[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NIR technology was used to analyze the fatty acid composition of fat tissue from conjugated linoleic acid fed pigs by direct application of a fibre optics probe on two different locations of subcutaneous fat. One hundred and fifty-three pigs were fed three different diets and the fatty acid profile of subcutaneous fat from Gluteus medius was analyzed using gas chromatography and FT-NIR in a longitudinal and transversal cut. Spectra were acquired using a Bruker Optics Matrix-F duplex spectrometer equipped with a fibre optics probe (IN-268-2). Total saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated together as well as oleic and stearic fatty acids were predicted accurately (R2 > 0.70), myristic, and linoleic fatty acids were predicted with lower accuracy (0.60 < R2 < 0.70), while palmitic, asclepic and α-linolenic fatty acids were poorly predicted (R2 < 0.60). Results indicated that NIR technology has potential as a rapid tool to discriminate carcasses from animals fed diets with different fatty acid composition by a direct measurement on the fat from the ham.
Food Research International 06/2010; 43(5-43):1416-1422. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2010.04.006 · 2.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A polychotomous logistic regression model was used to identify and assess the risk factors for pork becoming dark, firm and dry meat (DFD). A total of 116 deliveries, comprising 3075 commercial pigs delivered from different farms to five commercial Spanish pig abattoirs were surveyed. The DFD condition was described as an ordinal response variable (normal, moderate and serious) based on measurements of pH(24) in the Semimembranosus muscle. The abattoir, the floor of the lorry, the season, the gender, and the stocking density during transportation influenced the risk of DFD, as well as on-farm fasting time, lairage time and estimated carcass lean content. No effect of the RYR1 gene in the risk of DFD was found. Abattoirs should be especially careful with females slaughtered in winter, where the risk of serious DFD is 4.6% higher than with males slaughtered in summer. The risk of DFD increased with high stocking density and lairage time, and with on-farm fasting times longer than 22h. Our results revealed that lowering the stocking density from 0.37 to 0.50m(2) per 100kg pig during transport would increase the risk of DFD pork by 11%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Boar taint is a sensory defect mainly due to androstenone and skatole. The most common method to control boar taint is surgical castration at an early age. Vaccination against gonadotropin releasing factor (also known as immunocastration) is an alternative to surgical castration to reduce androstenone content. In this experiment, loins from 24 female (FE), 24 entire male (EM), 24 vaccinated males (IM) and 23 surgically castrated males (CM) were evaluated by eight trained panellists in 24 sessions. Loins were cooked in an oven at 180°C for 10min. Furthermore loins were evaluated by consumers and its androstenone and skatole content were also chemically determined. Meat from EM had higher androstenone and skatole odour and flavour than meat from FE, IM and CM and lower sweetness odour scores. High correlations were found between androstenone and skatole levels assessed by trained panelists, chemical analysis and consumers' acceptability. Moreover meat from EM is mainly related to androstenone and skatole attributes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat and the vitamin E content of beef from different production systems. Four cattle production systems were used: cattle reared under intensive conditions and fed concentrate (INT1) from Spain, cattle raised at pasture and supplemented with concentrate (SUP1) from the United Kingdom, cattle raised at pasture and on corn silage (SUP2) from Germany and cattle reared under extensive conditions slaughtered at two and three years old (EXT2 and EXT3) from Uruguay. The highest proportion and content (mg per 100g of muscle) of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and the lowest saturated fatty acids (SFA) was found in INT1 beef. In contrast, beef reared under extensive conditions showed the highest proportion and content of linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, C22:5n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), and SUP1 and SUP2 beef showed the highest level of palmitic acid (C16:0) and SFA. Beef from intensive system (INT1) had the lowest P/S (PUFA/SFA) ratio, whereas beef from extensive system (EXT2 and EXT3) had the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio. The results of the PCA (principal components analysis) of fatty acid composition showed that beef from intensive system (INT1) was clearly differentiated from the other meats and was located with the C18:2n-6 and C20:4n-6 and the n-6/n-3 ratio. EXT2 and EXT3 beef were located with C18:3n-3 and long chain fatty acids. Beef from extensive systems had the highest concentration of vitamin E (3.91mg α-tocopherol/kg muscle).