Alberto Luini

IEO - Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano, Lombardy, Italy

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Publications (299)1405.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Prognostic factors to better identify subcategories of node-positive breast cancer patients candidate to adjuvant chemotherapy are needed. The prognostic significance of the extent of peritumoral vascular invasion (PVI) in patients with positive axillary nodes is a matter of controversy. No data are available on the role of PVI within immunohistochemically defined subtypes. 3,729 consecutive patients with primary invasive breast cancer and positive axillary nodes were operated and referred for interdisciplinary evaluation from April 1997 to December 2005. Patients were classified as Luminal A, Luminal B(HER2 negative), Luminal B(HER2 positive), Triple Negative and HER-2 positive. The distribution of PVI was as follows: absent 2,010 (54 %), moderate/focal 963 (142 + 821) (26 %), and extensive 756 (20 %). Patients with extensive PVI were more likely to be Luminal B(HER2 negative) (49.3 %), younger (35-50 years), to have larger tumors (>pT2) with higher grade, a higher extent of node involvement (>4 nodes) and higher proliferative index, compared with patients with absence or moderate/focal PVI (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, extensive PVI (vs. absent) was correlated with a significant higher risk of local recurrence (HR 1.42, 95 %CI, 1.03-1.95, p = 0.0301). The immunohistochemically defined Luminal A-like subtype had a significant better outcome in terms of DFS, OS and reduced incidence of distant metastases when compared with the other subtypes. The occurrence of extensive PVI correlates with an increased risk of local recurrence. Luminal A tumors, classified according to the most recent St. Gallen recommendations, had an excellent outcome irrespective to the occurrence of extensive PVI or lymph node metastases and might be a good candidate to personalized adjuvant treatments.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 07/2014; · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2013 St-Gallen International Expert Panel recognized substantial progress in the pathological characterization of breast cancer subtypes. Useful surrogate definition of Luminal A-like as distinct from Luminal B-like disease could be made using a combination of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and Ki-67, without requiring molecular diagnostics. Differences depend upon the choice of the threshold value for Ki-67 and the requirement for substantial PgR positivity. We aimed to verify the suitability of the new surrogate definition of luminal subtypes in terms of distant disease control in a large series of patients.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 06/2014; 16(3):R65. · 5.87 Impact Factor
  • The Breast Journal 05/2014; · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Axillary lymph node dissection is part of breast cancer surgery, and winged scapula is a possible sequela. Data regarding its incidence, predictive factors, and patient prognosis remains inconsistent. Ignorance of its diagnosis may lead to undertreatment with physical morbidity. Breast cancer patients with axillary lymph node dissection were prospectively recruited. Postoperative examinations by the physiotherapy staff were performed. One hundred eighty-seven patients were recruited during July-October 2012; 51 patients had a positive diagnosis (27.2 %), with 38 patients (86 %) who recovered completely from the winged scapula, while 6 patients (13 %) still had winged scapula at 6 months after surgery. One hundred thirty patients underwent mastectomy and 100 cases had immediate reconstruction. Age, BMI, previous shoulder joint morbidity, and breast surgery were not associated with winged scapula. Neoadjuvant treatment, mastectomy or conservative surgery, immediate reconstruction, tumor size, and nodal involvement also did not show any correlation. Breast reconstruction with prosthesis, even with serratus muscle dissection, does not increase the incidence of winged scapula. Winged scapula is not an uncommon incidence after breast cancer surgery. Physiotherapy is related to the complete recovery. The severity or grading of the winged scapula and the recovery time after physiotherapy should be investigated in the future studies.
