatments had no effect on early SMC de-differentiation and transcription of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 and late re-endothelialization of injured arteries. Furthermore, F 16618 compensated for the carotid endothelium loss by inhibiting PAR1-mediated contraction. Altogether, these data demonstrate that PAR1 antagonists such as F 16618 are a highly effective treatment of restenosis after vascular injury, by inhibition of TNFα, matrix metalloproteinase 7, and SMC migration and proliferation in addition to an antithrombotic effect.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 03/2011; 336(3):643-51. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In blood vessels, tone is maintained by agonist-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations of quiescent/contractile vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, in synthetic/proliferative VSMCs, Gq/phosphoinositide receptor-coupled agonists trigger a steady-state increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) followed by a Store Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE) which translates into activation of the proliferation-associated transcription factor NFAT. Here, we report that in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (hCASMCs), the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase type 2a (SERCA2a) expressed in the contractile form of the hCASMCs, controls the nature of the agonist-induced Ca(2+) transient and the resulting down-stream signaling pathway. Indeed, restoring SERCA2a expression by gene transfer in synthetic hCASMCs 1) increased Ca(2+) storage capacity; 2) modified agonist-induced IP(3)R Ca(2+) release from steady-state to oscillatory mode (the frequency of agonist-induced IP(3)R Ca(2+) signal was 11.66 ± 1.40/100 s in SERCA2a-expressing cells (n=39) vs 1.37 ± 0.20/100 s in control cells (n=45), p<0.01); 3) suppressed SOCE by preventing interactions between SR calcium sensor STIM1 and pore forming unit ORAI1; 4) inhibited calcium regulated transcription factor NFAT and its down-stream physiological function such as proliferation and migration. This study provides evidence for the first time that oscillatory and steady-state patterns of Ca(2+) transients have different effects on calcium-dependent physiological functions in smooth muscle cells.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 12/2010; 50(4):621-33. · 5.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aging is the main risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, but the associated molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The Wnt signaling pathway was shown to be induced during aging in muscle and in the skin, but the regulation and role of Wnt signaling in the aged vessel have not yet been addressed. While screening for age-related changes in gene expression in the intima/media of human mammary arteries, we observed that the expression of frizzled 4 (Fzd4), a Wnt receptor, and of several targets of the Wnt/β-catenin/TCF signaling pathway [Wnt-inducible secreted protein 1 (WISP1), versican, osteopontin (SPP1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2), and p21] were modified with age, suggesting an activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In contrast, we did not observe any regulation of forkhead transcription factor (FoxO) target genes. Beta-catenin-activating phosphorylation at position Ser675 was increased in aging mammary arteries, confirming the activation of this pathway. We confirmed in vitro that Wnt3a or Wnt1 treatment of human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced β-catenin phosphorylation at Ser675 and WISP1, SPP1, and IGFBP-2 expression. In vitro, Wnt treatment induced proliferation and cyclin D1 expression in VSMC from young (6 weeks old) rats but not in cells from older rats (8 months old), even though low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 and β-catenin phosphorylation, and β-catenin nuclear translocation demonstrated β-catenin activation in both cell types. Beta-catenin silencing demonstrated that Wnt induction of cyclin D1 expression is β-catenin dependent. Altogether, our data show that the Wnt/β-catenin/TCF pathway is activated in aging human mammary artery cells, but fails to induce the proliferation of aging vascular cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we discovered on primary cell cultures that adenylyl cyclase type 8 (AC8) was involved in the transition of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to an inflammatory phenotype. Here we demonstrate, in human vessels displaying early or advanced atherosclerotic lesions, that: (a) only intimal VSMCs strongly express AC8; and (b) very few AC8-positive VSMCs were detected in the medial layer, either in atherosclerotic or healthy arteries. Furthermore, over-expressing AC8 in primary rat VSMC cultures triggered the recolonization of a wounded zone and similar results were obtained in the presence of mitomycin, a potent inhibitor of proliferation. This phenomenon was prevented by silencing AC8. Indeed, in IL-1 beta-treated cells, AC8 silencing halted migration and decreased the matrix-metalloproteinases 2/9 secretion, known to be involved in VSMC migration. In vivo, we showed: (a) a pronounced up-regulation of AC8 expression in highly migrating VSMCs of the injured rat carotid artery; (b) an undetectable AC8 labelling in re-endothelized vessels where neo-intimal thickening had stopped. From our data, we conclude that AC8 expression appears closely linked to the properties developed by VSMCs in atherosclerosis and post-angioplasty neo-intima formation leading to restenosis. In addition, it reinforces the idea that VSMC responses to their cell environment greatly depend on the AC isoforms expressed and attributes a new role for AC8 in these pathological vascular processes.
The Journal of Pathology 07/2010; 221(3):331-42. · 7.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cardiac isoform of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)ATPase (SERCA2a) plays a major role in controlling excitation/contraction coupling. In both experimental and clinical heart failure, SERCA2a expression is significantly reduced which leads to abnormal Ca(2+) handling and deficient contractility. A large number of studies in isolated cardiac myocytes and in small and large animal models of heart failure showed that restoring SERCA2a expression by gene transfer corrects the contractile abnormalities and improves energetics and electrical remodeling. Following a long line of investigation, a clinical trial is underway to restore SERCA2a expression in patients with heart failure using adeno-associated virus type 1. This review addresses the following issues regarding heart failure gene therapy: i) new insights on calcium regulation by SERCA2a; ii) SERCA2a as a gene therapy target in animal models of heart failure; iii) advances in the development of viral vectors and gene delivery; and iv) clinical trials on heart failure using SERCA2a. This review focuses on the new advances in SERCA2a- targeted gene therapy made in the last three years. In conclusion, SERCA2a is an important therapeutic target in various cardiovascular disorders. Ongoing clinical gene therapy trials will provide answers on its safety and applicability.