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is well known that the eating quality of lamb is highly affected by feeding systems. The aim of this study was to ascertain acceptability of Uruguayan lamb meat from animals fed on different diets (only pasture-D1, only concentrate-D4 and two combinations of both systems-D3 and D4) by consumers from different European countries (Spain, Germany, United Kingdom and France). One hundred and twenty castrated Corriedale lambs were reared to 28.2±0.8 kg live weight and then thirty lambs were allocated to each diet and reared to 40kg live weight. Sections of loin were cooked using contact grills until the internal temperature of the muscle reached 72°C (65°C in France), cut and then served to consumers. A minimum of 180 consumers per country evaluated overall liking, flavour and tenderness acceptability of lamb from the 4 diets in sessions of 10 consumers using 8-point category scales. Globally consumers preferred lamb fed on concentrate or the combination of concentrate and pasture to lamb fed only on pasture. However, different segments of consumers were identified in each country based on their lamb acceptability. This information contributes to the identification of developing different commercial strategies in relation to the consumer segments found.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Boar taint is the off-odour or off flavour of cooked pork. Currently, the most common method of controlling boar taint is surgical castration. However, immunocastration has been used in some parts of the world as an alternative to surgical castration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensory acceptability of meat from immunocastrated pigs (IM) compared with meat from females (FE), surgically castrated (CM) and entire males (EM). Twenty animals of each type were evaluated by 201 consumers in 20 sessions. Longissimus thoracis muscle of the different animals was cooked in an oven at 180°C for 10min. Consumers scored the odour and the flavour of the meat in a 9-point category scale without an intermediate level. There were no significant differences in consumer's evaluation of meat from IM, CM, and FE. In contrast, EM meat presented a higher percentage of dissatisfied scores and was significantly (P<0.05) less accepted than meat from CM, IM and FE. Consumers' acceptability of EM meat was always lower, independently of its androstenone levels. However meat with low levels of androstenone was more accepted that meat with medium or high levels of this substance. It can be concluded that immunocastration produced pork that was accepted by the consumers, and was indistinguishable from pork from CM or FE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A polychotomous logistic regression was used to assess the risk factors for skin damage prior to slaughter. A total of 116 deliveries (15,695 pigs) from commercial farms to five Spanish pig abattoirs were surveyed. The skin damage condition was described as an ordinal response (1: no damage; 2: very slight damage; and 3: slight or more damage). The abattoir by the season (p<0.01), the floor surface of the lorry (p=0.02), and the mixing of unfamiliar pigs at loading (p=0.01) influenced the occurrence of skin blemishes. Skin damage increased with on-farm fasting time (p<0.01), loading time (p<0.01), lairage time (p<0.01), as well as with carcass weight (p<0.01). In winter transports the risk of skin damage decreased (p<0.01) at higher space allowance in the lorry. The risk of developing PSE and DFD pork increased with the skin damage score (p<0.01). The nn genotype for the RYR1 gene was less prone to skin damage but at the same time it is more sensitive to skin damage in relation to PSE risk. It is concluded that the skin damage score can be used as a rapid indicator of animal welfare and pork quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An excessive accumulation of androstenone (5α-androst-16-en-3-one) in pig adipose tissue is one of the two major contributors to the phenomenon of boar taint. High levels of adipose tissue androstenone have been related to a low rate of hepatic androstenone metabolism, which includes two stages: oxidative and conjugative. Sulfotransferases (SULTs), alongside with other specific enzymes, play the key role in the conjugative stage of androstenone metabolism. The present study investigated the mechanism regulating expression of sulfotransferase 2B1 (SULT2B1) immunoreactive protein using primary cultured pig hepatocytes as a model system. A specific objective was to determine whether the expression of pig hepatic SULT2B1 is regulated by the sex steroids; androstenone, testosterone and estrone sulphate. The study was performed on entire male pigs of a Large White (40%)×Landrace (40%)×Duroc (20%) cross-breed, average carcass weight 72.2 kg. The study shows that SULT2B1 immunoreactive protein expression can be induced by testosterone (final concentrations, 10 and 500 nM) and repressed by estrone sulphate (final concentration, 100 nM). Androstenone had no significant effect on SULT2B1 immunoreactive protein expression in the range of concentration, 10 nM to 1 μM. Time-courses (0 to 48 h) of steroid effects were investigated. The maximum effects of testosterone and estrone sulphate were observed in 24 h after the steroid treatments. This study provides direct evidence for involvement of sex steroids in the regulation of porcine hepatic SULTs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eighty Hereford steers were used to evaluate the effect of finishing diet [A: pasture, B: pasture plus concentrate (0.6% live