A A DePaoli-Roach

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States

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Publications (108)534.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Lafora disease is a progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by mutations in the EPM2A or EPM2B genes that encode a glycogen phosphatase, laforin, and an E3 ubiquitin ligase, malin, respectively. Lafora disease is characterized by accumulation of insoluble, poorly branched, hyperphosphorylated glycogen in brain, muscle, heart and liver. The laforin-malin complex has been proposed to play a role in the regulation of glycogen metabolism and protein quality control. We evaluated three arms of the protein degradation/quality control process (the autophago-lysosomal pathway, the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway, and the ER stress response) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Epm2a-/Epm2b-/- and Epm2a-/- Epm2b-/- mice. The levels of LC3-II, a marker of autophagy, were decreased in all knockout cells as compared to wild type, even though they still showed a slight response to starvation and rapamycin. Furthermore, S6K and S6 phosphorylation were increased. Under basal conditions, there was no effect on the levels of ubiquitinated proteins in the knockout cells but ubiquitinated protein degradation was decreased during starvation or stress. Lack of malin (Epm2b-/- and Epm2a-/- Epm2b-/- cells) but not laforin (Epm2a-/- cells) decreased LAMP1, a lysosomal marker. CHOP expression was similar in wild type and knockout cells under basal conditions or with ER stress-inducing agents. In conclusion, both laforin and malin knockout cells display mTOR-dependent autophagy defects, reduced proteasomal activity but no defects in the ER stress response. We speculate that these defects may be secondary to glycogen overaccumulation. The study also suggests a malin function independent of laforin, possibly in lysosomal biogenesis and/or lysosomal glycogen disposal.
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: SREBP-1 is a key transcription factor that regulates genes in the de novo lipogenesis and glycolysis pathways. The levels of SREBP-1 are significantly elevated in obese patients and in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and a vast number of studies have implicated this transcription factor as a contributor to hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. However, its role in regulating carbohydrate metabolism is poorly understood. Here we have addressed whether SREBP-1 is needed for regulating glucose homeostasis. Using RNAi and a new generation of adenoviral vector, we have silenced hepatic SREBP-1 in normal and obese mice. In normal animals, SREBP-1 deficiency increased Pck1 and reduced glycogen deposition during fed conditions, providing evidence that SREBP-1 is necessary to regulate carbohydrate metabolism during the fed state. Knocking SREBP-1 down in db/db mice resulted in a significant reduction in triglyceride accumulation, as anticipated. However, mice remained hyperglycemic, which was associated with upregulation of gluconeogenesis gene expression, as well as decreased glycolysis and glycogen synthesis gene expression. Furthermore, glycogen synthase activity and glycogen accumulation were significantly reduced. In conclusion, silencing both isoforms of SREBP-1 leads to significant changes in carbohydrate metabolism, and does not improve insulin resistance despite reducing steatosis in an animal model of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen is a glucose polymer that contains minor amounts of covalently attached phosphate. Hyperphosphorylation is deleterious to glycogen structure and can lead to Lafora disease. Recently, it was demonstrated that glycogen synthase catalyzes glucose-phosphate transfer in addition to its characteristic glucose transfer reaction. Glucose-1,2-cyclic-phosphate (GCP) was proposed to be formed from UDP-Glc breakdown and subsequently transferred, thus providing a source of phosphate found in glycogen. To gain further insight into the molecular basis for glucose-phosphate transfer, two structures of yeast glycogen synthase were determined; a 3.0-Å resolution structure of the complex with UMP/GCP and a 2.8-Å resolution structure of the complex with UDP/glucose. Structural superposition of the complexes revealed that the bound ligands and most active site residues are positioned similarly, consistent with the use of a common transfer mechanism for both reactions. The N-terminal domain of the UDP⋅glucose complex was found to be 13.3° more closed compared with a UDP complex. However, the UMP⋅GCP complex was 4.8° less closed than the glucose complex, which may explain the low efficiency of GCP transfer. Modeling of either α- or β-glucose or a mixture of both anomers can account for the observed electron density of the UDP⋅glucose complex. NMR studies of UDP-Glc hydrolysis by yeast glycogen synthase were used to verify the stereochemistry of the product, and they also showed synchronous GCP accumulation. The similarities in the active sites of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase support the idea of a common catalytic mechanism in GT-B enzymes independent of the specific reaction catalyzed.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose that acts as a store of energy in times of nutritional sufficiency for utilization in times of need. Its metabolism has been the subject of extensive investigation and much is known about its regulation by hormones such as insulin, glucagon and adrenaline (epinephrine). There has been debate over the relative importance of allosteric compared with covalent control of the key biosynthetic enzyme, glycogen synthase, as well as the relative importance of glucose entry into cells compared with glycogen synthase regulation in determining glycogen accumulation. Significant new developments in eukaryotic glycogen metabolism over the last decade or so include: (i) three-dimensional structures of the biosynthetic enzymes glycogenin and glycogen synthase, with associated implications for mechanism and control; (ii) analyses of several genetically engineered mice with altered glycogen metabolism that shed light on the mechanism of control; (iii) greater appreciation of the spatial aspects of glycogen metabolism, including more focus on the lysosomal degradation of glycogen; and (iv) glycogen phosphorylation and advances in the study of Lafora disease, which is emerging as a glycogen storage disease.
