D Branch Moody

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (112)1165.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The role of CD1a-reactive T cells in human allergic disease is unknown. We have previously shown that circulating CD1a-reactive T cells recognise neolipid antigens generated by bee and wasp venom phospholipase, and here tested the hypothesis that venom-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells associate with venom allergy. Circulating T cells from bee and wasp venom allergic individuals, before and during immunotherapy, were exposed to CD1a-transfected K562 cells in the presence of wasp or bee venom. T-cell response was evaluated based on IFNγ, GM-CSF and IL-13 cytokine production. Venom allergic individuals showed significantly higher frequencies of IFN-γ, GM-CSF and IL-13 producing CD1a-reactive T cells responsive to venom and venom derived phospholipase than healthy individuals. Venom-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells were cross-responsive between wasp and bee suggesting shared pathways of allergenicity. Frequencies of CD1a-reactive T cells were initially induced during subcutaneous immunotherapy, peaking by weeks 5, but then reduced despite escalation of antigen dose. Our current understanding of venom allergy and immunotherapy is largely based on peptide and protein-specific T cell and antibody responses. Here, we show that lipid antigens and CD1a-reactive T cells associate with the allergic response. These data have implications for mechanisms of allergy and approaches to immunotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    European Journal of Immunology 10/2015; DOI:10.1002/eji.201545869 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While most studies of T lymphocytes have focused on T cells reactive to complexes of peptide and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins, many other types of T cells do not fit this paradigm. These include CD1-restricted T cells, MR1-restricted mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells), MHC class Ib-reactive T cells, and γδ T cells. Collectively, these T cells are considered 'unconventional', in part because they can recognize lipids, small-molecule metabolites and specially modified peptides. Unlike MHC-reactive T cells, these apparently disparate T cell types generally show simplified patterns of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression, rapid effector responses and 'public' antigen specificities. Here we review evidence showing that unconventional T cells are an abundant component of the human immune system and discuss the immunotherapeutic potential of these cells and their antigenic targets.
    Nature Immunology 10/2015; 16(11):1114-1123. DOI:10.1038/ni.3298 · 20.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human T cells are activated by both peptide and nonpeptide Ags produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. T cells recognize cell wall lipids bound to CD1 molecules, but effector functions of CD1-reactive T cells have not been systematically assessed in M. tuberculosis-infected humans. It is also not known how these features correlate with T cell responses to secreted protein Ags. We developed a flow cytometric assay to profile CD1-restricted T cells ex vivo and assessed T cell responses to five cell wall lipid Ags in a cross-sectional study of 19 M. tuberculosis-infected and 22 M. tuberculosis-uninfected South African adolescents. We analyzed six T cell functions using a recently developed computational approach for flow cytometry data in high dimensions. We compared these data with T cell responses to five protein Ags in the same cohort. We show that CD1b-restricted T cells producing antimycobacterial cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α are detectable ex vivo in CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD4(-)CD8(-) T cell subsets. Glucose monomycolate was immunodominant among lipid Ags tested, and polyfunctional CD4 T cells specific for this lipid simultaneously expressed CD40L, IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α. Lipid-reactive CD4(+) T cells were detectable at frequencies of 0.001-0.01%, and this did not differ by M. tuberculosis infection status. Finally, CD4 T cell responses to lipids were poorly correlated with CD4 T cell responses to proteins (Spearman rank correlation -0.01; p = 0.95). These results highlight the functional diversity of CD1-restricted T cells circulating in peripheral blood as well as the complementary nature of T cell responses to mycobacterial lipids and proteins. Our approach enables further population-based studies of lipid-specific T cell responses during natural infection and vaccination.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2015; DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1501285 · 4.92 Impact Factor
  • Ildiko Van Rhijn · Dale I Godfrey · Jamie Rossjohn · D Branch Moody ·
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    ABSTRACT: The antigen-presenting molecules CD1 and MHC class I-related protein (MR1) display lipids and small molecules to T cells. The antigen display platforms in the four CD1 proteins are laterally asymmetrical, so that the T cell receptor (TCR)-binding surfaces are comprised of roofs and portals, rather than the long grooves seen in the MHC antigen-presenting molecules. TCRs can bind CD1 proteins with left-sided or right-sided footprints, creating unexpected modes of antigen recognition. The use of tetramers of human CD1a, CD1b, CD1c or MR1 proteins now allows detailed analysis of the human T cell repertoire, which has revealed new invariant TCRs that bind CD1b molecules and are different from those that define natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells.
    Nature Reviews Immunology 09/2015; 15(10). DOI:10.1038/nri3889 · 34.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single cell analysis captures the heterogeneity of T cell populations that target defined antigens. HIV infection results in defects of anti-mycobacterial immunity which remain poorly defined. We therefore recruited a small number of subjects including those with latent and active tuberculosis (TB), either with or without concomitant HIV, and tracked the mycobacterial glycolipid-reactive T cell repertoire using CD1b tetramers. Glycolipid-reactive T cells expressed memory markers and the HIV co-receptors CD4 and CCR5; they were not detected in subjects with HIV-associated active tuberculosis. HIV infection may affect T cells that recognize mycobacterial glycolipids and impact immunity.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv455 · 6.00 Impact Factor
  • Ildiko Van Rhijn · D Branch Moody ·
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    ABSTRACT: The now-famous term "restriction" derived from experiments in which T cells from Donor A failed to recognize Ags presented by cells from Donor B. Restriction results from interdonor variation in MHC genes. Donor restriction dominates immunologists' thinking about the T cell response because it governs organ transplantation and hinders the discovery of disease-associated Ags. However, other T cells can be considered "donor unrestricted" because their targets, CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, CD1d, or MR1, are expressed in a similar form among all humans. A striking feature of donor unrestricted T cells is the expression of invariant TCRs with nearly species-wide distribution. In this article, we review new evidence that donor unrestricted T cells are common in humans. NKT cells, mucosa-associated invariant T cells, and germline-encoded mycolyl-reactive T cells operate outside of the familiar principles of the MHC system, providing a broader picture of T cell function and new opportunities for therapy. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2015; 195(5):1927-32. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1500943 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lack of rapid, reliable diagnostic tests that correlate with bacterial load remains a significant impediment to effective diagnosis, treatment, and clinical trials for tuberculosis. To develop tests based on products secreted by tubercle bacilli that are strictly associated with viability, we evaluated three bacterial-derived, species-specific, small molecules as biomarkers: two mycobactin siderophores and tuberculosinyladenosine. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we demonstrated the presence of one or both mycobactins and/or tuberculosinyladenosine in serum and whole lung tissues from infected mice and sputum, cerebrospinal fluid, or lymph nodes from infected patients but not uninfected controls. Detection of the target molecules distinguished host infection status in 100% of mice with both serum and lung as the target sample. In human subjects, we evaluated detection of the bacterial small molecules in multiple body compartments in three patient cohorts corresponding to different forms of tuberculosis. We detected at least one of the three molecules in 90%, 71%, and 40% of TB patients' sputum, cerebrospinal fluid, and lymph node samples, respectively. In paucibacillary forms of human tuberculosis, which are difficult to diagnose even with culture, detection of one or more bacterial small molecule was rapid and compared favorably to PCR-based detection. Secreted bacterial small molecules, which are detectable in serum, warrant further investigation as a means for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in patients with tuberculosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 05/2015; DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiv312 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although small molecules shed from pathogens are widely used to diagnose infection, such tests have not been widely implemented for tuberculosis. Here we show that the recently identified compound, 1-tuberculosinyladenosine (1-TbAd), accumulates to comprise >1% of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipid. In vitro and in vivo, two isomers of TbAd were detected that might serve as infection markers. Using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we established the structure of the previously unknown molecule, N(6)-tuberculosinyladenosine (N(6)-TbAd). Its biosynthesis involves enzymatic production of 1-TbAd by Rv3378c followed by conversion to N(6)-TbAd via the Dimroth rearrangement. Intact biosynthetic genes are observed only within M. tuberculosis complex bacteria, and TbAd was not detected among other medically important pathogens, environmental bacteria, and vaccine strains. With no substantially similar known molecules in nature, the discovery and in vivo detection of two abundant terpene nucleosides support their development as specific diagnostic markers of tuberculosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemistry & biology 04/2015; 22(4):516-526. DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2015.03.015 · 6.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD11c(HI) human decidual macrophages express several isoforms of CD1 molecules. Their expression pattern and function required investigation. CD11c(HI) macrophages were isolated from decidua. Expression of CD1 isoforms and their ability to present lipid antigens to T cells was studied. CD1a, CD1c, and CD1d were all expressed on CD11c(HI) dMϕ, a pattern differing from those previously observed. Exposure of peripheral monocytes and dendritic cells to lipid isolates from decidua led to increased surface CD1a levels only. The CD1a and CD1c on dMϕ were able to present the appropriate lipid antigens to lipid antigen-specific T cells. Finally, autoreactivity of decidual T cells to CD1a was observed. The unique pattern of expression of CD1 isoforms on CD11c(HI) dMϕ is consistent with organ-specific roles of CD1 in human T-cell responses. dMϕ are able to present lipid antigens to both peripheral and decidual T cells and are major antigen-presenting cells in human decidua. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y.: 1989) 03/2015; 74(2). DOI:10.1111/aji.12375 · 2.44 Impact Factor
  • Ildiko Van Rhijn · D. Branch Moody ·
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    ABSTRACT: For decades, proteins were thought to be the sole or at least the dominant source of antigens for T cells. Studies in the 1990s demonstrated that CD1 proteins and mycobacterial lipids form specific targets of human αβ T cells. The molecular basis by which T-cell receptors (TCRs) recognize CD1-lipid complexes is now well understood. Many types of mycobacterial lipids function as antigens in the CD1 system, and new studies done with CD1 tetramers identify T-cell populations in the blood of tuberculosis patients. In human populations, a fundamental difference between the CD1 and major histocompatibility complex systems is that all humans express nearly identical CD1 proteins. Correspondingly, human CD1 responsive T cells show evidence of conserved TCRs. In addition to natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells), conserved TCRs define other subsets of human T cells, including germline-encoded mycolyl-reactive (GEM) T cells. The simple immunogenetics of the CD1 system and new investigative tools to measure T-cell responses in humans now creates a situation in which known lipid antigens can be developed as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic reagents for tuberculosis disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Immunological Reviews 03/2015; 264(1). DOI:10.1111/imr.12253 · 10.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prolonged survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) in the host fundamentally depends on scavenging essential nutrients from host sources. M. tb scavenges non-heme iron using mycobactin and carboxymycobactin siderophores, synthesized by mycobactin synthases (Mbt). Although a general mechanism for mycobactin biosynthesis has been proposed, the biological functions of individual mbt genes remain largely untested. Through targeted gene deletion and global lipidomic profiling of intact bacteria, we identify the essential biochemical functions of two mycobactin synthases, MbtK and MbtN, in siderophore biosynthesis and their effects on bacterial growth in vitro and in vivo. The deletion mutant, ΔmbtN, produces only saturated mycobactin and carboxymycobactin, demonstrating an essential function of MbtN as the mycobactin dehydrogenase, which affects antigenicity but not iron uptake or M. tb growth. In contrast, deletion of mbtK ablated all known forms of mycobactin and its deoxy precursors, defining MbtK as the essential acyl transferase. The mbtK mutant showed markedly reduced iron scavenging and growth in vitro. Further, ΔmbtK was attenuated for growth in mice, demonstrating a non-redundant role of hydroxamate siderophores in virulence, even when other M. tb iron scavenging mechanisms are operative. The unbiased lipidomic approach also revealed unexpected consequences of perturbing mycobactin biosynthesis, including extreme depletion of mycobacterial phospholipids. Thus, lipidomic profiling highlights connections among iron acquisition, phospholipid homeostasis, and virulence, and identifies MbtK as a lynchpin at the crossroads of these phenotypes.
    PLoS Pathogens 03/2015; 11(3):e1004792. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004792 · 7.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Venoms frequently co-opt host immune responses, so study of their mode of action can provide insight into novel inflammatory pathways. Using bee and wasp venom responses as a model system, we investigated whether venoms contain CD1-presented antigens. Here, we show that venoms activate human T cells via CD1a proteins. Whereas CD1 proteins typically present lipids, chromatographic separation of venoms unexpectedly showed that stimulatory factors partition into protein-containing fractions. This finding was explained by demonstrating that bee venom-derived phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activates T cells through generation of small neoantigens, such as free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, from common phosphodiacylglycerides. Patient studies showed that injected PLA2 generates lysophospholipids within human skin in vivo, and polyclonal T cell responses are dependent on CD1a protein and PLA2. These findings support a previously unknown skin immune response based on T cell recognition of CD1a proteins and lipid neoantigen generated in vivo by phospholipases. The findings have implications for skin barrier sensing by T cells and mechanisms underlying phospholipase-dependent inflammatory skin disease. © 2015 Bourgeois et al.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 02/2015; 212(2). DOI:10.1084/jem.20141505 · 12.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A central paradigm in αβ T cell-mediated immunity is the simultaneous co-recognition of antigens and antigen-presenting molecules by the αβ T cell antigen receptor (TCR). CD1a presents a broad repertoire of lipid-based antigens. We found that a prototypical autoreactive TCR bound CD1a when it was presenting a series of permissive endogenous ligands, while other lipid ligands were nonpermissive to TCR binding. The structures of two TCR-CD1a-lipid complexes showed that the TCR docked over the A' roof of CD1a in a manner that precluded direct contact with permissive ligands. Nonpermissive ligands indirectly inhibited TCR binding by disrupting the TCR-CD1a contact zone. The exclusive recognition of CD1a by the TCR represents a previously unknown mechanism whereby αβ T cells indirectly sense self antigens that are bound to an antigen-presenting molecule.
    Nature Immunology 02/2015; 16(3). DOI:10.1038/ni.3098 · 20.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During infection and autoimmune disease, activation and expansion of T cells take place. Consequently, the TCR repertoire contains information about ongoing and past diseases. Analysis and interpretation of the human TCR repertoire are hampered by its size and stochastic variation and by the diversity of Ags and Ag-presenting molecules encoded by the MHC, but are highly desirable and would greatly impact fundamental and clinical immunology. A subset of the TCR repertoire is formed by invariant T cells. Invariant T cells express interdonor-conserved TCRs and recognize a limited set of Ags, presented by nonpolymorphic Ag-presenting molecules. Discovery of the three known invariant T cell populations has been a tedious and slow process, identifying them one by one. Because conservation of the TCR α-chain of invariant T cells is much higher than the β-chain, and because the TCR α-chain V gene segment TRAV1-2 is used by two of the three known invariant TCRs, we employed next-generation sequencing of TCR α-chains that contain the TRAV1-2 gene segment to identify 16 invariant TCRs shared among many blood donors. Frequency analysis of individual clones indicates these T cells are expanded in many donors, implying an important role in human immunity. This approach extends the number of known interdonor-conserved TCRs and suggests that many more exist and that these TCR patterns can be used to systematically evaluate human Ag exposure.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2014; 193(10). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1401380 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CD1c is a member of the group 1 CD1 family of proteins that are specialized for lipid antigen presentation. Despite high cell surface expression of CD1c on key antigen-presenting cells and the discovery of its mycobacterial lipid antigen presentation capability, the molecular basis of CD1c recognition by T cells is unknown. Here we present a comprehensive functional and molecular analysis of αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) recognition of CD1c presenting mycobacterial phosphomycoketide antigens. Our structure of CD1c with the mycobacterial phosphomycoketide (PM) shows similarities to that of CD1c-mannosyl-β1-phosphomycoketide in that the A' pocket accommodates the mycoketide alkyl chain; however, the phosphate head-group of PM is shifted ∼6 Å in relation to that of mannosyl-β1-PM. We also demonstrate a bona fide interaction between six human TCRs and CD1c-mycoketide complexes, measuring high to moderate affinities. The crystal structure of the DN6 TCR and mutagenic studies reveal a requirement of five complementarity determining region (CDR) loops for CD1c recognition. Furthermore, mutagenesis of CD1c reveals residues in both the α1 and α2 helices involved in TCR recognition, yet not entirely overlapping among the examined TCRs. Unlike patterns for MHC I, no archetypical binding footprint is predicted to be shared by CD1c-reactive TCRs, even when recognizing the same or similar antigens.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2014; 111(43). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1408549111 · 9.67 Impact Factor
  • Emilie Layre · Annemieke de Jong · David Branch Moody ·
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    ABSTRACT: For decades immunologists thought that T cells solely recognize peptides bound to Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) proteins. Therefore, nearly all medical technology that seeks to measure and manipulate human T cells during immunization, infection, allergy and autoimmune diseases relies on peptide antigens. Newer insights into αβ and γδ T cell activation by CD1 or MR1 proteins greatly expand the biochemical range of T cell antigens to include lipids and non-peptidic small molecules. Moving beyond in vitro studies, the recent development of human CD1a, CD1b, CD1c and MR1 tetramers allows direct and specific enumeration of lipid-reactive and small molecule-reactive T cells, providing a new approach to study of T cell-mediated diseases.
    Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 09/2014; 23:31–38. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpa.2014.09.007 · 6.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipids from mycobacteria can be presented to human T cells by group 1 CD1 Ag-presenting molecules (CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c). Group 1 CD1-restricted T cells are activated by lipid Ags presented by myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), after which they generate antibacterial effector functions, including IFN-γ secretion and cytolysis. Thus, mycobacterial lipids are being investigated as components of novel vaccines for mycobacterial infections. In this study we show that the mycobacterial lipid Ag C80 glucose-6-monomycolate can be delivered to human CD1b(+) DCs via targeted liposomal nanoparticles, leading to robust group 1 CD1-restricted activation of T cells. Targeting was achieved by decorating the liposomes with a high-affinity glycan ligand of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec)-7, a siglec receptor expressed on DCs that mediates rapid endocytosis and transport of its cargo to lysosomes. An Ab to Siglec-7 completely blocked the binding of targeted liposomes to human monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs), demonstrating their targeting specificity. Mo-DCs pulsed with targeted liposomes containing C80 glucose-6-monomycolate more potently activated a CD1b-restricted T cell line relative to Mo-DCs pulsed with free lipid Ag or antigenic liposomes without Siglec-7 ligand. These data suggest that the endocytic function of Siglec-7 can be exploited to deliver glycolipid Ags to their target cell and increase the efficiency of display to T cells.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2014; 193(4). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1303278 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    Emilie Layre · Reem Al-Mubarak · John T Belisle · D Branch Moody ·
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    ABSTRACT: Lipidomics is a distinct subspecialty of metabolomics concerned with hydrophobic molecules that organize into membranes. Most of the lipid classes present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis are found only in Actinobacteria and show extreme structural diversity. This article highlights the conceptual basis and the practical challenges associated with the mass spectrometry-based lipidomic study of M. tuberculosis to solve basic questions about the virulence of this lipid-laden organism.
    06/2014; 2(3). DOI:10.1128/microbiolspec.MGM2-0033-2013
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    ABSTRACT: Current views emphasize TCR diversity as a key feature that differentiates the group 1 (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c) and group 2 (CD1d) CD1 systems. Whereas TCR sequence motifs define CD1d-reactive NKT cells, the available data do not allow a TCR-based organization of the group 1 CD1 repertoire. The observed TCR diversity might result from donor-to-donor differences in TCR repertoire, as seen for MHC-restricted T cells. Alternatively, diversity might result from differing CD1 isoforms, Ags, and methods used to identify TCRs. Using CD1b tetramers to isolate clones recognizing the same glycolipid, we identified a previously unknown pattern of V gene usage (TRAV17, TRBV4-1) among unrelated human subjects. These TCRs are distinct from those present on NKT cells and germline-encoded mycolyl lipid-reactive T cells. Instead, they resemble the TCR of LDN5, one of the first known CD1b-reactive clones that was previously thought to illustrate the diversity of the TCR repertoire. Interdonor TCR conservation was observed in vitro and ex vivo, identifying LDN5-like T cells as a distinct T cell type. These data support TCR-based organization of the CD1b repertoire, which consists of at least two compartments that differ in TCR sequence motifs, affinity, and coreceptor expression.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2014; 192(9). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1400158 · 4.92 Impact Factor
  • Dalam Ly · D Branch Moody ·
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    ABSTRACT: Whereas research on CD1d has emphasized a few glycosyl ceramides, the broader family of four human CD1 antigen-presenting molecules binds hundreds of distinct self-lipids. Individual lipid types bind within CD1 grooves in different ways, such that they partially fill the groove, match the groove volume, or protrude substantially from the groove. These differing modes of binding can now be connected to differing immunological functions, as individual lipids can act as stimulatory antigens, inhibitory ligands, or space-filling scaffolds. Because each type of CD1 protein folds to produce antigen-binding grooves with differing sizes and shapes, CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, CD1d, and CD1e have distinct mechanisms of capturing self-lipids and exchanging them for foreign lipids. The size discrepancy between endogeneous lipids and groove volume is most pronounced for CD1b. Recent studies show that the large CD1b cavity can simultaneously bind two self-lipids, the antigen, and its scaffold lipid, which can be exchanged for one large bacterial lipid. In this review, we will highlight recent studies showing how cells regulate lipid antigen loading and the roles CD1 groove structures have in control of the presentation of chemically diverse lipids to T cells.
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 03/2014; 71(16). DOI:10.1007/s00018-014-1603-6 · 5.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,165.18 Total Impact Points


  • 2008-2015
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1996-2015
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005-2014
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Carleton University
      • Department of Biology
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2001
    • Newcastle University
      • School of Chemistry
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom