D Branch Moody

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (97)1001.22 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During infection and autoimmune disease, activation and expansion of T cells take place. Consequently, the TCR repertoire contains information about ongoing and past diseases. Analysis and interpretation of the human TCR repertoire are hampered by its size and stochastic variation and by the diversity of Ags and Ag-presenting molecules encoded by the MHC, but are highly desirable and would greatly impact fundamental and clinical immunology. A subset of the TCR repertoire is formed by invariant T cells. Invariant T cells express interdonor-conserved TCRs and recognize a limited set of Ags, presented by nonpolymorphic Ag-presenting molecules. Discovery of the three known invariant T cell populations has been a tedious and slow process, identifying them one by one. Because conservation of the TCR α-chain of invariant T cells is much higher than the β-chain, and because the TCR α-chain V gene segment TRAV1-2 is used by two of the three known invariant TCRs, we employed next-generation sequencing of TCR α-chains that contain the TRAV1-2 gene segment to identify 16 invariant TCRs shared among many blood donors. Frequency analysis of individual clones indicates these T cells are expanded in many donors, implying an important role in human immunity. This approach extends the number of known interdonor-conserved TCRs and suggests that many more exist and that these TCR patterns can be used to systematically evaluate human Ag exposure.
    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: CD1c is a member of the group 1 CD1 family of proteins that are specialized for lipid antigen presentation. Despite high cell surface expression of CD1c on key antigen-presenting cells and the discovery of its mycobacterial lipid antigen presentation capability, the molecular basis of CD1c recognition by T cells is unknown. Here we present a comprehensive functional and molecular analysis of αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) recognition of CD1c presenting mycobacterial phosphomycoketide antigens. Our structure of CD1c with the mycobacterial phosphomycoketide (PM) shows similarities to that of CD1c-mannosyl-β1-phosphomycoketide in that the A' pocket accommodates the mycoketide alkyl chain; however, the phosphate head-group of PM is shifted ∼6 Å in relation to that of mannosyl-β1-PM. We also demonstrate a bona fide interaction between six human TCRs and CD1c-mycoketide complexes, measuring high to moderate affinities. The crystal structure of the DN6 TCR and mutagenic studies reveal a requirement of five complementarity determining region (CDR) loops for CD1c recognition. Furthermore, mutagenesis of CD1c reveals residues in both the α1 and α2 helices involved in TCR recognition, yet not entirely overlapping among the examined TCRs. Unlike patterns for MHC I, no archetypical binding footprint is predicted to be shared by CD1c-reactive TCRs, even when recognizing the same or similar antigens.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 10/2014;
  • Emilie Layre, Annemieke de Jong, David Branch Moody
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    ABSTRACT: For decades immunologists thought that T cells solely recognize peptides bound to Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) proteins. Therefore, nearly all medical technology that seeks to measure and manipulate human T cells during immunization, infection, allergy and autoimmune diseases relies on peptide antigens. Newer insights into αβ and γδ T cell activation by CD1 or MR1 proteins greatly expand the biochemical range of T cell antigens to include lipids and non-peptidic small molecules. Moving beyond in vitro studies, the recent development of human CD1a, CD1b, CD1c and MR1 tetramers allows direct and specific enumeration of lipid-reactive and small molecule-reactive T cells, providing a new approach to study of T cell-mediated diseases.
    Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 09/2014; 23:31–38.
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    ABSTRACT: Lipids from mycobacteria can be presented to human T cells by group 1 CD1 Ag-presenting molecules (CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c). Group 1 CD1-restricted T cells are activated by lipid Ags presented by myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), after which they generate antibacterial effector functions, including IFN-γ secretion and cytolysis. Thus, mycobacterial lipids are being investigated as components of novel vaccines for mycobacterial infections. In this study we show that the mycobacterial lipid Ag C80 glucose-6-monomycolate can be delivered to human CD1b(+) DCs via targeted liposomal nanoparticles, leading to robust group 1 CD1-restricted activation of T cells. Targeting was achieved by decorating the liposomes with a high-affinity glycan ligand of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec)-7, a siglec receptor expressed on DCs that mediates rapid endocytosis and transport of its cargo to lysosomes. An Ab to Siglec-7 completely blocked the binding of targeted liposomes to human monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs), demonstrating their targeting specificity. Mo-DCs pulsed with targeted liposomes containing C80 glucose-6-monomycolate more potently activated a CD1b-restricted T cell line relative to Mo-DCs pulsed with free lipid Ag or antigenic liposomes without Siglec-7 ligand. These data suggest that the endocytic function of Siglec-7 can be exploited to deliver glycolipid Ags to their target cell and increase the efficiency of display to T cells.
