[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An exact description of the interactions in aromatic carbon systems is a key condition for the design of carbon based nanomaterials. In this paper we investigate the binding and adsorbate structure of the simplest prototype system in this class - the single aromatic ring molecule benzene on graphite. We have collected neutron diffraction data of the ordered phase of deuterated benzene, C6D6, adsorbed on the graphite (0001) basal plane surface. We examined relative coverages from 0.15 up to 1.3 monolayers (ML) in a temperature range of 80 to 250 K. The results confirm the flat lying commensurate (√7 × √7)R19.1° monolayer with lattice constants a = b = 6.5Å at coverages of less than 1 ML. For this structure we observe a progressive melting well below the desorption temperature. At higher coverages we do neither observe an ordered second layer nor a densification of the structure by upright tilting of first layer molecules, as generally assumed up to now. Instead, we see the formation of clusters with a bulk crystalline structure for coverages only weakly exceeding 1 ML.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 08/2014; 16:22116. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate experimental data of adsorbate potential energy landscapes are crucial as benchmarks for the evaluation of first-principles calculations. Here, we present a Bayesian method, analyzing the difference in forward and backward hopping rate in helium spin-echo measurements, that allows us to determine the binding-energy difference between two sites with unprecedented accuracy. Demonstrating the power of the method on the model system cyclopentadienyl/Cu(111), we find an energy difference between fcc and hcp hollow sites of (10.6±1.7) meV.
Physical Review B 02/2014; 89(12). · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental observations suggest that molecular adsorbates exhibit a larger friction coefficient than atomic species of comparable mass, yet the origin of this increased friction is not well understood. We present a study of the microscopic origins of friction experienced by molecular adsorbates during surface diffusion. Helium spin-echo measurements of a range of five-membered aromatic molecules, cyclopentadienyl, pyrrole, and thiophene, on a copper(111) surface are compared with molecular dynamics simulations of the respective systems. The adsorbates have different chemical interactions with the surface and differ in bonding geometry, yet the measurements show that the friction is greater than 2 ps(-1) for all these molecules. We demonstrate that the internal and external degrees of freedom of these adsorbate species are a key factor in the underlying microscopic processes and identify the rotation modes as the ones contributing most to the total measured friction coefficient.
The Journal of Chemical Physics 05/2013; 138(19):194710. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecules are commonly thought of as classical objects obeying Newtonian mechanics. However, in their Communication on page 5085 ff., B. A. J. Lechner et al. describe how the diffusion of pyrrole on a Cu(111) surface is determined by the quantum character of the internal vibrations of the molecule. Bending and torsion modes are found to be responsible for the tripling of the barrier to diffusion through lateral changes in their zero point energies.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition 05/2013; 52(19). · 11.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical diffusion-quantum barrier: On Cu(111), pyrrole diffuses in channels, hopping between adjacent bridge sites over a barrier above hollow sites. The motion of the center of mass can be described classically; however, the activation barrier arises from the quantum character of internal vibrational modes that are largely unexcited during the motion. The unique helium spin-echo experiment is indicated by the green sphere and arrows.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition 03/2013; · 11.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-intensity supersonic beam source is a key component of any atom scattering instrument, affecting the sensitivity and energy resolution of the experiment. We present a new design for a source which can operate at temperatures as low as 11.8 K, corresponding to a beam energy of 2.5 meV. The new source improves the resolution of the Cambridge helium spin-echo spectrometer by a factor of 5.5, thus extending the accessible timescales into the nanosecond range. We describe the design of the new source and discuss experiments characterizing its performance. Spin-echo measurements of benzene/Cu(100) illustrate its merit in the study of a typical slow-moving molecular adsorbate species.