weight), C: pasture plus concentrate (1.2% live weight), D: concentrate] on consumer acceptability of Uruguayan beef in France (FR), United Kingdom (UK), Spain (ES) and Germany (DE). Consumers (200 per country) evaluated overall, tenderness and flavour acceptability of beef (8 point scale: 1 ‘dislike extremely’, 8 ‘like extremely’). FR and UK rated lower acceptability scores for beef from D compared with A, B, and C. ES showed similar results for tenderness, but flavour scores did not differ between A and D. German consumers preferred beef from B and C. Overall, low levels of supplementation on pasture produced beef with the highest consumer acceptability followed by beef from pasture-fed animals. Feeding cattle with concentrate only may not be necessary to satisfy the EU market resulting in more profitable production systems for Uruguayan producers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensory characteristics of longissimus thoracis muscle from three local Spanish beef breed-production systems and their relationships with chemical and instrumental meat quality traits were studied. Young bulls of Bruna dels Pirineus (BP; n=69), Avileña-Negra Ibérica (A-NI; n=70) and Morucha (MO; n=70) breeds were reared in their own production systems. MO breed showed the highest water holding capacity and also the highest thawing loss and haem pigment content (P<0.001). No differences in moisture and protein contents were found among breeds. A-NI showed the highest intramuscular fat (IMF, P<0.05) and total collagen (P<0.001) contents, whereas BP showed the lowest IMF content (P<0.05) and the highest collagen solubility (P<0.001). Beef flavour, tenderness and juiciness accounted for the eating quality differences among the three breed-production systems. Meat from A-NI was rated significantly higher (P<0.01) for beef flavour and tenderness than that from BP and MO animals. Furthermore, MO showed the lowest juiciness (P<0.001) which could be due to its higher thawing loss. Within the three breeds, thawing loss was negatively correlated with juiciness and, likewise cooking loss with juiciness and tenderness (P<0.05). The canonical discriminant analysis showed that the three breeds were significantly different (P<0.05) from each other according to sensory attributes, which justifies their involvement in different protected geographical indications (PGI).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY - From 1997, the "Mallorca Black pig" is recognised as an autochthonous endangered extensive pig breed by the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. In the present situation, close to 80 extensive farms with more than 1300 reproducers are recovered by the "Mallorca Black Pig Association". These animals are managed in extensive conditions and the feeding regime is based on pasture, cereals, legumes, figs, almonds, acorns and Mediterranean shrubs. A continuous evaluation of new reproducers (electronic identification, DNA traceability, reproductive and productive traits recording and morphological standard appraisal) and across farms genetic exchanges (via auction sales) are basic elements of the conservation and improvement programme set up by IBABSA and IRTA. Apart from the production of piglets for consumption at a low weight ("porcella"), growing animals are slaughtered at heavy weight (120-180 kg) and are used to obtain spiced typical sausages ("sobrasada"). Production, reproduction and carcass characteristics are under investigation to improve efficiency without a reduction on meat and traditional product quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Boar taint has been associated with the pork from entire males. Sensory profiles have been carried out in several studies showing the multidimensional property of boar taint. However, no agreement on the number and kind of descriptors has been reached. The aim of this study was to describe the sensory characteristics of boar taint using a modified Free Choice Profiling technique. The pig meat samples were selected according to their different analytical levels of androstenone and skatole and were sensorially evaluated in duplicate. After selecting the discriminant descriptors for each assessor a Generalized Procrustes Analysis was carried out. Samples with the highest analytical levels of androstenone were characterized by “ urine”, “ sweat”, “ chemical” and “ rancid” odor and flavor, “ turpentine”, “ viscera”, “ pig/animal” and “ naphthalene” odor, and “ piquant” flavor. Samples with the highest analytical levels of skatole were characterized by “ sweat” odor and flavor, “ stable”, “ manure” and “ naphthalene” odor and “ pig/animal” flavor. In general the results suggested that both compounds are responsible for certain sensory defects, although the samples with a high androstenone content displayed the majority of them.