    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Current views emphasize TCR diversity as a key feature that differentiates the group 1 (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c) and group 2 (CD1d) CD1 systems. Whereas TCR sequence motifs define CD1d-reactive NKT cells, the available data do not allow a TCR-based organization of the group 1 CD1 repertoire. The observed TCR diversity might result from donor-to-donor differences in TCR repertoire, as seen for MHC-restricted T cells. Alternatively, diversity might result from differing CD1 isoforms, Ags, and methods used to identify TCRs. Using CD1b tetramers to isolate clones recognizing the same glycolipid, we identified a previously unknown pattern of V gene usage (TRAV17, TRBV4-1) among unrelated human subjects. These TCRs are distinct from those present on NKT cells and germline-encoded mycolyl lipid-reactive T cells. Instead, they resemble the TCR of LDN5, one of the first known CD1b-reactive clones that was previously thought to illustrate the diversity of the TCR repertoire. Interdonor TCR conservation was observed in vitro and ex vivo, identifying LDN5-like T cells as a distinct T cell type. These data support TCR-based organization of the CD1b repertoire, which consists of at least two compartments that differ in TCR sequence motifs, affinity, and coreceptor expression.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2014; · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Dalam Ly, D Branch Moody
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    ABSTRACT: Whereas research on CD1d has emphasized a few glycosyl ceramides, the broader family of four human CD1 antigen-presenting molecules binds hundreds of distinct self-lipids. Individual lipid types bind within CD1 grooves in different ways, such that they partially fill the groove, match the groove volume, or protrude substantially from the groove. These differing modes of binding can now be connected to differing immunological functions, as individual lipids can act as stimulatory antigens, inhibitory ligands, or space-filling scaffolds. Because each type of CD1 protein folds to produce antigen-binding grooves with differing sizes and shapes, CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, CD1d, and CD1e have distinct mechanisms of capturing self-lipids and exchanging them for foreign lipids. The size discrepancy between endogeneous lipids and groove volume is most pronounced for CD1b. Recent studies show that the large CD1b cavity can simultaneously bind two self-lipids, the antigen, and its scaffold lipid, which can be exchanged for one large bacterial lipid. In this review, we will highlight recent studies showing how cells regulate lipid antigen loading and the roles CD1 groove structures have in control of the presentation of chemically diverse lipids to T cells.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 03/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify lipids with roles in tuberculosis disease, we systematically compared the lipid content of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the attenuated vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Comparative lipidomics analysis identified more than 1,000 molecular differences, including a previously unknown, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific lipid that is composed of a diterpene unit linked to adenosine. We established the complete structure of the natural product as 1-tuberculosinyladenosine (1-TbAd) using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. A screen for 1-TbAd mutants, complementation studies, and gene transfer identified Rv3378c as necessary for 1-TbAd biosynthesis. Whereas Rv3378c was previously thought to function as a phosphatase, these studies establish its role as a tuberculosinyl transferase and suggest a revised biosynthetic pathway for the sequential action of Rv3377c-Rv3378c. In agreement with this model, recombinant Rv3378c protein produced 1-TbAd, and its crystal structure revealed a cis-prenyl transferase fold with hydrophobic residues for isoprenoid binding and a second binding pocket suitable for the nucleoside substrate. The dual-substrate pocket distinguishes Rv3378c from classical cis-prenyl transferases, providing a unique model for the prenylation of diverse metabolites. Terpene nucleosides are rare in nature, and 1-TbAd is known only in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Thus, this intersection of nucleoside and terpene pathways likely arose late in the evolution of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex; 1-TbAd serves as an abundant chemical marker of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the extracellular export of this amphipathic molecule likely accounts for the known virulence-promoting effects of the Rv3378c enzyme.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Siderophores are small iron-binding molecules secreted by bacteria to scavenge iron. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis, produces the siderophores mycobactin and carboxymycobactin. Complexes of the mycobacterial membrane proteins MmpS4 and MmpS5 with the transporters MmpL4 and MmpL5 are required for siderophore export and virulence in Mtb. Here we show that, surprisingly, mycobactin or carboxymycobactin did not rescue the low-iron growth defect of the export mutant but severely impaired growth. Exogenous siderophores were taken up by the export mutant, and siderophore-delivered iron was used, but the deferrated siderophores accumulated intracellularly, indicating a blockade of siderophore recycling. This hypothesis was confirmed by the observation that radiolabeled carboxymycobactin was taken up and secreted again by Mtb. Addition of iron salts to an Mtb siderophore biosynthesis mutant stimulated more growth in the presence of a limiting amount of siderophores than iron-loaded siderophores alone. Thus, recycling enables Mtb to acquire iron at lower metabolic cost because Mtb cannot use iron salts without siderophores. Exogenous siderophores were bactericidal for the export mutant in submicromolar quantities. High-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that endogenous carboxymycobactin also accumulated in the export mutant. Toxic siderophore accumulation is prevented by a drug that inhibits siderophore biosynthesis. Intracellular accumulation of siderophores was toxic despite the use of an alternative iron source such as hemin, suggesting an additional inhibitory mechanism independent of iron availability. This study indicates that targeting siderophore export/recycling would deliver a one-two punch to Mtb: restricting access to iron and causing toxic intracellular siderophore accumulation.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2014; 111(5):1945-50. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T cells autoreactive to the antigen-presenting molecule CD1a are common in human blood and skin, but the search for natural autoantigens has been confounded by background T cell responses to CD1 proteins and self lipids. After capturing CD1a-lipid complexes, we gently eluted ligands while preserving non-ligand-bound CD1a for testing lipids from tissues. CD1a released hundreds of ligands of two types. Inhibitory ligands were ubiquitous membrane lipids with polar head groups, whereas stimulatory compounds were apolar oils. We identified squalene and wax esters, which naturally accumulate in epidermis and sebum, as autoantigens presented by CD1a. The activation of T cells by skin oils suggested that headless mini-antigens nest within CD1a and displace non-antigenic resident lipids with large head groups. Oily autoantigens naturally coat the surface of the skin; thus, this points to a previously unknown mechanism of barrier immunity.
    Nature Immunology 12/2013; · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human CD1a mediates foreign Ag recognition by a T cell clone, but the nature of possible TCR interactions with CD1a/lipid are unknown. After incubating CD1a with a mycobacterial lipopeptide Ag, dideoxymycobactin (DDM), we identified and measured binding to a recombinant TCR (TRAV3/ TRBV3-1, KD of ≈100 μM). Detection of ternary CD1a/lipid/TCR interactions enabled development of CD1a tetramers and CD1a multimers with carbohydrate backbones (dextramers), which specifically stained T cells using a mechanism that was dependent on the precise stereochemistry of the peptide backbone and was blocked with a soluble TCR. Furthermore, sorting of human T cells from unrelated tuberculosis patients for bright DDM-dextramer staining allowed recovery of T cells that were activated by CD1a and DDM. These studies demonstrate that the mechanism of T cell activation by lipopeptides occurs via ternary interactions of CD1a/Ag/TCR. Furthermore, these studies demonstrate the existence of lipopeptide-specific T cells in humans ex vivo.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD1 proteins evolved to present diverse lipid Ags to T cells. In comparison with MHC proteins, CD1 proteins exhibit minimal allelic diversity as a result of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it is unknown if common SNPs in gene regulatory regions affect CD1 expression and function. We report surprising diversity in patterns of inducible CD1a expression on human dendritic cells (DCs), spanning the full range from undetectable to high density, a finding not seen with other CD1 isoforms. CD1a-deficient DCs failed to present mycobacterial lipopeptide to T cells but had no defects in endocytosis, cytokine secretion, or expression of costimulatory molecules after LPS treatment. We identified an SNP in the 5' untranslated region (rs366316) that was common and strongly associated with low CD1a surface expression and mRNA levels (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001, respectively). Using a CD1a promoter-luciferase system in combination with mutagenesis studies, we found that the polymorphic allele reduced luciferase expression by 44% compared with the wild-type variant (p < 0.001). Genetic regulation of lipid Ag presentation by varying expression on human DCs provides a mechanism for achieving population level differences in immune responses despite limited structural variation in CD1a proteins.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have taken the first steps towards a complete reconstruction of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulatory network based on ChIP-Seq and combined this reconstruction with system-wide profiling of messenger RNAs, proteins, metabolites and lipids during hypoxia and re-aeration. Adaptations to hypoxia are thought to have a prominent role in M. tuberculosis pathogenesis. Using ChIP-Seq combined with expression data from the induction of the same factors, we have reconstructed a draft regulatory network based on 50 transcription factors. This network model revealed a direct interconnection between the hypoxic response, lipid catabolism, lipid anabolism and the production of cell wall lipids. As a validation of this model, in response to oxygen availability we observe substantial alterations in lipid content and changes in gene expression and metabolites in corresponding metabolic pathways. The regulatory network reveals transcription factors underlying these changes, allows us to computationally predict expression changes, and indicates that Rv0081 is a regulatory hub.
