Axel Perkonigg

Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany

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Publications (40)115.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have documented an association between mental disorders and onset of cigarette smoking. Yet, there is little understanding of the potential impact of mental disorders on trajectories of smoking over time. The objective of this study was to investigate this relationship among adolescents over a 10-year span. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology Study, a 10-year prospective investigation of youth in Germany. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify smoking trajectories and logistic regression analyses were used to examine relationships between mental disorders and subsequent trajectories. RESULTS: Four trajectories were identified: non-users; increasing use; decreasing use; persistent use. Alcohol/drug use disorders, stress disorders, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorder and nicotine dependence were associated with nicotine use (as compared to the non-smoker class). However, comparisons between trajectories of nicotine use showed that any stress disorder predicted only decreasing use compared to the other two trajectories; nicotine dependence, alcohol/illicit drug use disorders as well as panic disorder and somatoform disorders were inversely associated with increasing use; nicotine dependence and alcohol/drug use disorders were associated with persistent use. CONCLUSIONS: Several mental disorders appear to be non-specific markers of the range of smoking trajectories while others predict specific trajectories. Numerous disorders (e.g., alcohol/drug use disorders) do not appear to occur only prior to and predict increased smoking trajectory as had been previously suggested, but rather they also occur concurrently, with high levels of smoking and in some cases smoking persists at a steady level over time.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 01/2013; 130(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.11.009 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • S Behrendt · G Bühringer · A Perkonigg · R Lieb · K Beesdo-Baum
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is little prospective-epidemiological information on symptoms of DSM-IV-alcohol use disorder (alcohol abuse and dependence; AUD) that may be typical for early AUD stages or the developmental periods of adolescence and early adulthood. AIMS: To investigate AUD symptoms (AUDS) cross-sectionally at three subsequent assessment waves regarding prevalence rates, symptom counts, associated drinking patterns, positive predictive values (PPV) for DSM-IV-alcohol dependence (AD), and AUDS stability over time. METHODS: N=2039 community subjects (baseline age 14-24 years) participated in a baseline and two follow-up assessment(s) over up to ten years. DSM-IV-AUDS, DSM-IV-AUD and craving were assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. RESULTS: Over the assessment waves, tolerance and much time were most and role obligations and withdrawal least frequent. Most subjects with DSM-IV-AUDS reported only one symptom (47.2-55.1%). PPV for DSM-IV-AD only exceeded 70% for activities, problem, withdrawal, and desired control; PPV were lowest for tolerance and hazardous use. For most AUDS, AUDS report compared to non-report was associated with elevated drinking frequency and amounts. Stability of baseline AUDS at four-year and ten-year follow-up did not exceed 36.4% for any symptom. CONCLUSIONS: The overall pattern of most/least frequent AUDS reported in adolescence and early adulthood resembles findings in older adults and does not suggest a developmentally specific symptom pattern. Moderate AUDS-stability and considerable remission rates indicate that AUDS in this age group are transient for a considerable proportion of subjects. However, the associations with elevated consumption indicate that AUDS reports early in life need to be taken seriously in prevention and intervention.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.12.024 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A younger age at onset of use of a specific substance is a well-documented risk-factor for a substance use disorder (SUD) related to that specific substance. However, the cross-substance relationship between a younger age at onset of alcohol use (AU) and nicotine use (NU) and the risk of cannabis use disorders (CUD) in adolescence and early adulthood remains unclear. To identify the sequence of and latency between initial AU/NU and initial cannabis use (CU). To investigate whether younger age at AU- and NU-onset is associated with any and earlier CU-onset and a higher risk of transition from first CU to CUD, taking into account externalizing disorders (ED) and parental substance use disorders as putative influential factors. Prospective-longitudinal community study with N=3021 subjects (baseline age 14-24) and up to four assessment waves over up to ten years with additional direct parental and family history information. Substance use and CUD were assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Most subjects with CU reported AU (99%) and NU (94%). Among users of both substances, 93% reported AU prior to CU (87% for NU). After adjustment for ED and parental substance use disorders younger age at AU-onset was associated with any CU. Younger age at NU-onset was associated with earlier CU initiation. Younger age at AU- and NU-onset was not associated with a higher risk of CUD. The cross-substance relevance of younger age at first AU and NU for the risk of CUD is limited to early CU involvement.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 11/2011; 123(1-3):48-56. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.10.013 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among adolescents and young adults with DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs), there are inter-individual differences in the speed of transition from initial alcohol use (AU) to AUD. AUDs are highly co-morbid with other mental disorders. The factors associated with rapid transition from first AU to AUD remain unknown and the role of mental disorders in rapid transitions is unclear. Given this background we examined (1) whether prior anxiety, mood, externalizing and non-alcohol substance use disorders are related to the risk and speed of transition from first AU to DSM-IV alcohol abuse (AA) and alcohol dependence (AD) and (2) whether early age of onset of prior mental disorders (PMDs) is a promoter of rapid transition. A total of 3021 community subjects (97.7% lifetime AU) aged 14-24 years at baseline were followed up prospectively for up to 10 years. AU and mental disorders were assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Among subjects with lifetime AU, several PMDs, such as specific phobia, bipolar disorder and nicotine dependence, were associated with an increased risk of AUD independent of externalizing disorders. Associations of PMDs with the speed of transition to AUDs were mostly weak and inconsistent. Only social phobia and externalizing disorders were associated with faster transitions to AD even after adjustment for other PMDs. Earlier age of onset of PMD was not associated with rapid transition. Mental disorders are associated with the risk of AUD. With the possible exception of social phobia and externalizing disorders, they do not promote rapid transition, even if they occur particularly early. Future research needs to identify factors relevant to rapid transition to AUD.