    Biochemical Journal 02/2012; 441(3):763-87. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lafora disease is a fatal, progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused in ~90% of cases by mutations in the EPM2A or EPM2B genes. Characteristic of the disease is the formation of Lafora bodies, insoluble deposits containing abnormal glycogen-like material in many tissues, including neurons, muscle, heart and liver. Because glycogen is important for glucose homeostasis, the aberrant glycogen metabolism in Lafora disease might disturb whole-body glucose handling. Indeed, Vernia et al. [Vernia, S., Heredia, M., Criado, O., Rodriguez de Cordoba, S., Garcia-Roves, P.M., Cansell, C., Denis, R., Luquet, S., Foufelle, F., Ferre, P. et al. (2011) Laforin, a dual-specificity phosphatase involved in Lafora disease, regulates insulin response and whole-body energy balance in mice. Hum. Mol. Genet., 20, 2571-2584] reported that Epm2a-/- mice had enhanced glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity, leading them to suggest that laforin, the Epm2a gene product, is involved in insulin signaling. We analyzed 3-month- and 6-7-month-old Epm2a-/- mice and observed no differences in glucose tolerance tests (GTTs) or insulin tolerance tests (ITTs) compared with wild-type mice of matched genetic background. At 3 months, Epm2b-/- mice also showed no differences in GTTs and ITTs. In the 6-7-month-old Epm2a-/- mice, there was no evidence for increased insulin stimulation of the phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3 or S6 in skeletal muscle, liver and heart. From metabolic analyses, these animals were normal with regard to food intake, oxygen consumption, energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio. By dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, body composition was unaltered at 3 or 6-7 months of age. Echocardiography showed no defects of cardiac function in Epm2a-/- or Epm2b-/- mice. We conclude that laforin and malin have no effect on whole-body glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and that laforin is not involved in insulin signaling.
    Human Molecular Genetics 12/2011; 21(7):1604-10. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen synthase is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of glycogen and has an essential role in glucose homeostasis. The three-dimensional structures of yeast glycogen synthase (Gsy2p) complexed with maltooctaose identified four conserved maltodextrin-binding sites distributed across the surface of the enzyme. Site-1 is positioned on the N-terminal domain, site-2 and site-3 are present on the C-terminal domain, and site-4 is located in an interdomain cleft adjacent to the active site. Mutation of these surface sites decreased glycogen binding and catalytic efficiency toward glycogen. Mutations within site-1 and site-2 reduced the V(max)/S(0.5) for glycogen by 40- and 70-fold, respectively. Combined mutation of site-1 and site-2 decreased the V(max)/S(0.5) for glycogen by >3000-fold. Consistent with the in vitro data, glycogen accumulation in glycogen synthase-deficient yeast cells (Δgsy1-gsy2) transformed with the site-1, site-2, combined site-1/site-2, or site-4 mutant form of Gsy2p was decreased by up to 40-fold. In contrast to the glycogen results, the ability to utilize maltooctaose as an in vitro substrate was unaffected in the site-2 mutant, moderately affected in the site-1 mutant, and almost completely abolished in the site-4 mutant. These data show that the ability to utilize maltooctaose as a substrate can be independent of the ability to utilize glycogen. Our data support the hypothesis that site-1 and site-2 provide a "toehold mechanism," keeping glycogen synthase tightly associated with the glycogen particle, whereas site-4 is more closely associated with positioning of the nonreducing end during catalysis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(39):33999-4006. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lafora disease is the most common teenage-onset neurodegenerative disease, the main teenage-onset form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME), and one of the severest epilepsies. Pathologically, a starch-like compound, polyglucosan, accumulates in neuronal cell bodies and overtakes neuronal small processes, mainly dendrites. Polyglucosan formation is catalyzed by glycogen synthase, which is activated through dephosphorylation by glycogen-associated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). Here we remove PTG, one of the proteins that target PP1 to glycogen, from mice with Lafora disease. This results in near-complete disappearance of polyglucosans and in resolution of neurodegeneration and myoclonic epilepsy. This work discloses an entryway to treating this fatal epilepsy and potentially other glycogen storage diseases.