    Supportive Care in Cancer 02/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Breast cancer occurs rarely in males accounting for approximately 1% of all breast carcinomas. Data on prognosis principally derives from retrospective studies and from extrapolation of female breast cancer series. Patients and methods A total of 99 male patients with invasive breast cancer were matched with 198 female breast cancer patients who had surgery at the same institution from 1999 to 2010. Matching variables were: year of surgery, age, primary tumor size, nodal involvement, hormone receptor status, status of HER2, ki67 and grade. Median follow-up was 8.6 years. Results Disease free survival (DFS) was significantly poorer in male breast cancer patients (10-year DFS 51.7% vs. 66.5%; HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.19-2.68; P=0.004). Similar results were observed for overall survival (OS) (10-year OS 70.7% vs. 84.2%; HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.01-3.15; P=0.043). The cumulative incidence (CI) of death for causes not related to the primary breast cancer was significantly higher for male rather than female breast cancer patients (HR 2.87, 95%CI 1.58-5.22;p= 0.001), while the breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) was similar between the two groups (10-year BCSS 81.5% vs. 88%; HR 1.27; 95% CI 0.62-2.59; P=0.517). Conclusions Our comparative series revealed that male breast cancer patients had a poorer DFS and OS when compared with female patients. Male patients showed also a higher risk of controlateral tumors and second primaries that contribute to the difference between the two groups. Appropriate counseling, surveillance, and prevention are recommended to improve survival for these individuals.
    Clinical Breast Cancer 01/2014; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is a well-established multidisciplinary practice at the European Institute of Oncology, that nurses and physicians often report their difficulties to clinical psychologists regarding adherence to hospital scheduling and procedures, when faced with women who, having been diagnosed with cancer, may be too overwhelmed to understand medical advice. We thus undertook an observational-prospective-cohort study, to investigate the prevalence and variation of PTSD symptomatology in women awaiting a mastectomy at a mean of 30 days after diagnosis and up to 2 years after discharge from hospital. The presence of any correlations between PTSD symptoms and medical and psycho-social variables was also investigated. Between March 2011 and June 2012, 150 women entered the study and were evaluated at four points in time: pre-hospital admission, admission for surgery, hospital discharge and two years later. The prevalence of distress at pre-hospital admission was 20% for intrusion symptoms, 19.1% for avoidance symptoms and 70.7% for state anxiety. Intrusion was negatively correlated with time from diagnosis independently of tumor dimensions, i.e. independently of the perceived seriousness of the illness. Even though at two-year follow up the prevalence of intrusion and avoidance is similar to that in the general population, patients with high levels of intrusion and avoidance at pre-hospital admission will maintain these levels, showing difficulties in adjusting to illness even two years later. As for psycho-social factors, the presence of a positive cancer family and relational history is associated with high levels of distress, in particular with intrusive thinking. Proper interventions aimed at the management of these issues and at their implications in clinical practice is clearly warranted.
    SpringerPlus 01/2014; 3:392.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim It is established that axillary dissection (AD) can be safely avoided in breast cancer patients with a negative sentinel node (SN). In the present study we assessed whether the rate of axillary disease was sufficiently low on long term follow-up to consolidate the policy of AD avoidance. Methods We retrospectively analysed data on 5262 consecutive primary breast cancer patients with clinically negative axilla and negative SN, treated from 1996 to 2006, who did not receive AD. We used univariate and multivariate analyses to assess the influence of patient and tumour characteristics on first events and survival. The primary endpoint was the development of axillary disease as first event. Results After a median follow-up of 7.0 years (interquartile range 5.4-8.9 years) survival for the series was high (91.3%; 95%CI 90.3-92.3 at 10 years) and only 91 (1.7%) patients developed axillary disease as first event. Axillary disease was significantly more frequent in patients with the following characteristics: <35 years at diagnosis, tumour >1 cm, multifocality/multicentricity, G3, ductal histotype, Ki67 ≥30%, peritumoral vascular invasion, luminal B-like subtype, HER2 positivity, mastectomy, and not receiving radiotherapy. Conclusion Long-term follow-up of our large series confirms that axillary metastasis is infrequent when AD is omitted in SN-negative breast cancer patients, and has low impact on overall survival.
    European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO). 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Despite the great strides made in medical knowledge, surgery still remains a necessary part of the breast cancer treatment. Surgical procedures still lead to post surgical sequelae. The axillary web syndrome (AWS) is one such sequela, which can lead to disability, reduced arm mobility and compromised quality of life. It is often unidentified and the literature regarding its assessment is limited. To improve diagnosis and patient education, the Screening Test AWS (ST-AWS) questionnaire was drafted and applied at the European Institute of Oncology (IEO). MATERIALS AND METHOD: We prospectively recruited patients from October 2012 to December 2012. Patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy and/or axillary dissection procedures were registered. Physical examination was set as a gold standard. RESULTS: 88 patients completed the questionnaire. Among these, 32 patients had axillary web syndrome diagnosed, thus a 36% incidence. The questionnaire achieved a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 91%, a positive prevalence value (PPV) of 86%, a negative prevalence value (NPV) of 96% and an accuracy of 92%. CONCLUSION: Our questionnaire achieves high sensitivity and predictive values, and we would recommend it as a screening-tool for auto-diagnosis of the AWS. The main objective of the questionnaire is to enhance patient and therapist awareness of the problem, and prompt management to shorten the effects of this disability. Moreover, it may offer a tool to enhance body image acceptance after surgery. Further studies whereby the efficacy of the questionnaire is investigated in a larger, heterogeneous group and in different situations are warranted.
    San Antonio Breast Conference 2013, San Antonio; 12/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons allows the substitution of conventional postoperative whole breast irradiation with one session of radiotherapy with the same equivalent dose during surgery. However, its ability to control for recurrence of local disease required confirmation in a randomised controlled trial. This study was done at the European Institute of Oncology (Milan, Italy). Women aged 48-75 years with early breast cancer, a maximum tumour diameter of up to 2·5 cm, and suitable for breast-conserving surgery were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio (using a random permuted block design, stratified for clinical tumour size [<1·0 cm vs 1·0-1·4 cm vs ≥1·5 cm]) to receive either whole-breast external radiotherapy or intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons. Study coordinators, clinicians, and patients were aware of the assignment. Patients in the intraoperative radiotherapy group received one dose of 21 Gy to the tumour bed during surgery. Those in the external radiotherapy group received 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 2 Gy, followed by a boost of 10 Gy in five fractions. This was an equivalence trial; the prespecified equivalence margin was local recurrence of 7·5% in the intraoperative radiotherapy group. The primary endpoint was occurrence of ipsilateral breast tumour recurrences (IBTR); overall survival was a secondary outcome. The main analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01849133. 1305 patients were randomised (654 to external radiotherapy and 651 to intraoperative radiotherapy) between Nov 20, 2000, and Dec 27, 2007. After a medium follow-up of 5·8 years (IQR 4·1-7·7), 35 patients in the intraoperative radiotherapy group and four patients in the external radiotherapy group had had an IBTR (p<0·0001). The 5-year event rate for IBRT was 4·4% (95% CI 2·7-6·1) in the intraoperative radiotherapy group and 0·4% (0·0-1·0) in the external radiotherapy group (hazard ratio 9·3 [95% CI 3·3-26·3]). During the same period, 34 women allocated to intraoperative radiotherapy and 31 to external radiotherapy died (p=0·59). 5-year overall survival was 96·8% (95% CI 95·3-98·3) in the intraoperative radiotherapy group and 96·9% (95·5-98·3) in the external radiotherapy group. In patients with data available (n=464 for intraoperative radiotherapy; n=412 for external radiotherapy) we noted significantly fewer skin side-effects in women in the intraoperative radiotherapy group than in those in the external radiotherapy group (p=0·0002). Although the rate of IBTR in the intraoperative radiotherapy group was within the prespecified equivalence margin, the rate was significantly greater than with external radiotherapy, and overall survival did not differ between groups. Improved selection of patients could reduce the rate of IBTR with intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons. Italian Association for Cancer Research, Jacqueline Seroussi Memorial Foundation for Cancer Research, and Umberto Veronesi Foundation.
    The Lancet Oncology 11/2013; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognostic value of low estrogen and progesterone receptors expression (ER/PgR 1%-10%) in early breast cancer patients is still unclear. We retrospectively analyzed 1424 consecutive patients with HER2/neu-negative and low endocrine receptors expression early breast cancer, submitted to surgery at the European Institute of Oncology between January 1995 and December 2009. Patients were classified according to the percentage of ER/PgR expression using immunohistochemistry. Group 1 with ER/PgR < 1%, and group 2 with ER/PgR 1% to 10%. Group 1 (ER/PgR < 1%) included 1300 patients, and group 2 (ER/PgR 1%-10%) 124 patients. Median follow-up time was 74 months (range, 3-192 months). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72%-77%) for group 1, and 79% (95% CI, 70%-86%) for group 2 (P = .16). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86% (95% CI, 84%-88%) in group 1 and 90% (95% CI, 83%-95%) in group 2 (P = .13). In patients without lymph node involvement, the 5-year OS rate was 92% (95% CI, 89.5%-93.6%) for group 1 and 98% (95% CI, 90.2%-99.8%) for group 2 (P = .061). One hundred ten patients received endocrine therapy with no significant effect on DFS (P = .36) and OS (P = .30). The ER/PgR 1%-10% group had a slight, but not statistically significant, better prognosis than the ER/PgR <1% group. Further studies are needed to identify the appropriate clinical approach in this subset of patients with low ER/PgR expression (ER/PgR 1%-10%), HER2-negative early breast cancer.
    Clinical Breast Cancer 10/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We collected information on 497 consecutive breast cancer patients aged less than 35 years operated at the European Institute of Oncology. The main aim of the study is to compare biological and clinical features dividing the population by age: <25 years, 25-29 and 30-34 years old. Pattern of recurrence and survival were also analyzed. Patients aged <25 years had 81.8% poorly differentiated tumors compared with 66.7% and 56.5% in the 25-29 and 30-34 groups, respectively; no other significant difference were found in the distribution of clinical and immunohistochemical features The distribution of Luminal A and B, Triple Negative and HER2 subtypes (immunohistochemically defined) was not statistically different among the three age groups. No difference was found in the incidence of loco-regional relapses, distant metastases, disease-free survival (p = 0.79) and overall survival (p = 0.99) between the three age groups. This latter findings was confirmed using age as a continuous variable assuming a linear association between age and the outcomes considered, too. In conclusion, our data indicate that the group of patients with breast cancer below 35 years is essentially a homogenous group when classical clinical and immunohistochemical features were considered.
    Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 09/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prognostic implications of internal mammary (IM) and supraclavicular (SC) node involvement in locally advanced breast cancer is still unclear. We evaluated 107 patients with IM (n = 65) or SC (n = 42) node involvement who underwent operation at the European Institute of Oncology between 1997 and 2009 to assess their prognostic features. We subsequently analyzed matched cohorts, using the 107 patients as cases and another group of patients as a control cohort, to evaluate prognostic differences between patients with and those without IM or SC node involvement. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 84% in IM vs. 38.8% in SC node involvement (P < .0001), and 5-year overall survival (OS) was 96.9% in IM node vs. 57.1% in SC node involvement (P < .0001). No difference in outcome was found between patients with and controls without IM node involvement. Conversely, a statistically significant difference in DFS and locoregional recurrence was observed in patients with SC node involvement compared with controls without SC node involvement. SC node involvement correlated with a significantly poorer outcome in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Adequate staging, including biopsy of suspicious locoregional ipsilateral lymph nodes, is mandatory in these patients. Patients with IM or SC node involvement should be treated with curative intent using combined-modality treatments.
    Clinical Breast Cancer 09/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complete surgical resection is the standard treatment for localized breast phyllodes tumors. Post-surgical treatments are still a matter of debate. We carried out an overview of the literature to investigate the clinical outcome of patients with phyllodes tumor. A retrospective analysis of mono-institutional series has been included as well. We reviewed all the retrospective series reported from 1951 until April 2012. We analyzed cases treated at our institution from 1999 to 2010. Eighty-three articles (5530 patients; 1956 malignant tumors) were reviewed. Local recurrences were independent of histology. Distant recurrences were more frequent in the malignant tumors (22%). A total of 172 phyllodes tumors were included in the retrospective analysis. Prognosis of phyllodes tumors is excellent. There are no convincing data to recommend any adjuvant treatment after surgery. Molecular characterization may well provide new clues to permit identification of active treatments for the rare poor prognosis cases.
    Critical reviews in oncology/hematology 07/2013; · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that 1 or 5 mg per day of tamoxifen (T) given for 4 weeks before surgery reduces Ki-67 in breast cancer (BC) patients to the same extent as the standard 20 mg/d. Given the long half-life of T, a weekly dose (10mg/w) may be worth testing. Also, raloxifene (R) has shown Ki-67 reduction in post menopausal patients in a preoperative setting, but data in premenopausal women are limited. We conducted a randomized trial testing T 10mg per week (w), vs R 60 mg/d vs placebo in a pre-surgical model. Out of 204 screened subjects, 57 were not eligible, 22 refused to participate and 125 were included in the study. The participants were all premenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive BC. They were randomly assigned to either T 10mg/w or R 60 mg/d or placebo for 6 weeks before surgery. The primary endpoint was tissue change of Ki67. Secondary endpoints were modulation of estrogen and progesterone receptors and several other circulating biomarkers. Ki-67 was not significantly modulated by either treatment. In contrast, both selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) significantly modulated circulating IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio, cholesterol, fibrinogen and anti-thrombin III. Estradiol was increased with both SERMs. Within the tamoxifen arm, CYP2D6 polymorphism analysis showed a higher concentration of N-desTamoxifen, one of the tamoxifen metabolites, in subjects with reduced CYP2D6 activity. Moreover, a reduction of Ki67 and a marked increase of sex hormone banding protein (SHBP) were observed in the active phenotype. A weekly dose of tamoxifen and a standard dose of raloxifene did not inhibit tumor cell proliferation, measured as Ki67 expression, in premenopausal BC patients. However in the tamoxifen arm women with an extensive phenotype for CYP2D6 reached a significant Ki67 modulation.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 06/2013; 15(3):R47. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract e20634 Background: Axillary lymph node dissection is an inevitable part of breast cancer surgery in certain cases. Definitive data regarding the incidence of postoperative winged scapula remains inconsistent. Ignorance of its diagnosis may lead to under-treatment and result in physical morbidity. Methods: All breast cancer patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection procedures were recruited. In the early postoperative period, within 24 hours after surgery, the physiotherapy staff performed physical examinations to evaluate and identify the physical signs of long thoracic nerve injury by means of two specific orthopedic evaluation tests. The factors that may relate to winged scapula were recorded and analyzed. Results: From July to October 2012, 51 out of 187 patients were diagnosed with winged scapula (27.2%). The median age was 49.0 years old. 130 patients had undergone mastectomy and 100 cases had immediate breast reconstruction. Age, BMI, history of shoulder joint morbidity and previous breast surgery were not significantly associated with winged scapula. Administration of neoadjuvant treatment, mastectomy or breast conservative surgery, immediate reconstruction and its type, tumor size and nodal involvement also did not show any correlation. Conclusions: The winged scapula is not an infrequent sequela after axillary lymph node dissection in the breast cancer patient. It is usually underestimated and overlooked. There is no association between age, BMI, neoadjuvant treatment, type of breast surgery, tumor size or nodal stage. As breast reconstruction plats an ever-increasing role in current breast surgery practice it is interesting to note that reconstruction with prosthesis, even with serratus muscle dissection does not increase the incidence of winged scapula. Post reconstruction morbidity could interfere with the physical evaluation and outcome, but the result of our subgroup analysis showed no significant correlation among them. In our clinical experience, this sequela is not irreversible, being a transitory problem. Our series show only immediate 24 hr result that lack of long term follow-up and still need physical therapy proctocols to evaluate the recovery.
    2013 ASCO Annual Meeting, Chicago; 05/2013
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: To ascertain the prognostic relevance of micropapillary carcinoma, a specific type of breast tumour. METHODS AND RESULTS: We interrogated the clinical records of a series of 49 pure micropapillary carcinoma patients and 13 487 invasive ductal carcinoma patients, diagnosed and treated consecutively in our institution over a 9-year time-frame. Compared with invasive ductal carcinoma, patients with micropapillary carcinoma more frequently had moderately differentiated tumours (P = 0.02) with extensive peritumoral vascular invasion (P < 0.0001), associated with a significantly higher rate of axillary lymph node involvement (P < 0.0001). Survival data obtained by comparing 49 micropapillary carcinoma patients with a set of 98 invasive ductal carcinoma patients matched for age, tumour size and grade, peritumoral vascular invasion, immunohistochemically defined molecular subtype, number of positive lymph nodes and year of surgery showed that the micropapillary histotype did not add any independent information to the risk of locoregional (P = 0.48) or distant (P = 0.79) relapse, or overall survival (P = 0.60). CONCLUSIONS: Our data reinforce the notion that micropapillary carcinoma usually arises as a locally advanced disease, and provide evidence that micropapillary histology does not add any additional information on clinical outcome independent of clinicopathological characteristics such as lymph node status and immunohistochemically defined molecular subtype.