    Psychological Medicine 05/2011; 41(5):1073-85. DOI:10.1017/S0033291710001418 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between use of cocaine, amphetamines, or psychedelics and psychotic symptoms. Cumulated lifetime data from a prospective, longitudinal community study of 2588 adolescents and young adults in Munich, Germany, were used. Substance use at baseline, 4-year and 10-year follow-up and psychotic symptoms at 4-year and 10-year follow-up were assessed using the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Data from all assessment waves were aggregated, and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed. Additional analyses adjusted for sociodemographics, common mental disorders, other substance use, and childhood adversity (adjusted odds ratios, AOR). After adjusting for potential confounders, lifetime experience of two or more psychotic symptoms was associated with lifetime use of cocaine (AOR 1.94; 95% CI 1.10-3.45) and psychedelics (AOR 2.37; 95% CI 1.20-4.66). Additionally, when mood or anxiety disorders were excluded, lifetime experience of two or more psychotic symptoms was associated with use of psychedelics (AOR 3.56; 95% CI 1.20-10.61). Associations between psychotic symptoms and use of cocaine, and/or psychedelics in adolescents and young adults call for further studies to elucidate risk factors and developmental pathways.
    Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 11/2010; 123(6):466-74. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2010.01633.x · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cannabis use (CU) and disorders (CUD) are highly prevalent among adolescents and young adults. We aim to identify clinically meaningful latent classes of users of cannabis and other illegal substances with distinct problem profiles. N=3021 community subjects aged 14-24 at baseline were followed-up over a period ranging up to 10 years. Substance use (SU) and disorders (SUD) were assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted with a subset of N=1089 subjects with repeated illegal SU. The variables entered in the LCA were CU-related problems, CUD, other SUD, and other mental disorders. Four latent classes were identified: "Unproblematic CU" (class 1: 59.2%), "Primary alcohol use disorders" (class 2: 14.4%), "Delinquent cannabis/alcohol DSM-IV-abuse" (class 3: 17.9%), "CUD with multiple problems" (class 4: 8.5%). Range and level of CU-related problems were highest in classes 3 and 4. Comorbidity with other mental disorders was highest in classes 2 and 4. The probability of alcohol disorders and unmet treatment needs was considerable in classes 2-4. While the majority of subjects with repeated illegal SU did not experience notable problems over the 10-year period, a large minority (40.8%) experienced problematic outcomes, distinguished by clinically meaningful profiles. The data underline the need for specifically tailored interventions for adolescents with problematic CU and highlight the potentially important role of alcohol and other mental disorders.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 05/2009; 102(1-3):151-7. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.02.012 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We reviewed epidemiological findings for the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its core diagnostic features, focusing on whether epidemiology has been helpful in clarifying some of the critical diagnostic issues relevant to the revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases. Though epidemiology has provided increasingly rich data and knowledge regarding prevalence and incidence, patterns of onset and course, comorbidity, and risk factors for traumatic experiences and posttraumatic stress, little systematic research has been performed specifically addressing such critical diagnostic issues. Particularly, unresolved concerns remain regarding the definition of trauma, duration and impairment/distress criteria, the distinctiveness of the PTSD-syndrome, and even the position of PTSD in the classification system of mental disorders. A further exploitation of the existing data, and an improvement of existing epidemiological methods, strategies, and assessments are likely to substantially contribute to the clarification of unresolved diagnostic issues.
    CNS spectrums 02/2009; 14(1 Suppl 1):5-12. · 1.30 Impact Factor
  • Sucht 01/2009; 55(2):86-97. DOI:10.1024/2009.02.04
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence from cross-sectional studies that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to examine prospective longitudinal associations between PTSD and obesity in a community sample. A prospective, longitudinal, epidemiologic study with a representative community sample of adolescents and young adults (N=3021, aged 14-24 years at baseline) was conducted in Munich, Germany. Participants were assessed four times between 1995 and 2005 with the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Associations between obesity (BMI > or =30) and DSM-IV PTSD were evaluated in 2007, using cross-sectional and prospective data during young adulthood. The cumulative lifetime incidence of obesity in the sample at 10-year follow-up during young adulthood was 4.3% (women, 4.6%; men, 4.0%). Among women but not among men, obesity was associated with a lifetime history of PTSD (OR=3.8; 95% CI=1.4, 10.7) in the cross-sectional analyses. Prospective longitudinal analyses from 4-year follow-up to 10-year follow-up confirmed that obesity was predicted by antecedent subthreshold and full PTSD (OR=3.0; 95% CI=1.3, 7.0) among women but not among men. There were no associations between other mental disorders and obesity in the prospective analyses. The findings indicate a possible causal pathway for the onset of obesity in females with PTSD symptoms. These findings need replication with regard to the pathophysiologic and behavioral mechanisms underlying this relationship.
    American journal of preventive medicine 10/2008; 36(1):1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2008.09.026 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    Addiction 10/2008; 103(9):1575. DOI:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02286.x · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • H. U. Wittchen · K. Beesdo · A. Perkonigg · A. Gloster
    European Neuropsychopharmacology 08/2008; 18. DOI:10.1016/S0924-977X(08)70197-4 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For a better understanding of the evolution of addictive disorders and the timely initiation of early intervention and prevention, we have to learn when and how quickly the critical transitions from first substance use (SU) to regular use and from first SU and regular SU to abuse and dependence occur. Little data are currently available on the transitions to substance use disorders (SUDs) across the spectrum of legal and illegal drugs taking into account gender differences. It is the aim of this paper to describe the high density incidence and transition periods of SU and SUD for alcohol, nicotine, cannabis and other illicit drugs for young males and females. A sample of (N = 3021) community subjects aged 14-24 at baseline were followed-up prospectively over 10-years. SU and SUD were assessed using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Ages 10-16 are the high risk period for first alcohol and nicotine use (up to 38% of subjects start before age 14). Onset of illegal SU occurs later. Substantial proportions of transitions to regular SU and SUD occur in the first three years after SU onset. Only few gender differences were found for time patterns of SU/SUD incidence and transition. Except for alcohol the time windows for targeted intervention to prevent progression to malignant patterns in adolescence are critically small, leaving little time for targeted intervention to prevent transition. The fast transitions to abuse and dependence in adolescence may be indicative for the increased vulnerability to substance effects in this time period. Basic research on the determinants of transitions should thus target this period in adolescence.
    International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 06/2008; 17 Suppl 1(S1):S16-29. DOI:10.1002/mpr.254 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been little available information on the long-term natural course, persistence and remission of cannabis use, abuse and dependence. The current study estimated rates and risk factors associated with stability and variation in cannabis use patterns, cannabis abuse and cannabis dependence in a community sample over a 10-year period. Prospective longitudinal, epidemiological study with a 4- and 10-year follow-up of a community sample (n = 3021) aged 14-24 years at baseline in Munich, Germany. Cannabis use, abuse and dependence and associated risk factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews using the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Findings At baseline, one-third of the sample (34.2%) had used cannabis at least once. The cumulative incidence of cannabis use 10 years later was 50.7%. Fifty-six per cent of all repeated users (five times or more) at baseline reported cannabis use at 4-year follow-up. Ten years later, this proportion had decreased slightly to only 46.3%. Repeated (five times or more) users were almost three times more likely to report repeated use at 10-year follow up (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.6-4.7), compared with those who had used cannabis fewer times. Peer use of cannabis, life-events and alcohol dependence also predicted use of cannabis at 10-year follow-up. Among youth who have used cannabis repeatedly (five times or more) cannabis use is fairly stable and rates of remission relatively low until age 34 years. Patterns of progression suggest that early targeted preventive measures should delay first use and reduce the number of experiences using cannabis, as these factors appear critical in progression to persistent cannabis use and cannabis dependence.
    Addiction 04/2008; 103(3):439-49; discussion 450-1. DOI:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02064.x · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whereas the role of externalizing disorders is relatively well established in predicting the onset of cannabis use (CU) or cannabis use disorder (CUD), the status of anxiety and mood disorders in predicting CU and CUD remains controversial. (1) To examine cross-sectional and prospective associations of CU and CUD with a range of mental disorders and whether anxiety and mood disorders are associated with CU/CUD after adjusting for externalizing disorders. N=1395 community subjects aged 14-17 at baseline were followed-up at three waves prospectively over 10 years. Substance use, substance disorders and mental disorders were assessed using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. (1) The baseline prevalence rates where 19.3% at t(0) for CU and 2.6% for CUD. Cumulative incidence rates at t(3) were 54.3% for CU and 13.7% for CUD. (2) In cross-sectional and prospective analyses other substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders were associated with CU and CUD. (3) Associations of panic-anxiety with CU and of depressive and bipolar disorders with CU and CUD were significant after controlling for externalizing disorders. A range of psychopathological conditions, including depressive, bipolar and less consistently anxiety disorders as well as the degree of their comorbidity are significantly associated with incident CU and progression to CUD, even when controlling for externalising disorders. A better understanding of this complex interplay may result in better aetiological models and intervention strategies.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 05/2007; 88 Suppl 1(Suppl. 1):S60-70. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2006.12.013 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2006; 16. DOI:10.1016/S0924-977X(06)70592-2 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To present lifetime rates of service use for psychological and substance use related problems among regular substance users and to examine factors associated with service use. Data come from a prospective-longitudinal, epidemiological study of a community sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 2548, age 14-24 years at baseline) in Munich, Germany. The Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used at baseline and at two follow-ups to assess substance use and service use. Cumulated lifetime incidence of any substance abuse or dependence was 43.7%. Of those with abuse and dependence 23% had ever used any services for psychological or substance use related problems. Illicit substance users especially those with dependence had the highest rates of lifetime service use (52.1%). Psychotherapists and counseling services were contacted most frequently among regular substance users over their lifetimes. Utlilisation rates of substance abuse services were low (2%). Comorbid anxiety disorders and distressing life events were associated with increased lifetime service use. Only a minority of adolescents and young adults with substance use disorders have ever sought professional help. Specialized substance abuse services play only a minor role. The core role of psychotherapists and non-substance abuse specialized services needs critical research attention. Linkages between psychotherapists and the substance use service system should be strengthened to detect and intervene at early developmental stages of abuse and dependence.
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 07/2006; 41(6):470-9. DOI:10.1007/s00127-006-0044-4 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the prevalence and incidence rates of alcohol, nicotine, and illicit substance use, abuse, and dependence in a sample of German adolescents and young adults. Patterns of onset, cohort trends, and use of various substance classes are also analyzed. A prospective longitudinal epidemiological study with a representative sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 3,021; baseline age range = 14-24 years) was conducted in Munich, Germany. Participants were assessed between 1995 and 1999 with the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Cumulative lifetime incidence (up to age 28) of any substance abuse or dependence was 43.8%, and 12-month prevalence of any substance abuse or dependence was 24.4%. The lifetime incidence of nicotine dependence was most frequent (24.8%), followed by alcohol abuse (19.3%) and alcohol dependence (9.2%); 61.7% endorsed the regular use of a substance for at least one circumscribed period during their lifetime. Age-specific incidence rates and age at onset of substance use disorders differed by age cohorts. Furthermore, nicotine dependence was significantly associated with illicit substance use disorders (HR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.7-4.0). An interactive relationship between age, age at onset of nicotine dependence, and subsequent onset of illicit substance use disorders was found. Since the baseline investigation in 1995, high incidence rates of substance use disorders and substance use have been observed in this young German sample. Especially younger cohorts report significantly earlier ages at onset of abuse and dependence. There also seems to be a trend towards a secondary age at onset peak of nicotine dependence after the onset of illicit drug use disorders. Further investigations are needed to study these patterns in younger samples. However, results emphasize the need for a combined prevention of illicit drugs and nicotine dependence.
    European Addiction Research 02/2006; 12(4):187-96. DOI:10.1159/000094421 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have focused on the natural course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its determinants in samples of the general population. The authors examined determinants of remission and chronicity of PTSD and associations with other disorders in a prospective community sample. The data were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal epidemiological study of adolescents and young adults (age 14-24 years) in Munich, Germany (N=2,548). The course of PTSD from baseline to follow-up 34-50 months later was studied in 125 respondents with DSM-IV PTSD or subthreshold PTSD at baseline. Although 52% of the PTSD cases remitted during the follow-up period, 48% showed no significant remission of PTSD symptoms. Respondents with a chronic course were more likely to experience new traumatic event(s) during follow-up (odds ratio=5.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.95-13.92), to have higher rates of avoidant symptoms at baseline (odds ratio=10.16, 95% CI=1.73-59.51), and to report more help seeking (odds ratio=5.50, 95% CI=1.04-29.05), compared to respondents with remission. Rates of incident somatoform disorder (odds ratio=4.24, 95% CI=1.60-11.19) and other anxiety disorders (odds ratio=4.07, 95% CI=1.15-14.37) were also significantly associated with a chronic course. PTSD is often a persistent and chronic disorder. Specific symptom clusters--especially avoidant symptoms--might be associated with the course of PTSD. In addition, the occurrence of new traumatic events differentiates PTSD cases with a chronic course from those with remission.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 08/2005; 162(7):1320-7. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.7.1320 · 13.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is some evidence that the onset and course of premenstrual syndrome is related to stress; however, few studies have explored the role of traumatic events and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as risk factors for the development of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). A community cohort of 1488 women (aged 14-24 years at baseline) were prospectively and longitudinally evaluated up to 3 times over a period of about 42 months from 1995 to 1999. The DSM-IV version of the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to establish PMDD and PTSD diagnostic status; stressful life events and conditions were assessed with the Munich Events List and the Daily Hassles Scale. Prevalence and incidence of either threshold or subthreshold PMDD from baseline to the second follow-up were calculated. Risk factors, including prior comorbid mental disorders and traumatic events, were examined using logistic regression analysis. The incidence of threshold PMDD was 3.0%. The most powerful predictors were subthreshold PMDD at baseline (OR = 11.0, 95% CI = 4.7 to 25.9). Traumatic events greatly increased the odds of developing PMDD at follow-up (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.2 to 12.0). Other predictors were a history of anxiety disorder (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.1 to 5.5) and elevated daily hassles scores (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.3). Both were also associated with the risk of developing subthreshold PMDD, although the association was less robust. Traumatic events and pre-existing anxiety disorders are risk factors for the development of PMDD. The underlying mechanisms are unknown, making further investigation necessary.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 11/2004; 65(10):1314-22. DOI:10.4088/JCP.v65n1004 · 5.14 Impact Factor
  • A. Perkonigg · H. Pfister · R. Lieb · G. Bühringer · H.-U. Wittchen
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To investigate cumulated incidence estimates of problematic use of illicit substances and help-seeking behavior of this group of users in the general population and to compare the findings with the structure and availability of substance use health care for consumers of illicit substances in the same area. Methods: In an epidemiological longitudinal study with a representative community sample of N = 3021 respondents 14 to 24 years old at baseline, substance use and substance use disorders as well as several other mental disorders were repeatedly assessed with a standardized diagnostic interview (M-CIDI). Additionally a service review with all substance use services in the same area was conducted. Results: 49.1% of all respondents used illicit substances at least once up to the last follow-up. 17.8% of all respondents reported of any problematic use of illicit substances during lifetime (associated with social, psychological or medical problems) including 3.1% respondents with a DSM-IV dependence. 95% of these respondents had used cannabis. Only one third of those with a problematic use of illicit substances was seeking help from any professional health service including family doctors. 15% of those have contacted substance use services. On the other hand, 92.9% of the clients or patients in the substance use services of the same area were rated as severely dependent. By far most of them contacted substance use services because of opioids. Conclusions: There is a considerable degree of formal misallocation: Referring to epidemiological findings, most interventions are needed at early stages of abuse and dependence. The existing substance use service system, however, focuses on the much smaller number of persons with severe drug problems (cognitive addition substitution treatment). Secondary-preventive interventions and therapy programs are needed for the group of those with a problematic use of illicit substances.
    Suchtmedizin in Forschung und Praxis 01/2004; 6(1):22-31.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
115.86 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2013
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      • Department of Psychology
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 2011
    • Protestant University of Applied Sciences Ludwigsburg
      Ludwigsburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1994–2008
    • Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2006
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Diego, California, United States