    PLoS Genetics 04/2011; 7(4):e1002037. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen is a branched polymer of glucose that serves as an energy store. Phosphate, a trace constituent of glycogen, has profound effects on glycogen structure, and phosphate hyperaccumulation is linked to Lafora disease, a fatal progressive myoclonus epilepsy that can be caused by mutations of laforin, a glycogen phosphatase. However, little is known about the metabolism of glycogen phosphate. We demonstrate here that the biosynthetic enzyme glycogen synthase, which normally adds glucose residues to glycogen, is capable of incorporating the β-phosphate of its substrate UDP-glucose at a rate of one phosphate per approximately 10,000 glucoses, in what may be considered a catalytic error. We show that the phosphate in glycogen is present as C2 and C3 phosphomonoesters. Since hyperphosphorylation of glycogen causes Lafora disease, phosphate removal by laforin may thus be considered a repair or damage control mechanism.
    Cell metabolism 03/2011; 13(3):274-82. · 17.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stbd1 is a protein of previously unknown function that is most prevalent in liver and muscle, the major sites for storage of the energy reserve glycogen. The protein is predicted to contain a hydrophobic N terminus and a C-terminal CBM20 glycan binding domain. Here, we show that Stbd1 binds to glycogen in vitro and that endogenous Stbd1 locates to perinuclear compartments in cultured mouse FL83B or Rat1 cells. When overexpressed in COSM9 cells, Stbd1 concentrated at enlarged perinuclear structures, co-localized with glycogen, the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP1 and the autophagy protein GABARAPL1. Mutant Stbd1 lacking the N-terminal hydrophobic segment had a diffuse distribution throughout the cell. Point mutations in the CBM20 domain did not change the perinuclear localization of Stbd1, but glycogen was no longer concentrated in this compartment. Stable overexpression of glycogen synthase in Rat1WT4 cells resulted in accumulation of glycogen as massive perinuclear deposits, where a large fraction of the detectable Stbd1 co-localized. Starvation of Rat1WT4 cells for glucose resulted in dissipation of the massive glycogen stores into numerous and much smaller glycogen deposits that retained Stbd1. In vitro, in cells, and in animal models, Stbd1 consistently tracked with glycogen. We conclude that Stbd1 is involved in glycogen metabolism by binding to glycogen and anchoring it to membranes, thereby affecting its cellular localization and its intracellular trafficking to lysosomes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2010; 285(45):34960-71. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased activity of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases types 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) during maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy contributes to cardiac dysfunction and eventual failure, partly through effects on calcium metabolism. A second maladaptive feature of pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy that instead leads to heart failure by interfering with cardiac contraction and intracellular transport is a dense microtubule network stabilized by decoration with microtubule-associated protein 4 (MAP4). In an earlier study we showed that the major determinant of MAP4-microtubule affinity, and thus microtubule network density and stability, is site-specific MAP4 dephosphorylation at Ser-924 and to a lesser extent at Ser-1056; this was found to be prominent in hypertrophied myocardium. Therefore, in seeking the etiology of this MAP4 dephosphorylation, we looked here at PP2A and PP1, as well as the upstream p21-activated kinase 1, in maladaptive pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy. The activity of each was increased persistently during maladaptive hypertrophy, and overexpression of PP2A or PP1 in normal hearts reproduced both the microtubule network phenotype and the dephosphorylation of MAP4 Ser-924 and Ser-1056 seen in hypertrophy. Given the major microtubule-based abnormalities of contractile and transport function in maladaptive hypertrophy, these findings constitute a second important mechanism for phosphatase-dependent pathology in the hypertrophied and failing heart.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2010; 285(49):38125-40. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of the storage of glycogen, one of the major energy reserves, is of utmost metabolic importance. In eukaryotes, this regulation is accomplished through glucose-6-phosphate levels and protein phosphorylation. Glycogen synthase homologs in bacteria and archaea lack regulation, while the eukaryotic enzymes are inhibited by protein kinase mediated phosphorylation and activated by protein phosphatases and glucose-6-phosphate binding. We determined the crystal structures corresponding to the basal activity state and glucose-6-phosphate activated state of yeast glycogen synthase-2. The enzyme is assembled into an unusual tetramer by an insertion unique to the eukaryotic enzymes, and this subunit interface is rearranged by the binding of glucose-6-phosphate, which frees the active site cleft and facilitates catalysis. Using both mutagenesis and intein-mediated phospho-peptide ligation experiments, we demonstrate that the enzyme's response to glucose-6-phosphate is controlled by Arg583 and Arg587, while four additional arginine residues present within the same regulatory helix regulate the response to phosphorylation.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2010; 107(41):17563-8. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 90% of cases of Lafora disease, a fatal teenage-onset progressive myoclonus epilepsy, are caused by mutations in either the EPM2A or the EPM2B genes that encode, respectively, a glycogen phosphatase called laforin and an E3 ubiquitin ligase called malin. Lafora disease is characterized by the formation of Lafora bodies, insoluble deposits containing poorly branched glycogen or polyglucosan, in many tissues including skeletal muscle, liver, and brain. Disruption of the Epm2b gene in mice resulted in viable animals that, by 3 months of age, accumulated Lafora bodies in the brain and to a lesser extent in heart and skeletal muscle. Analysis of muscle and brain of the Epm2b(-/-) mice by Western blotting indicated no effect on the levels of glycogen synthase, PTG (type 1 phosphatase-targeting subunit), or debranching enzyme, making it unlikely that these proteins are targeted for destruction by malin, as has been proposed. Total laforin protein was increased in the brain of Epm2b(-/-) mice and, most notably, was redistributed from the soluble, low speed supernatant to the insoluble low speed pellet, which now contained 90% of the total laforin. This result correlated with elevated insolubility of glycogen and glycogen synthase. Because up-regulation of laforin cannot explain Lafora body formation, we conclude that malin functions to maintain laforin associated with soluble glycogen and that its absence causes sequestration of laforin to an insoluble polysaccharide fraction where it is functionally inert.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2010; 285(33):25372-81. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conversion to glycogen is a major fate of ingested glucose in the body. A rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen is glycogen synthase encoded by two genes, GYS1, expressed in muscle and other tissues, and GYS2, primarily expressed in liver (liver glycogen synthase). Defects in GYS2 cause the inherited monogenic disease glycogen storage disease 0. We have generated mice with a liver-specific disruption of the Gys2 gene (liver glycogen synthase knock-out (LGSKO) mice), using Lox-P/Cre technology. Conditional mice carrying floxed Gys2 were crossed with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the albumin promoter. The resulting LGSKO mice are viable, develop liver glycogen synthase deficiency, and have a 95% reduction in fed liver glycogen content. They have mild hypoglycemia but dispose glucose less well in a glucose tolerance test. Fed, LGSKO mice also have a reduced capacity for exhaustive exercise compared with mice carrying floxed alleles, but the difference disappears after an overnight fast. Upon fasting, LGSKO mice reach within 4 h decreased blood glucose levels attained by control floxed mice only after 24 h of food deprivation. The LGSKO mice maintain this low blood glucose for at least 24 h. Basal gluconeogenesis is increased in LGSKO mice, and insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production is impaired as assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. This observation correlates with an increase in the liver gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression and activity. This mouse model mimics the pathophysiology of glycogen storage disease 0 patients and highlights the importance of liver glycogen stores in whole body glucose homeostasis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2010; 285(17):12851-12861. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conversion to glycogen is a major fate of ingested glucose in the body. A rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of glycogen is glycogen synthase encoded by two genes, GYS1, expressed in muscle and other tissues, and GYS2, primarily expressed in liver (liver glycogen synthase). Defects in GYS2 cause the inherited monogenic disease glycogen storage disease 0. We have generated mice with a liver-specific disruption of the Gys2 gene (liver glycogen synthase knock-out (LGSKO) mice), using Lox-P/Cre technology. Conditional mice carrying floxed Gys2 were crossed with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the albumin promoter. The resulting LGSKO mice are viable, develop liver glycogen synthase deficiency, and have a 95% reduction in fed liver glycogen content. They have mild hypoglycemia but dispose glucose less well in a glucose tolerance test. Fed, LGSKO mice also have a reduced capacity for exhaustive exercise compared with mice carrying floxed alleles, but the difference disappears after an overnight fast. Upon fasting, LGSKO mice reach within 4 h decreased blood glucose levels attained by control floxed mice only after 24 h of food deprivation. The LGSKO mice maintain this low blood glucose for at least 24 h. Basal gluconeogenesis is increased in LGSKO mice, and insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production is impaired as assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. This observation correlates with an increase in the liver gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression and activity. This mouse model mimics the pathophysiology of glycogen storage disease 0 patients and highlights the importance of liver glycogen stores in whole body glucose homeostasis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2010; 285(17):12851-61. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lafora disease is a progressive myoclonus epilepsy with onset in the teenage years followed by neurodegeneration and death within 10 years. A characteristic is the widespread formation of poorly branched, insoluble glycogen-like polymers (polyglucosan) known as Lafora bodies, which accumulate in neurons, muscle, liver, and other tissues. Approximately half of the cases of Lafora disease result from mutations in the EPM2A gene, which encodes laforin, a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase family that is able to release the small amount of covalent phosphate normally present in glycogen. In studies of Epm2a(-/-) mice that lack laforin, we observed a progressive change in the properties and structure of glycogen that paralleled the formation of Lafora bodies. At three months, glycogen metabolism remained essentially normal, even though the phosphorylation of glycogen has increased 4-fold and causes altered physical properties of the polysaccharide. By 9 months, the glycogen has overaccumulated by 3-fold, has become somewhat more phosphorylated, but, more notably, is now poorly branched, is insoluble in water, and has acquired an abnormal morphology visible by electron microscopy. These glycogen molecules have a tendency to aggregate and can be recovered in the pellet after low speed centrifugation of tissue extracts. The aggregation requires the phosphorylation of glycogen. The aggregrated glycogen sequesters glycogen synthase but not other glycogen metabolizing enzymes. We propose that laforin functions to suppress excessive glycogen phosphorylation and is an essential component of the metabolism of normally structured glycogen.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2008; 283(49):33816-25. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac-specific overexpression of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) in mice results in hypertrophy, depressed contractility, propensity to heart failure, and premature death. To further address the role of PP1 in heart function, PP1 mice were crossed with mice that overexpress a functional COOH-terminally truncated form of PP1 inhibitor-2 (I-2(140)). Protein phosphatase activity was increased in PP1 mice but was normalized in double transgenic (DT) mice. The maximal rates of contraction (+dP/dt) and of relaxation (-dP/dt) were reduced in catheterized PP1 mice but normalized in DT mice. Similar contractile abnormalities were observed in isolated, perfused work-performing hearts and in whole animals by means of echocardiography. The increased absolute and relative heart weights observed in PP1 mice were normalized in DT mice. Histological analyses indicated that PP1 mice had significant cardiac fibrosis, which was absent in DT mice. Furthermore, PP1 mice exhibited an age-dependent increase in mortality, which was abrogated in DT mice. These results indicate that I-2 overexpression prevents the detrimental effects of PP1 overexpression in the heart and further underscore the fundamental role of PP1 in cardiac function. Therefore, PP1 inhibitors such as I-2 could offer new therapeutic options to ameliorate the deleterious effects of heart failure.
    AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 09/2008; 295(4):H1539-46. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stored glycogen is an important source of energy for skeletal muscle. Human genetic disorders primarily affecting skeletal muscle glycogen turnover are well-recognised, but rare. We previously reported that a frameshift/premature stop mutation in PPP1R3A, the gene encoding RGL, a key regulator of muscle glycogen metabolism, was present in 1.36% of participants from a population of white individuals in the UK. However, the functional implications of the mutation were not known. The objective of this study was to characterise the molecular and physiological consequences of this genetic variant. In this study we found a similar prevalence of the variant in an independent UK white population of 744 participants (1.46%) and, using in vivo (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies, demonstrate that human carriers (n = 6) of the variant have low basal (65% lower, p = 0.002) and postprandial muscle glycogen levels. Mice engineered to express the equivalent mutation had similarly decreased muscle glycogen levels (40% lower in heterozygous knock-in mice, p < 0.05). In muscle tissue from these mice, failure of the truncated mutant to bind glycogen and colocalize with glycogen synthase (GS) decreased GS and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity states, which account for the decreased glycogen content. Thus, PPP1R3A C1984DeltaAG (stop codon 668) is, to our knowledge, the first prevalent mutation described that directly impairs glycogen synthesis and decreases glycogen levels in human skeletal muscle. The fact that it is present in approximately 1 in 70 UK whites increases the potential biomedical relevance of these observations.
    PLoS Medicine 02/2008; 5(1):e27. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lafora disease is a progressive myoclonus epilepsy with onset typically in the second decade of life and death within 10 years. Lafora bodies, deposits of abnormally branched, insoluble glycogen-like polymers, form in neurons, muscle, liver, and other tissues. Approximately half of the cases of Lafora disease result from mutations in the EPM2A gene, which encodes laforin, a member of the dual-specificity protein phosphatase family that additionally contains a glycogen binding domain. The molecular basis for the formation of Lafora bodies is completely unknown. Glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, contains a small amount of covalently linked phosphate whose origin and function are obscure. We report here that recombinant laforin is able to release this phosphate in vitro, in a time-dependent reaction with an apparent K(m) for glycogen of 4.5 mg/ml. Mutations of laforin that disable the glycogen binding domain also eliminate its ability to dephosphorylate glycogen. We have also analyzed glycogen from a mouse model of Lafora disease, Epm2a(-/-) mice, which develop Lafora bodies in several tissues. Glycogen isolated from these mice had a 40% increase in the covalent phosphate content in liver and a 4-fold elevation in muscle. We propose that excessive phosphorylation of glycogen leads to aberrant branching and Lafora body formation. This study provides a molecular link between an observed biochemical property of laforin and the phenotype of a mouse model of Lafora disease. The results also have important implications for glycogen metabolism generally.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2008; 104(49):19262-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The functional specificity of type 1 protein phosphatases (PP1) depends on the associated regulatory/targeting and inhibitory subunits. To gain insights into the mechanism of PP1 regulation by inhibitor-2, an ancient and intrinsically disordered regulator, we solved the crystal structure of the complex to 2.5A resolution. Our studies show that, when complexed with PP1c, I-2 acquires three regions of order: site 1, residues 12-17, binds adjacent to a region recognized by many PP1 regulators; site 2, amino acids 44-56, interacts along the RVXF binding groove through an unsuspected sequence, KSQKW; and site 3, residues 130-169, forms alpha-helical regions that lie across the substrate-binding cleft. Specifically, residues 148-151 interact at the catalytic center, displacing essential metal ions, accounting for both rapid inhibition and slower inactivation of PP1c. Thus, our structure provides novel insights into the mechanism of PP1 inhibition and subsequent reactivation, has broad implications for the physiological regulation of PP1, and highlights common inhibitory interactions among phosphoprotein phosphatase family members.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2007; 282(39):28874-83. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laforin, encoded by the EPM2A gene, by sequence is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase family. Mutations in the EPM2A gene account for around half of the cases of Lafora disease, an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive myoclonus epilepsy. The hallmark of the disease is the presence of Lafora bodies, which contain polyglucosan, a poorly branched form of glycogen, in neurons, muscle and other tissues. Glycogen metabolizing enzymes were analyzed in a transgenic mouse over-expressing a dominant negative form of laforin that accumulates Lafora bodies in several tissues. Skeletal muscle glycogen was increased 2-fold as was the total glycogen synthase protein. However, the -/+glucose-6-P activity of glycogen synthase was decreased from 0.29 to 0.16. Branching enzyme activity was increased by 30%. Glycogen phosphorylase activity was unchanged. In whole brain, no differences in glycogen synthase or branching enzyme activities were found. Although there were significant differences in enzyme activities in muscle, the results do not support the hypothesis that Lafora body formation is caused by a major change in the balance between glycogen elongation and branching activities.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 02/2007; 457(2):264-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
534.23 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1984–2013
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • • Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Clinical Biochemistry
      Cambridge, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2005
    • University of Cincinnati
      • Department of Pharmacology and Cell Biophysics
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
  • 2001
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995
    • Louisiana State University
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 1993
    • Indiana University-Purdue University School of Medicine
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Indianapolis, IN, United States
  • 1988
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Seattle, WA, United States