Karin J Purdie

Queen Mary, University of London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (43)183.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: NF-κB signaling plays a crucial role in regulating proliferation and differentiation in the epidermis. Alterations in the NF-κB pathway can lead to skin pathologies with a significant burden to human health such as psoriasis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). Caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing scaffold proteins are key regulators of NF-κB signaling by providing a link between membrane receptors and NF-κB transcriptional subunits. Mutations in the CARD family member, CARD14, have been identified in patients with the inflammatory skin diseases psoriasis and pityriasis rubra pilaris. Here, we describe that the gene coding for another CARD scaffold protein, CARD11, is mutated in more than 38% of 111 cSCCs, and show that novel variants outside of the coiled-coil domain lead to constitutively activated NF-κB signaling. CARD11 protein expression was detectable in normal skin and increased in all cSCCs tested. CARD11 mRNA levels were comparable with CARD14 in normal skin and CARD11 mRNA was increased in cSCC. In addition, we identified CARD11 mutations in peritumoral and sun-exposed skin, suggesting that CARD11-mediated alterations in NF-κB signaling may be an early event in the development of cSCC. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American Journal Of Pathology 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.05.018 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Cho S-Y · Purdie K. · Carton J. · Harwood C. · Wakelin S.
    23rd EADV Congress (Amsterdam); 10/2014
  • 15th World Congress on Cancers of the Skin; 09/2014
  • 15th World Congress on Cancers of the Skin; 09/2014
  • 15th World Congress on Cancers of the Skin; 09/2014
  • 15th World Congress on Cancers of the Skin; 09/2014
  • 15th World Congress on Cancers of the Skin; 09/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Cutaneous SCC (cSCC) is the most frequent skin cancer with metastatic potential and can manifest rapidly as a common side effect in patients receiving systemic kinase inhibitors. Here we use massively parallel exome and targeted level sequencing 132 sporadic cSCC, 39 squamoproliferative lesions and cSCC arising in patients receiving the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib, as well as 10 normal skin samples to identify significant NOTCH1 mutation as an early event in squamous cell carcinogenesis. Bisected vemurafenib induced lesions revealed surprising heterogeneity with different activating HRAS and NOTCH1 mutations identified in two halves of the same cSCC suggesting polyclonal origin. Immunohistochemical analysis using an antibody specific to nuclear NOTCH1 correlates with mutation status in sporadic cSCC and regions of NOTCH1 loss or down-regulation are frequently observed in normal looking skin. Our data indicate that NOTCH1 acts as a gatekeeper in human cSCC.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 24 March 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.154.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 03/2014; 134(10). DOI:10.1038/jid.2014.154 · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most common malignancies in fair-skinned populations worldwide and its incidence is increasing. Despite previous observations of multiple genetic abnormalities in cSCC, the oncogenic process remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to elucidate key molecular events associated with progression from premalignant actinic keratoses (AKs) to invasive cSCC by transcriptome profiling. Methods: We combined laser capture microdissection with the Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0 microarrays to profile 30 cSCC and 10 AKs. Results: We identified a core set of 196 genes that are differentially expressed between AK and cSCC, and are enriched for processes including epidermal differentiation, cell migration, cell-cycle regulation and metabolism. Gene set enrichment analysis highlighted a key role for the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in cSCC compared with AK. Furthermore, the histological subtype of the tumour was shown to influence the expression profile. Conclusion: These data indicate that the MAPK pathway may be pivotal to the transition from AK to cSCC, thus representing a potential target for cSCC prevention. In addition, transcriptome differences identified between cSCC subtypes have important implications for future development of targeted therapies for this malignancy.
    British Journal of Cancer 12/2013; 110(2). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.760 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals ('carcinomatous catastrophy'). Yet, molecular mechanisms are still insufficiently understood. Besides ultraviolet (UV)-indicative mutations, chromosomal aberrations are prominent. As telomeres are essential in preserving chromosome integrity, and telomere erosion as well as aberrant spatial telomere distribution contribute to genomic instability, we first established telomere length profiles across the whole tissue and identified normal skin (10/30) harboring discrete epidermal sites (stem cell territories) of evenly short telomeres. Precancerous actinic keratoses (AKs) (17) and SCCs (27) expressed two telomere phenotypes: (i) tissue-wide evenly short to intermediate and (ii) longer and tissue-wide heterogeneous telomere lengths, suggesting two modes of initiation, with one likely to originate in the epidermal stem cells. Although tumor histotype, location, patient gender or age failed to distinguish the two SCC telomere phenotypes, as did telomerase activity, we found a trend for a higher degree of aberrant p53 and cyclin D1 expression with long/heterogeneous telomeres. In addition, we established an association for the short/homogeneous telomeres with a simpler and the heterogeneous telomeres with a more complex karyotype correlating also with distinct chromosomal changes. SCCs (13) from renal transplant recipients displayed the same telomere dichotomy, suggesting that both telomere subtypes contribute to 'carcinomatous catastrophy' under immunosuppression by selecting for a common set (3, 9p and 17q) and subtype-specific aberrations (e.g., 6p gain, 13q loss). As a second mechanism of telomere-dependent genomic instability, we investigated changes in telomere distribution with its most severe form of telomeric aggregates (TAs). We identified a telomere length-independent but progression-dependent increase in cells with small telomere associations in AKs (17/17) and additional TAs in SCCs (24/32), basal cell carcinomas (30/31) and malignant melanomas (15/15), and provide evidence for a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in this UV-induced telomere organization-dependent genomic instability.Oncogene advance online publication, 19 August 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.323.
    Oncogene 08/2013; 33(27). DOI:10.1038/onc.2013.323 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Histopathological discordance with molecular phenotype of many human cancers poses clinically challenging tasks for accurate cancer diagnosis which impacts on treatment strategy and patient outcome. Hence, an objective, accurate and quantitative method is needed. A quantitative Malignancy Index Diagnostic System (qMIDS) was developed based on 14 FOXM1 (isoform B)-associated genes implicated in the regulation of the cell cycle, differentiation, ageing, genomic stability, epigenetic and stem cell renewal, and two reference genes. Their mRNA expression levels were translated via a prospectively designed algorithm, into a metric scoring system. Subjects from UK and Norway (n=299) provided 359 head and neck tissue specimens. Diagnostic test performance was assessed using detection rate (DR) and false-positive rate (FPR).The median qMIDS scores were 1.3, 2.9 and 6.7 in healthy tissue, dysplasia and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), respectively (UK prospective dataset, p<0.001); 1.4, 2.3 and 7.6 in unaffected, oral lichen planus, or HNSCC respectively (Norwegian retrospective dataset with up to 19 years survival data, p<0.001). At a qMIDS cut-off of 4.0, DR was 94% and FPR was 3.2% (Norwegian dataset); and DR was 91% and FPR was 1.3% (UK dataset). We further demonstrated the transferability of qMIDS for diagnosing (pre)-malignant human vulva (n=58) and skin (n=21) SCCs, illustrating its potential clinical use for other cancer types.This study provided evidence that qMIDS was able to quantitatively diagnose and objectively stratify cancer aggressiveness. With further validation, qMIDS could enable early HNSCC detection and guide appropriate treatment. Early treatment intervention can lead to long-term reduction in healthcare costs and improve patient outcome.
    International Journal of Cancer 05/2013; 132(9). DOI:10.1002/ijc.27886 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), and its incidence is increasing rapidly. Metastatic cSCC accounts for the majority of deaths associated with NMSC, but the genetic basis for cSCC progression remains poorly understood. A previous study identified small deletions (typically <1 Mb) in the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor Type D (PTPRD) gene that segregated with more aggressive cSCC. To investigate the apparent association between deletion within PTPRD and cSCC metastasis, a series of 74 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors from 31 patients was analyzed using a custom Illumina 384 SNP microarray. Deletions were found in 37% of patients with metastatic cSCC and were strongly associated with metastatic tumors when compared to those that had not metastasized (p = 0.007). Subsequent mutation analysis revealed a higher mutation rate for PTPRD than has been reported in any other cancer type, with 37% of tumors harboring a somatic mutation. Conversely, bisulfite sequencing showed that methylation was not a mechanism of PTPRD disruption in cSCC. This is the first report to observe an association between deletion within PTPRD and metastatic disease and highlights the potential use of these deletions as a diagnostic biomarker for tumor progression. Combined with the high mutation rate observed in our study, PTPRD is one of the most commonly altered genes in cSCC and warrants further investigation to determine its significance for metastasis in other tumor types.
    International Journal of Cancer 08/2012; 131(3):E216-26. DOI:10.1002/ijc.27333 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anogenital malignancy has a significant association with high-risk mucosal alpha-human papillomaviruses (alpha-PV), particularly HPV 16 and 18 whereas extragenital SCC has been linked to the presence of cutaneous beta and gamma-HPV types. Vulval skin may be colonised by both mucosal and cutaneous (beta-, mu-, nu- and gamma-) PV types, but there are few systematic studies investigating their presence and their relative contributions to vulval malignancy. Dysregulation of AKT, a serine/threonine kinase, plays a significant role in several cancers. Mucosal HPV types can increase AKT phosphorylation and activity whereas cutaneous HPV types down-regulate AKT1 expression, probably to weaken the cornified envelope to promote viral release. We assessed the presence of mucosal and cutaneous HPV in vulval malignancy and its relationship to AKT1 expression in order to establish the corresponding HPV and AKT1 profile of normal vulval skin, vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and vulval squamous cell carcinoma (vSCC). We show that HPV16 is the principle HPV type present in VIN, there were few detectable beta types present and AKT1 loss was not associated with the presence of these cutaneous HPV. We show that HPV16 early gene expression reduced AKT1 expression in transgenic mouse epidermis. AKT1 loss in our VIN cohort correlated with presence of high copy number, episomal HPV16. Maintained AKT1 expression correlated with low copy number, an increased frequency of integration and increased HPV16E7 expression, a finding we replicated in another untyped cohort of vSCC. Since expression of E7 reflects tumour progression, these findings suggest that AKT1 loss associated with episomal HPV16 may have positive prognostic implications in vulval malignancy.
    PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e38608. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0038608 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • K. Purdie · K. Gibbon · C. Proby · I. Leigh · C. Harwood · T. Teh
    Meeting of the British-Society-for-Investigative-Dermatology; 04/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Novel prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic strategies are urgently required for malignant melanoma. Ecto-5-prime-nucleotidase (NT5E; CD73) overexpression has been reported in several human cancers. The mechanism(s) underlying deregulated expression and the clinical consequences of changes in expression are not known. We used RT-PCR, qPCR, methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing to analyse expression and regulation of NT5E in malignant melanoma cell lines and primary and metastatic melanomas. NT5E is subject to epigenetic regulation in melanoma. NT5E mRNA is downregulated by methylation-dependent transcriptional silencing in the melanoma cell lines SKMel2, SKMel23, WM35, Mel501, Mel505 and C81-61 and expression is reactivated by azacytidine. In contrast, the CpG island is unmethylated and the gene expressed in cultured normal melanocytes. In clinical cases of melanoma, methylation in the NT5E CpG island occurs in both primary and metastatic melanomas and correlates with transcriptional downregulation of NT5E mRNA. Relapse with metastatic disease, particularly to the visceral sites and brain, is more common in primary melanomas lacking NT5E methylation. Primary melanomas with methylation in NT5E show limited metastatic potential or more commonly metastasise predominantly to nodal sites rather than viscera and brain (P=0.01). Deregulation of NT5E expression in melanoma occurs via epigenetic changes in the NT5E CpG island. Confirmation of our results in larger clinical series would support the candidacy of NT5E as a clinical biomarker in melanoma, which could be applied in both primary and relapsed disease. Inhibition of NT5E may have therapeutic potential in melanoma, particularly in patients with more aggressive disease metastatic to viscera or the brain.
