ABSTRACT: We conducted a phase I study to determine the maximum tolerated dose of vorinostat in combination with fixed doses of 5-fluorouracil (FU), leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX).
Vorinostat was given orally twice daily for 1 week every 2 weeks. FOLFOX was given on days 4 and 5 of vorinostat. The vorinostat starting dose was 100 mg twice daily. Escalation occurred in cohorts of three to six patients. Pharmacokinetics of vorinostat, FU, and oxaliplatin were studied.
Twenty-one patients were enrolled. Thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, gastrointestinal toxicities, and fatigue increased in frequency and severity at higher dose levels of vorinostat. Two of 4 evaluable patients at dose level 4 (vorinostat 400 mg orally twice daily) developed dose-limiting fatigue. One of 10 evaluable patients at dose level 3 (vorinostat 300 mg orally twice daily) had dose-limiting fatigue, anorexia, and dehydration. There were significant relationships between vorinostat dose and the area under the curve on days 1 and 5 (Pearson, < 0.001). The vorinostat area under the curve increased (P = 0.005) and clearance decreased (P = 0.003) on day 5 compared with day 1. The median C(max) of FU at each dose level increased significantly with increasing doses of vorinostat, suggesting a pharmacokinetic interaction between FU and vorinostat. Vorinostat-induced thymidylate synthase (TS) modulation was not consistent; only two of six patients had a decrease in intratumoral TS expression by reverse transcription-PCR.
The maximum tolerated dose of vorinostat in combination with FOLFOX is 300 mg orally twice daily x 1 week every 2 weeks. Alternative vorinostat dosing schedules may be needed for optimal down-regulation of TS expression.
Clinical Cancer Research 05/2009; 15(9):3189-95. · 7.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: This phase II study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of capecitabine and bevacizumab in untreated elderly metastatic colorectal cancer patients.
Patients received 1500 mg/m(2)/dose of capecitabine twice daily x 7 days and bevacizumab at 5mg/kg on day 1, in 2 week-cycles.
The study was closed early, due to poor accrual, after a total of 16 patients enrolled. Four patients had an objective response and 11 patients had stable disease. The median time to progression and overall survival were 9.5 and 21.2 months, respectively. The most common grade >or= 3 toxicities included diarrhea (13%) and hand and foot syndrome (25%). Three patients had an arterial thrombotic event and one patient developed a bowel perforation.
In this underpowered phase II study in elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, capecitabine plus bevacizumab was associated with considerable clinical activity but at an increased risk of hand and foot syndrome and arterial thrombotic events.
Critical reviews in oncology/hematology 12/2008; 71(3):242-8. · 5.27 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of a combination of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and radiotherapy (RT) in the neoadjuvant treatment of Stage II and III rectal cancers.
Capecitabine was given at 725 mg/m(2) orally twice daily Monday through Friday concurrently with RT. Oxaliplatin was given intravenously at 50 mg/m(2) once weekly five times starting the first day of RT. The radiation dose was 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions (1.8 Gy/fraction), five fractions weekly. Endorectal tumor biopsies were obtained before treatment and on the third day of treatment to explore the effects of treatment on thymidine phosphorylase, thymidylate synthase, excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency complementation group 1 (ERCC1), and apoptosis.
A total of 25 patients were enrolled in this study; 6 patients (24%) had a complete pathologic response. T-downstaging occurred in 52% of patients, and N-downstaging occurred in 53%. Grade 3 diarrhea was the most common Grade 3-4 toxicity, occurring in 20% of patients. Only 2 patients experienced disease recurrence, with a median of 20 months of follow-up. Thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase, ERCC1, and apoptosis did not vary significantly between the pretreatment and Day 3 tumor biopsies, nor did they predict for T-downstaging or a complete pathologic response.
Capecitabine at 725 mg/m(2) orally twice daily, oxaliplatin 50 mg/m(2)/wk, and RT at 50.4 Gy is an effective neoadjuvant combination for Stage II and III rectal cancer and results in a greater rate of complete pathologic responses than historically shown in fluoropyrimidine plus RT controls.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 07/2008; 72(3):650-7. · 4.59 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 7/7 polymorphism has been linked with an increased risk of irinotecan-induced severe toxicities. We evaluated UGT1A1 polymorphism in patients developing grade 3/4 toxicity after initiation of irinotecan to determine the frequency of this polymorphism in this population.
Twenty patients with grade 3/4 irinotecan-induced toxicity underwent UGT1A1 genotyping in an exploratory study. The frequency of UGT1A1 7/7 and the pattern of toxicity associated with this polymorphism were described.
Forty percent of patients with grade 3/4 toxicities had a UGT1A 7/7 polymorphism (vs. 10% in general population). Six of 7 patients requiring hospitalization, 7 of 10 patients with grade 4 neutropenia, and 3 of 3 patients with grade 4 diarrhea, had UGT1A1 7/7 polymorphism.
Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 7/7 is prevalent in patients with irinotecan grade 3/4 toxicity, especially in patients with treatment-related hospitalizations and grade 4 toxicities. Our data support the need for more prospective studies that evaluate the predictive value of UGT1A1 as well as UGT1A1-based dosing in patients receiving irinotecan.
Clinical Colorectal Cancer 08/2007; 6(8):583-7. · 1.68 Impact Factor