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fifty-four Holstein bulls were blocked by initial BW (301 +/- 7.4 kg) and randomly assigned to 6 treatments following a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with 3 concentrate lipid levels (5, 8, and 11% of DM) and 2 lipid sources (whole canola seed and whole linseed), with the objective of evaluating the possibility of increasing the content of n-3 fatty acids in meat. Concentrates (mostly corn meal) were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Concentrate and straw were both fed ad libitum. Animal BW was recorded every 2 wk, and feed consumption was recorded weekly. Ruminal pH and VFA concentrations were determined monthly. Bulls were transported to the slaughterhouse when they achieved the target slaughter weight of 443 kg (after 105 +/- 4 d of fattening). After slaughter, a sample of LM from the sixth to the eighth ribs was dissected and analyzed for intramuscular fat content and fatty acid profile. Dietary lipid source did not affect overall animal performance, rumen fermentation, or carcass quality. Rumen pH was >6.0 despite consumption by the bulls of large amounts of concentrate. In bulls fed linseed, the percentage of n-3 fatty acids in LM increased linearly with lipid level, whereas in bulls fed canola seed it remained constant. The ratio of n-6:n-3 fatty acids was lower (P < 0.01) in the LM of bulls fed linseed (10.0) than in those fed canola seed (26.0). The content of cis-9, trans-11-CLA in the LM tended (P = 0.06) to be greater in the bulls fed linseed than in those fed canola seed (62.9 vs. 49.2 mg/kg of LM, respectively). Concentration of n-3 fatty acids in meat of bulls fed high-concentrate diets can be enhanced by whole linseed supplementation without affecting animal performance, ruminal fermentation, or carcass quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acceptability of beef from Uruguay (UY), based on eating quality, was compared with beef produced in different European countries (Germany, DE, Spain, ES and United Kingdom, UK). Consumer tests were conducted in DE, ES and UK (each comprising 200 consumers) using 'Hall Tests'. In each country four samples were evaluated, two from Hereford steers from UY (finished at 2 and 3 years) and two from local meat (the same meat sample aged 7 or 20d). Consumers evaluated tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability using 8-point category scales. Hierarchical cluster analysis, highlighted the existence of different clusters of consumers. Two main clusters were identified in DE and UK. The main cluster identified in DE, was labelled as Prefer foreign-imported beef (n=128). These consumers preferred (P<0.05) the samples from UY_2y in terms of tenderness and overall acceptability. The other cluster was labelled as Prefer local beef in terms of flavour and overall acceptability (P<0.05) and comprised the majority of consumers from ES (n=176) and UK (n=153) and the cluster 2 from DE (n=69). UK, cluster 2 (n=33) that did not discriminate between origin and ageing time of beef. These results indicate that consumers did not prefer the same type of meat within the same country and it is possible that there are individual preferences that could lead to the concept of market segmentation being based on taste preferences. It would appear that Uruguayan beef would be very acceptable in Germany and to a lesser extent in Britain and Spain, although further studies are required that include labelling information.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of the addition of pork haem pigment on the colour, colour stability and texture of cooked hams from pale, soft and exudative meat (PSE hams) was studied. A total of 62 hams were selected at 15h post mortem on the basis of pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and L* value in semimembranosus (SM) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Hams were divided into three groups to be manufactured as cooked hams: group 1 (control, with normal meat quality hams, n 20), group 2 (control, with PSE hams, n 21) and group 3 (with PSE hams to which 0.04% of pork haem pigment was added, n 21). The stability of the colour (L*, a*, b*) was followed at 0, 30 and 120min after slicing. Pigment content and the instrumental texture of the hams were also evaluated. L* value after slicing was lower in group 3 than in group 2 for both muscles at all three times studied. Colour a* value (redness) was significantly higher for group 3 than for groups 1 and 2 at the three times and in the two muscles. Accordingly, there was an increase in visual redness in BF and SM of hams from group 3 with respect to groups 1 and 2. Iridescence was higher in PSE hams. The muscle pigment content showed no significant differences among groups - neither in the fresh nor in the cooked hams. No effect of the pork pigment was found on the texture properties studied. In conclusion, the addition of stabilised pork haem pigment in the processing of PSE hams resulted in cooked hams with lower L* values and higher a* values and more visual redness, whereas colour stability and texture of hams were not affected.
Food Science and Technology International 10/2006; 12(5):429-435. DOI:10.1177/1082013206070161 · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study German (DE), Spanish (ES) and British (UK) consumers’ acceptance of lamb from their own country compared to lamb from Uruguay (UY) was evaluated. Two-hundred consumers in each country evaluated tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability of four types of lamb, two from UY (light and heavy lambs aged 20 d) and 2 local (with two ageing times, 7 and 20 d). In each country 1.5 cm-thick slices of lamb were evaluated by previously selected consumers in controlled conditions. DE and UK consumers showed significantly (P < 0.05) different acceptability scores between samples, the lamb from heavier animals and aged 20 d being the most appreciated. On the other hand the majority of the ES consumers significantly (P < 0.05) preferred the meat from lighter lambs. Production systems, cultural aspects and consumption habits seem to affect the acceptability of the lamb to the consumers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malic enzyme 1 (ME1) is a part of the tricarboxylate shuttle that provides NADPH and acetyl-CoA required in fatty acid biosynthesis. The pig ME1 locus maps on the proximal end of chromosome 1, where a quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fat deposition has been previously described. We amplified fragments of 1457 and 1459 bp that corresponded to the complete coding region and the 3'-untranslated region (UTR), respectively, of the pig ME1 gene. The sequences of these two fragments in pigs from three breeds (Landrace, Large White and Piétrain) contained five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 3'-UTR: C1706T, G1762T, A1807C, C1857A and T1880A. Three haplotypes were found in two generations of a selected Landrace population: H1 (C1706 G1762 A1807 C1857 A1880), H2 (C1706 G1762 A1807 C1857 T1880) and H3 (T1706 T1762 C1807 A1857 T1880). Using Bayesian association analyses, significant associations (highest posterior density at 95%) between ME1 genotype and backfat (BF) thickness at 171 days and muscular pH were found in a Landrace population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fatty acid composition of commercial lambs from different production systems of Spain, Germany, United Kingdom and of two types of Uruguayan lambs (heavy and light) was studied. Concentrate fed lambs, as Spanish lambs, displayed the highest proportions of linoleic acid (C18:2), while Uruguayan lambs, reared under extensive grazing conditions, showed the highest proportions of linolenic acid (C18:3), due to the great concentration of this fatty acid in grass. German and British lambs, which were fed grass and concentrate, displayed intermediate proportions of linolenic acid (C18:3). Heavy Uruguayan lambs had higher intramuscular fat content (5.92%) than German (4.25%) and British (4.32%) lambs, and this content was twofold higher than light lambs (Spanish (2.41%) and light Uruguayan (3.05%)). Heavy Uruguayan, German and British lambs had a low polyunsaturated/saturated (P/S) ratio due to their high saturated fatty acid (SFA) content and proportion. Principal component analysis was performed to study the relationship between fatty acids. Spanish lambs were clearly separated from the other types and were situated close to the proportions of short chain and n-6 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 ratio in the data plot for fatty acid proportions. Light Uruguayan lambs were located close to long chain fatty acids, and heavy Uruguayan and British lambs were placed near the antithrombotic potential (ATT), stearic acid (C18:0), SFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportions. German lambs were located between Spanish lambs and the other types.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional genomics, including analysis of the transcriptome and proteome, provides new opportunities for understanding the molecular processes in muscle and how these influence its conversion to meat. The Quality Pork Genes project was established to identify genes associated with variation in different aspects of raw material (muscle) quality and to then develop genetic tools that could be utilized to improve this quality. DNA polymorphisms identified in the porcine PRKAG3 and CAST genes illustrate the impact that such tools can have in improving meat quality. The resources developed in Quality Pork Genes provide the basis for identifying more of these tools.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of the presence of the double-muscling gene either homozygous (mh/mh) or heterozygous (mh/+) on the physico-chemical, biochemical and texture traits of Longissimus thoracis muscle of yearling bulls of the Asturiana de los Valles (AV) breed was studied. Meat of mh/mh bulls had lower amount of intramuscular fat (p<0.001) and also lower total (p<0.01) and insoluble collagen (p<0.05), although the double-muscling genotype did not affect collagen solubility. Homozygous animals had lower pigment content (p<0.05) and a lighter meat, showing lower water holding capacity, estimated as expressible juice under pressure (p<0.001). Genotype affected significantly the metabolic traits of muscle, with mh/mh animals having higher muscle glycolytic metabolism, assessed by a higher (p<0.001) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lower (p<0.001) oxidative activity of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH). The percentage of myosin heavy chain I in muscle was lower, although not significantly, for mh/mh bulls compared to mh/+ bulls. Texture measurements performed on raw material showed that meat of mh/mh bulls had lower resistance to total and 80% compression, which means lower background or collagen toughness. However, there were no differences between genotypes on shear force of cooked meat. Therefore, the physico-chemical, biochemical and texture traits of meat from mh/mh and mh/+ bull are in general significantly different, which could affect the sensorial quality of meat and hence the consumer acceptance.