    Histopathology 03/2013; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For patients with breast cancer and metastases in the sentinel nodes, axillary dissection has been standard treatment. However, for patients with limited sentinel-node involvement, axillary dissection might be overtreatment. We designed IBCSG trial 23-01 to determine whether no axillary dissection was non-inferior to axillary dissection in patients with one or more micrometastatic (≤2 mm) sentinel nodes and tumour of maximum 5 cm. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial, patients were eligible if they had clinically non-palpable axillary lymph node(s) and a primary tumour of 5 cm or less and who, after sentinel-node biopsy, had one or more micrometastatic (≤2 mm) sentinel lymph nodes with no extracapsular extension. Patients were randomly assigned (in a 1:1 ratio) to either undergo axillary dissection or not to undergo axillary dissection. Randomisation was stratified by centre and menopausal status. Treatment assignment was not masked. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival. Non-inferiority was defined as a hazard ratio (HR) of less than 1·25 for no axillary dissection versus axillary dissection. The analysis was by intention to treat. Per protocol, disease and survival information continues to be collected yearly. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00072293. FINDINGS: Between April 1, 2001, and Feb 28, 2010, 465 patients were randomly assigned to axillary dissection and 469 to no axillary dissection. After the exclusion of three patients, 464 patients were in the axillary dissection group and 467 patients were in the no axillary dissection group. After a median follow-up of 5·0 (IQR 3·6-7·3) years, we recorded 69 disease-free survival events in the axillary dissection group and 55 events in the no axillary dissection group. Breast-cancer-related events were recorded in 48 patients in the axillary dissection group and 47 in the no axillary dissection group (ten local recurrences in the axillary dissection group and eight in the no axillary dissection group; three and nine contralateral breast cancers; one and nine regional recurrences; and 34 and 25 distant relapses). Other non-breast cancer events were recorded in 21 patients in the axillary dissection group and eight in the no axillary dissection group (20 and six second non-breast malignancies; and one and two deaths not due to a cancer event). 5-year disease-free survival was 87·8% (95% CI 84·4-91·2) in the group without axillary dissection and 84·4% (80·7-88·1) in the group with axillary dissection (log-rank p=0·16; HR for no axillary dissection vs axillary dissection was 0·78, 95% CI 0·55-1·11, non-inferiority p=0·0042). Patients with reported long-term surgical events (grade 3-4) included one sensory neuropathy (grade 3), three lymphoedema (two grade 3 and one grade 4), and three motor neuropathy (grade 3), all in the group that underwent axillary dissection, and one grade 3 motor neuropathy in the group without axillary dissection. One serious adverse event was reported, a postoperative infection in the axilla in the group with axillary dissection. INTERPRETATION: Axillary dissection could be avoided in patients with early breast cancer and limited sentinel-node involvement, thus eliminating complications of axillary surgery with no adverse effect on survival. FUNDING: None.
    The Lancet Oncology 03/2013; · 25.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The prognostic value of low estrogen and progesterone receptors expression (ER/PgR 1-10%) in early breast cancer patients is still unclear. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 1424 consecutive patients with HER2/neu negative and low endocrine receptors expression early breast cancer, submitted to surgery at the European Institute of Oncology between January 1995 and December 2009. Patients were classified according to the percentage of ER/PgR expression by immunohistochemistry. Group 1 with ER/PgR <1%, group 2 with ER/PgR 1% to 10%. Results Group 1 (ER/PgR <1%) included 1300 patients, and group 2 (ER/PgR 1-10%) 124 patients. Median follow-up time was 74 months (range 3-192 months). The 5-year disease free survival (DFS) rate was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72%-77%) for group 1, 79% (95% CI, 70%-86%) for group 2 (P=0.16). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86% (95% CI, 84-88%) in group 1 and 90% (95% CI, 83%-95%) in group 2 (P=0.13). In patients without lymph-node involvement, the 5-year OS rate was 92% (95%, CI 89.5%-93.6%) for group 1 versus 98% (95%, CI 90.2%-99.8%) for group 2 (P=0.061). One hundred ten patients received endocrine therapy with no significant effect on DFS (P=0.36) and OS (P=0.30). Conclusion ER/PgR 1-10% group had a slight, but not statistically significant, better prognosis than ER/PgR <1% group. Further studies are needed to identify the appropriate clinical approach in this subset of patients with low ER/PgR expression (ER/PgR 1-10%), HER2 negative early breast cancer.
    Clinical Breast Cancer 01/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Conflicting data are available in the literature on the outcome of invasive apocrine carcinoma (IAC), possibly related to a heterogeneous classification of these tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A series of 6899 consecutive patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) not otherwise specified and 72 patients with immunohistochemically defined IAC who received surgery at the European Institute of Oncology between 1997 and 2005 were included. We then explored patterns of recurrence of IAC according to 2 immunohistochemically defined tumor subtypes: pure apocrine carcinoma (estrogen [ER] and progesterone [PgR] receptor negative, and AR positive) and apocrine-like carcinoma (ER or PgR positive and AR negative). RESULTS: The diagnosis of pure apocrine carcinoma was correlated with a worse outcome in terms of DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-2.86; P = .0010) if compared with IDC, whereas IDC and apocrine-like breast cancers showed a similar outcome in terms of DFS and overall survival. Patients with pure apocrine carcinoma had an increased risk in contralateral breast cancer (HR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.22-14; P = .02). CONCLUSION: Pure apocrine carcinoma represents a distinct subtype of breast cancer with a significantly worse DFS as compared with IDC. AR determination might have an important prognostic implication in IAC. Moreover, AR-targeted therapy should be further explored within these tumors.
    Clinical Breast Cancer 12/2012; · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes among early-stage breast cancer patients after conservative surgery and full-dose intraoperative radiotherapy electrons (ELIOT) by applying the Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie-European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (GEC-ESTRO) recommendations for partial breast irradiation (APBI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-thousand eight-hundred and twenty-two patients were stratified into the three GEC-ESTRO categories of "good candidates", "possible candidates" and "contraindication" in order to assess outcomes. RESULTS: All the 1822 cases except 7 could be classified according to GEC-ESTRO groups: 573 patients met the criteria to be included in the "good candidates" group, 468 patients in the "possible candidates" group and 767 patients in the "contraindication" group. Median and mean follow-up length was 3.5years (range 0-10.5years) and 3.8years (SD 2.2), respectively. The 5-year rate of in-breast tumor reappearances for "good candidates", "possible candidates" and "contraindication" groups were 1.9%, 7.4% and 7.7%, respectively (p 0.001). While the regional node relapse showed no difference, the rate of distant metastases was significantly different in the "contraindication" group compared to the other two categories, having a significant impact on survival. CONCLUSIONS: Among the ELIOT population, the GEC-ESTRO recommendations enabled the selection of the good candidates with a low rate of local recurrence, but failed to differentiate the "possible candidates" and the "contraindication" groups.
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 12/2012; · 4.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,405.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • IEO - Istituto Europeo di Oncologia
      • • Unit of Research in Medical Senology URSM
      • • Division of Breast Cancer Surgery
      • • Division of Pathology
      • • Division of Nuclear Medicine
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1991–2012
    • CRO Centro di Riferimento Oncologico di Aviano
      • Division of Surgical Oncology
      Aviano, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy
  • 2011
    • Federal University of Minas Gerais
      Cidade de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil
  • 2002–2011
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • Breast Service
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2010
    • Università degli Studi di Perugia
      Perugia, Umbria, Italy
  • 2008
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2004
    • Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri IRCCS
      Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1987–1995
    • Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1977–1995
    • Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori
      Meldola, Emilia-Romagna, Italy