    Nature 07/2013; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) pair in millions of combinations to create complex and unique T cell repertoires for each person. Through the use of tetramers to analyze TCRs reactive to the antigen-presenting molecule CD1b, we detected T cells with highly stereotyped TCR α-chains present among genetically unrelated patients with tuberculosis. The germline-encoded, mycolyl lipid-reactive (GEM) TCRs had an α-chain bearing the variable (V) region TRAV1-2 rearranged to the joining (J) region TRAJ9 with few nontemplated (N)-region additions. Analysis of TCRs by high-throughput sequencing, binding and crystallography showed linkage of TCRα sequence motifs to high-affinity recognition of antigen. Thus, the CD1-reactive TCR repertoire is composed of at least two compartments: high-affinity GEM TCRs, and more-diverse TCRs with low affinity for CD1b-lipid complexes. We found high interdonor conservation of TCRs that probably resulted from selection by a nonpolymorphic antigen-presenting molecule and an immunodominant antigen.
    Nature Immunology 06/2013; · 26.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD1c is expressed with high density on human dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells, yet its antigen presentation functions are the least well understood among CD1 family members. Using a CD1c-reactive T cell line (DN6) to complete an organism-wide survey of M. tuberculosis lipids, we identified C32 phosphomycoketide (PM) as a previously unknown molecule and a CD1c-presented antigen. CD1c binding and presentation of mycoketide antigens absolutely required the unusual, mycobacteria-specific lipid branching patterns introduced by polyketide synthase 12 (pks12). Unexpectedly, one TCR responded to diversely glycosylated and unglycosylated forms of mycoketide when presented by DCs and B cells. Yet cell-free systems showed that recognition was mediated only by the deglycosylated phosphoantigen. These studies identify antigen processing of a natural bacterial antigen in the human CD1c system, indicating that cells act on glycolipids to generate a highly simplified neoepitope composed of a sugar-free phosphate anion. Using knowledge of this processed antigen, we generated human CD1c tetramers, and demonstrate that CD1c-PM complexes stain T cell receptors (TCRs), providing direct evidence for a ternary interaction among CD1c-lipid-TCR. Furthermore, PM-loaded CD1c tetramers detect fresh human T cells from peripheral blood, demonstrating a polyclonal response to PM antigens in humans ex vivo.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2013; · 13.21 Impact Factor
  • Ildiko Van Rhijn, Dalam Ly, D Branch Moody
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    ABSTRACT: The CD1 system is composed of five types of human CD1 proteins, CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, CD1d, and CD1e, and their mammalian orthologs. Each type of CD1 protein has a distinct antigen binding groove and shows differing patterns of expression within cells and in different tissues. Here we review the molecular mechanisms by which CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c capture distinct classes of self- and mycobacterial antigens. We discuss how CD1-restricted T cells participate in the immune response, emphasizing new evidence for mycobacterial recognition in vivo in human and non-human models.
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 01/2013; 783:181-97. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most vaccines and basic studies of T cell epitopes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis emphasize water-soluble proteins that are secreted into the extracellular space and presented in the context of MHC class II. Much less is known about the role of Ags retained within the cell wall. We used polyclonal T cells from infected humans to probe for responses to immunodominant Ags in the M. tuberculosis cell wall. We found that the magnitude of response to secreted or cell wall intrinsic compounds was similar among healthy controls, patients with latent tuberculosis, and patients with active tuberculosis. Individual responses to secreted Ags and cell wall extract were strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.495, p = 0.001), suggesting that T cells responding to cell wall and secreted Ags are present at similar frequency. Surprisingly, T cell stimulatory factors intrinsic to the cell wall partition into organic solvents; however, these responses are not explained by CD1-mediated presentation of lipids. Instead, we find that molecules soluble in organic solvents are dependent upon MHC class II and recognized by IFN-γ-secreting CD4(+) T cells. We reasoned that MHC class II-dependent Ags extracting into lipid mixtures might be found among triacylated lipoproteins present in mycobacteria. We used M. tuberculosis lacking prolipoprotein signal peptidase A (lspA), an enzyme required for lipoprotein synthesis, to demonstrate loss of polyclonal T cell responses. Our results demonstrate the use of bacterial genetics to identify lipoproteins as an unexpected and immunodominant class of cell wall-associated Ags targeted by the polyclonal human T cell response to M. tuberculosis.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although CD1d and NKT cells have been proposed to have highly conserved functions in mammals, data on functions of CD1d and NKT cells in species other than humans and rodents are lacking. Upon stimulation with the CD1d-presented synthetic antigen α-galactosylceramide, human and rodent type I invariant NKT cells release large amounts of cytokines. The two bovine CD1D (boCD1D) genes have structural features that suggest that they cannot be translated into functional proteins expressed on the cell surface. Here we provide evidence that despite an intron-exon structure and signal peptide that are different from all other known CD1 genes, boCD1D can be translated into a protein that is expressed on the cell surface. However, in vivo treatment of cattle (Bos taurus) with 0.1, 1, or 10 µg kg(-1) of the most commonly used α-galactosylceramide, which has a C26 fatty acid, did not lead to an increase in body temperature and serum cytokine levels of the animals. This lack of reactivity is not due to a complete inability of boCD1d to present glycosphingolipids because α-galactosylceramide variants with shorter fatty acids could be presented by boCD1d to human NKT cells in vitro. This suggests that the natural ligands of boCD1d are smaller lipids.
    International Immunology 09/2012; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Emilie Layre, D Branch Moody
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    ABSTRACT: Lipidomics is a subspecialty of metabolomics that focuses on water insoluble metabolites that form membrane barriers. Most lipidomic databases catalog lipids from common model organisms, like humans or Escherichia coli. However, model organisms' lipid profiles show surprisingly little overlap with those of specialized pathogens, creating the need for organism-specific lipidomic databases. Here we review rapid progress in lipidomic platform development with regard to chromatography, detection and bioinformatics. We emphasize new methods of comparative lipidomics, which use aligned datasets to identify lipids changed after introducing a biological variable. These new methods provide an unprecedented ability to broadly and quantitatively describe lipidic change during biological processes and identify changed lipids with low error rates.
    Biochimie 08/2012; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In most adult humans, hepatitis B is a self-limiting disease leading to life-long protective immunity, which is the consequence of a robust adaptive immune response occurring weeks after hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Notably, HBV-specific T cells can be detected shortly after infection, but the mechanisms underlying this early immune priming and its consequences for subsequent control of viral replication are poorly understood. Using primary human and mouse hepatocytes and mouse models of transgenic and adenoviral HBV expression, we show that HBV-expressing hepatocytes produce endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated endogenous antigenic lipids including lysophospholipids that are generated by HBV-induced secretory phospholipases and that lead to activation of natural killer T (NKT) cells. The absence of NKT cells or CD1d or a defect in ER-associated transfer of lipids onto CD1d results in diminished HBV-specific T and B cell responses and delayed viral control in mice. NKT cells may therefore contribute to control of HBV infection through sensing of HBV-induced modified self-lipids.
    Nature medicine 06/2012; 18(7):1060-8. · 27.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
1,001.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996–2014
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Center for Brain Mind Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • Universiteit Utrecht
      • • Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology
      • • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
      Utrecht, Provincie Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2011
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2009
    • Kyoto University
      • Institute for Virus Research
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
  • 2003
    • Yeshiva University
      • Department of Microbiology & Immunology
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2001
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Department of Microbiology & Immunology
      New York City, NY, United States