The Review of scientific instruments 02/2013; 84(2):026105. · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-assembled monolayers of sulfur-containing heterocycles and linear oligomers containing thiophene groups have been widely employed in organic electronic applications. Here, we investigate the dynamics of isolated thiophene molecules on Cu(111) by combining helium spin-echo (HeSE) spectroscopy with density functional theory calculations. We show that the thiophene/Cu(111) system displays a rich array of aperiodic dynamical phenomena that include jump diffusion between adjacent atop sites over a 59–62 meV barrier and activated rotation around a sulfur–copper anchor, two processes that have been observed previously for related systems. In addition, we present experimental evidence for a new, weakly activated process, the flapping of the molecular ring. Repulsive inter-adsorbate interactions and an exceptionally high friction coefficient of 5 ± 2 ps–1 are also observed. These experiments demonstrate the versatility of the HeSE technique, and the quantitative information extracted in a detailed analysis provides an ideal benchmark for state-of-the-art theoretical techniques including nonlocal adsorbate–substrate interactions.
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 05/2012; · 6.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The coverage dependent dynamics of CO on a Cu(111) surface are studied on an atomic scale using helium spin-echo spectroscopy. CO molecules occupy top sites preferentially, but also visit intermediate bridge sites in their motion along the reaction coordinate. We observe an increase in hopping rate as the CO coverage grows; however, the motion remains uncorrelated up to at least 0.10 monolayers (ML). From the temperature dependence of the diffusion rate, we find an effective barrier of 98 ± 5 meV for diffusion. Thermal motion is modelled with Langevin molecular dynamics, using a potential energy surface having adsorption sites at top and bridge positions and the experimental data are well represented by an adiabatic barrier for hopping of 123 meV. The sites are not degenerate and the rate changes observed with coverage are modelled successfully by changing the shape of the adiabatic potential energy surface in the region of the transition state without modifying the energy barrier. The results demonstrate that sufficient detail exists in the experimental data to provide information on the principal adsorption sites as well as the energy landscape in the region of the transition state.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present helium scattering measurements of a water ad-layer grown on a O(2 × 1)/Ru(0001) surface. The adsorbed water layer results in a well ordered helium diffraction pattern with systematic extinctions of diffraction spots due to glide line symmetries. The data reflects a well-defined surface structure that maintains proton order even at surprisingly high temperatures of 140 K. The diffraction data we measure is consistent with a structure recently derived from STM measurements performed at 6 K. Comparison with recent DFT calculation is in partial agreement, suggesting that these calculations might be underestimating the contribution of relative water molecule orientations to the binding energy.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 06/2011; 115(25):7205-9. · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the dynamics of low-coverage ethanethiolate on Cu(111) using helium spin-echo spectroscopy. Above 210 K, the measurements are dominated by translational hopping with an activation energy of only 86 ± 5 meV. At lower temperatures (150-210 K) a further process becomes apparent which has the signature of confined motion. We demonstrate the experimental results are consistent with scattering from an anchored rotor, enabling identification of sixfold jump rotation of the ethyl tail group around a static sulfur adsorption site, with a rotational activation energy of 18 ± 8 meV. Our approach represents a new form of rotational spectroscopy which can be used to study rotational surface diffusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dissociative adsorption of cyclopentadiene (C(5)H(6)) on Cu(111) yields a cyclopentadienyl (Cp) species with strongly anionic characteristics. The Cp potential energy surface and frictional coupling to the substrate are determined from measurements of dynamics of the molecule together with density functional calculations. The molecule is shown to occupy degenerate threefold adsorption sites and molecular motion is characterized by a low diffusional energy barrier of 40±3 meV with strong frictional dissipation. Repulsive dipole-dipole interactions are not detected despite charge transfer from substrate to adsorbate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measurements of the atomic-scale motion of H and D atoms on the Pt(111) surface, above the crossover temperature to deep tunneling, are presented. The results indicate that quantum effects are significant up to the highest temperature studied (250 K). The motion is shown to correspond to nearest neighbor hopping diffusion on a well defined fcc (111) lattice. The measurements provide information on the adiabatic potential of both the adsorption site and the transition state and give strong empirical support for a dissipative transition-state theory description of the quantum contribution to the motion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The helium spin echo spectrometer is a powerful apparatus for measuring surface dynamics and can be used in several different modes of operation. In this paper we present the first two-dimensional measurements of the wavelength intensity matrix, offering a new approach for studying surface phonons. The approach that we present is completely independent of the incident beam energy distribution and hence can be used to study inelastic scattering with ultra-high resolution. The additional insights obtained by using this new approach and its technical difficulties are discussed, and a comparison with other existing methods is given.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present an analytic model applied to quasi-elastic scattering from an adsorbed surface species undergoing jump diffusion between adsorption sites described by a Bravais lattice combined with a basis of multiple points. The model allows for hops between adsorption sites which are both symmetrically and energetically inequivalent. We give results for 1-D hopping, which are applicable to a species jumping between the top and bridge sites along the [11̅0] direction on an fcc-(110) surface or for jumps along a step edge. In 2-D, results for hopping between fcc and hcp hollow sites and between the bridge sites of an fcc-(111) surface are presented. These examples give characteristic signatures which will allow these forms of motion to be recognized in experimental data and will enable the underlying physical parameters to be extracted by comparison with the analytical forms derived here.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this review we give a detailed description of the recently developed helium-3 spin-echo technique and its application to several classes of surface dynamic measurements. We review existing surface dynamical probes briefly and illustrate the need for new experimental tools that measure on nanoscale distances and over picosecond timescales. We then describe the helium-3 spin-echo method, which is one such tool, together with the approaches used to describe such measurements and the instrumentation developed to realise its application. The main application of helium-3 spin-echo is the study of surface dynamics, hence we review the approaches which have been established to interpret dynamical data and the signatures for various forms of motion, before going on to summarise the experimental studies to date. We also describe Fourier transform atom spectroscopy, a new method for measuring elastic and resonant scattering that is facilitated by the availability of spin-echo instruments. Finally, we look towards future scientific challenges for the technique.
Progress in Surface Science 11/2009; · 4.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A classical molecular dynamics study of the diffusive motion of benzene molecules on graphite basal planes has been performed in the sub-monolayer coverage regime. Atomistic calculations were performed using the second generation forcefield COMPASS as well as the general purpose forcefields Dreiding and Universal. The COMPASS based calculations show evidence for a Brownian nature of the diffusion with a very small diffusion activation barrier of 11 ± 2 meV in agreement with recent helium and neutron spin-echo spectroscopy data [Fouquet P, Hedgeland H, Jardine AP, Alexandrowicz G, Allison W, Ellis J. Measurements of molecule diffusion on surfaces using neutron and helium spin echo. Physica B 2006;385–386:269-71]. Reasonable agreement is also found for the general purpose forcefields if screened charges are used in the description of the Coulombic non-bond interaction. The less computationally intensive Dreiding forcefield was shown to give a good qualitative description of the diffusion validating its applicability for future large scale calculation, i.e., for long times or enlarged systems. A potential energy surface (PES) has been established for the translational and rotational diffusive motion. The PES shows a peculiar dependence of the lateral diffusion barriers on the rotation angle of the benzene molecule which leads to a preferential selection of certain rotational states in the MD trajectories.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helium-3 spin-echo measurements of K/Cu(001) are presented, the
diffusional surface dynamics of the system at low coverages and on
picosecond time scales. Langevin molecular-dynamics simulations are
used, together with a potential-energy surface derived from density
functional theory calculations, to provide further understanding of the
experimental data. An anisotropic potential with a corrugation of 35-64
meV and a friction parameter of 1/4.5ps-1 are found to give
a good fit to the data for the lower coverages with the adsorbate
interactions modeled with a dipole-dipole repulsion. Additionally, at
the highest coverage, θ=0.084 , a component of motion is
observed perpendicular to the surface, analogous to that recently found
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe an improved high intensity, recycling, supersonic atomic beam source. Changes address several issues previously limiting performance and reliability of the apparatus, including the use of newly available vacuum pumps and modifications to the recycling system. We achieve a source intensity of 2.5 x 10(19) atoms/s/sr, almost twice that previously achievable during recycling. Current limits on intensity are discussed.
The Review of scientific instruments 08/2009; 80(7):076110. · 1.58 Impact Factor