    British Journal of Cancer 03/2012; 106(8):1446-52. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2012.95 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association between squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and infection with human papilloma viruses (HPV) has created considerable interest. Rates of primary oropharyngeal cancers have shown increasing incidence and declining age at presentation over the last decade, believed to relate to infection with oncogenic or high-risk subtypes of HPV (HR-HPV). HR-HPV-associated tumours have reportedly improved outcomes when compared with HPV-negative cancers. Within the UK, rates of HR-HPV in HNSCC have not yet been reported. We analysed consecutive retrospective cases of oropharyngeal cancer presenting between 2004 and 2007. Thirty-seven per cent of 83 oropharyngeal tumours stained positively for p16(INK4A), a marker of HPV infection (73% tonsillar cancers being p16 (INK4A) positive, 30% tongue and 43% floor of mouth tumours). HPV16 DNA was demonstrated in 75% p16 (INK4A) cases. Despite being more advanced with higher T-stage and nodal burden at presentation, HR-HPV-associated HNSCC showed significantly improved rates of disease-free and overall survival, in particular with improved rates of response to radical radiotherapy. HPV16 infection seems to be a clinically significant cause of oropharyngeal HNSCC in the UK and the collection of national data should be supported.
    Clinical Oncology 07/2011; 24(1):e18-23. DOI:10.1016/j.clon.2011.05.007 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that an initial barrier to the emergence of tumours is a DNA damage response that evokes a counter-response which arrests the growth of, or eliminates, damaged cells. Early precursor lesions express markers of an activated DNA damage response in several types of tumour, with a diminishing response in more advanced cancers. An important marker of DNA damage is ATM which becomes phosphorylated (pATM) upon activation. We have investigated pATM expression patterns in cultured keratinocytes, skin explants and a spectrum of pre-malignant to malignant keratinocyte skin lesions by immunohistochemistry. We found that pATM was mainly localised to the Golgi apparatus, which contrasts with its nuclear localisation in other tissues. Upon UV irradiation there is transient formation of pATM in nuclear foci, consistent with recruitment to the sites of DNA damage. By immunohistochemistry we show pATM expression in precancerous keratinocyte lesions is greater and predominantly nuclear when compared to the invasive lesions where pATM is weaker and predominantly cytoplasmic. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the DNA damage response acts as a barrier to cutaneous tumour formation, but also suggests that ATM expression in skin is different compared to other tissues. This may be a consequence of the constant exposure of skin to UVR, and has implications for skin carcinogenesis.
    PLoS ONE 07/2011; 6(7):e21271. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0021271 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying therapeutic targets for cancer treatment relies on consistent changes within particular types or sub-types of malignancy. The ability to define either consistent changes or sub-types of malignancy is often masked by tumor heterogeneity. To elucidate therapeutic targets in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC), the most frequent skin neoplasm with malignant potential, we have developed an integrated approach to gene expression profiling beginning with primary keratinocytes in culture. Candidate drivers of cSCC development were derived by first defining a set of in vitro cancer genes and then comparing their expression in a range of clinical data sets containing normal skin, cSCC and the benign hyper-proliferative condition psoriasis. A small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of the resulting 21 upregulated genes has yielded targets capable of reducing xenograft tumor volume in vivo. Small-molecule inhibitors for one target, Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1), are already in clinical trials for other malignancies, and our data show efficacy in cSCC. Another target, C20orf20, is identified as being overexpressed in cSCC, and siRNA-mediated knockdown induces apoptosis in vitro and reduces tumor growth in vivo. Thus, our approach has shown established and uncharacterized drivers of tumorigenesis with potent efficacy as therapeutic targets for the treatment of cSCC.
    Oncogene 05/2011; 30(46):4666-77. DOI:10.1038/onc.2011.180 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Maintenance of a mitotically inactive feeder layer which is able to provide extracellular matrix and growth factors can be critical in establishing and maintaining primary tumor cells. How feeder cells are handled and processed is crucial for providing trouble-free support for primary tumor cells and spontaneously immortalized lines.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2011; 731:467-70. DOI:10.1007/978-1-61779-080-5_37 · 1.29 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

693 Citations
183.55 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2015
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      • • Centre for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences
      • • Centre for Cutaneous Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2006–2012
    • University of London
      • The London School of Medicine and Dentistry
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • University of Dundee
      • School of Medicine
      Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • WWF United Kingdom
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom