Kui Jiao

Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Tsingtao, Shandong Sheng, China

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Publications (215)573.86 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Until now, morphology effects of 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional graphene nanocomposites and the effect of material composition on the biosensors have been rarely reported. In this paper, the various nanocomposites based on graphene oxide and self-doped polyaniline nanofibres for studying the effect of morphology and material composition on DNA sensitivity were directly reported. The isolation and dispersion of graphene oxide were realized via intercalated self-doped polyaniline and ultrasonication, where the ultrasonication prompts the aggregates of graphite oxide to break up and self-doped polyaniline to diffuse into the stacked graphene oxide. Significant electrochemical enhancement has been observed due to the existence of self-doped polyaniline, which bridges the defects for electron transfer and, in the mean time, increases the basal spacing between graphene oxide sheets. Different morphologies can result in different ssDNA surface density, which can further influence the hybridization efficiency. Compared with 2-dimensional graphene oxide, self-doped polyaniline and other morphologies of nanocomposites, 3-dimensional graphene oxide-self-doped polyaniline nanowalls exhibited the highest surface density and hybridization efficiency. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensors presented the broad detection range with the low detection limit due to the specific surface area, a large number of electroactive species, and open accessible space supported by nanowalls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 05/2015; 133. DOI:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.05.035 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, functional composites based on chemically modified graphenes (CMGs) and nanostructured conducting polymers have attracted wide interest in electrochemical biosensing field. However, comprehensive studies about the effect of various CMGs on the electrochemical properties and biosensing performance of the composites are scarce. Herein, for the first time, we fabricated and deeply evaluated three composites composed of CMGs and sulfonic acid-doped polyaniline nanofiber (namely CMG-SPAN composites). The CMGs (involving the unreduced form and reduced forms prepared by different reduction routes) were chosen to show the effect of reduction and different preparation routes on the morphologies, electrochemical properties and DNA biosensing performances of the composites. Notably, the self-redox signals of SPAN in these composites were significantly enhanced and have been adopted for rapid, direct and label-free DNA detection. Moreover, a preliminary study toward capacitive characteristics of thermally reduced graphene oxide-SPAN composite has been conducted at the end of this paper, owing to the potential benefits of the composite in supercapacitor which were surprisingly observed in this research. The findings in this work will provide useful guides for a better understanding of the interaction between CMG and SPAN, and for future development of high-performance functional materials for electrochemical sensors/biosensors and supercapacitors.
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 04/2015; 119(17):150421122849004. DOI:10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b00534 · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a novel molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) intercalated by self-doped polyaniline (SPAN) via ultrasonic exfoliating method was prepared to show outstanding conductivity and synergistic electrocatalytic activity using chloramphenicol (CAP) as a case. In the ultrasonic process, due to the strong π-π(⁎) stacking interaction and electrostatic repulsion, the negatively charged SPAN served as an intercalator to result in few-layers MoS2 nanosheets, which were exfoliated from bulk MoS2. This nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and differential pulse voltammetry. The obtained nanocomposite owns large conjugated structure and rich negative charge, which can improve the adsorption of conjugate structured CAP with the detection range from 0.1 to 1000μmolL(-1). The results also showed that the electrocatalytic responses were further affected by the mass ratio of SPAN-MoS2 and the ultrasonication time. Our electrocatalytic platform could be further applied in the adsorption and detection of other positively charged biomolecules or aromatic molecules.
    Talanta 01/2015; 131C:619-623. DOI:10.1016/j.talanta.2014.08.035 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, easy, green and low-cost liquild exfoliation of bulks materials to obtain thin-layered nanostructure significantly emerged. In this work, thin-layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets were fabricated through intercalation of self-doped polyaniline (SPAN) to layer space of bulk MoS2 by ultrasonic exfoliating method to effective prevent re-aggregation of MoS2 nanosheets. The obtained hybrid showed specific surface area, a large number of electroactive species, and open accessible space, accompanied with rich negative charged and special conjugated structure, which was applied to adopt positively charged guanine and adenine, based on their strong π-π* interactions and electrostatic adsorption. And SPAN-MoS2 interface exhibited the synergistic effect and good electrocatalytic activity compared with the sole SPAN or MoS2 modified electrode.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 01/2015; 7(4). DOI:10.1021/am5081716 · 6.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One-step co-electrodeposition was applied to prepare graphene–zinc oxide nanowalls (GZNWs) composite, where graphene oxide was electrochemically reduced and zinc oxide was electrodeposited simultaneously. The morphologies and the electrochemical properties of GZNWs were obviously influenced by the electrodeposition time. The contrast experiments illuminate that GZNWs presented superior electrochemical activity.
    Materials Letters 01/2015; 138:124–127. DOI:10.1016/j.matlet.2014.09.107 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Until now, researches on the preparation of MoS2-based polymer nanocomposites with the electropolymerization method are scarce. Herein, for the first time, a poly (xanthurenic acid, Xa) film based on thin-layer MoS2 support was electrochemically prepared to form a highly electroactive biosensing platform. The thin-layer MoS2 were obtained with a simple ultrasonic method from bulk MoS2. The physical adsorption between MoS2 and aromatic Xa improved the electropolymerization efficiency, accompanied with an increased electrochemical response of PXa. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were utilized to character the morphology and certify the electrochemical properties of the prepared interface. Compared with sole PXa or MoS2 modified electrode, the PXa-MoS2 hybrid interface exhibited the good electrocatalytic activity and the prominent synergistic effect on guanine and adenine. PXa-MoS2 nanocomposite owns the negative charge and specific structure, which obviously prompt the adsorption of the positively charged guanine and adenine. Moreover, this nanocomposite is a promising candidate in electrochemical sensing and other electrocatalytic applications.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry B 01/2015; 3(24):4884-4891. DOI:10.1039/C5TB00227C · 4.73 Impact Factor
  • Tao Yang · Le Meng · Jinlong Zhao · Xinxing Wang · Kui Jiao
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    ABSTRACT: DNA detection sensitivity can be improved by carefully controlling the texture of the sensor substrate, which was normally investigated on metal or metal oxide nanostructured platform. Morphology effects on the biofunctionalization of polymer micro/nanoelectrodes have not been investigated in detail. To extend this topic, we used graphene oxide (GNO) as the supporting material to prepare graphene-based polyaniline nanocomposites with different morphologies as a model for comparing their DNA sensing behaviors. Owing to GNO serving as an excellent support or template for nucleation and growth of polyaniline (PANI), PANI nanostructures grown on GNO substrate were successfully obtained. However, if GNO supporting was absent, the obtained PANI nanowires showed a connected network. Furthermore, adjustment of reaction time can be used for dominating the topographies of PANI-GNO nanocomposites, meaning that different reaction times resulted in various formations of PANI-GNO nanocomposites, including small horns (5 and 12 h), vertical arrays (18 h), and nanotips (24 h). The next-step electrochemical data showed that the DNA electrochemical sensors constructed on the different morphologies possessed different ssDNA surface coverage and hybridization efficiency. Compared with other morphologies of PANI-GNO nanocomposite (5, 12, and 24 h), vertical arrays (18 h) exhibited the highest sensitivity (2.08 × 10(-16) M, 2 orders of magnitude lower than others). It is can be concluded that this nanocomposite with higher surface area and more accessible space can provide an optimal balance for DNA immobilization and DNA hybridization detection.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10/2014; 6(21). DOI:10.1021/am504998e · 6.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A label-free and ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor, based on thin-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets sensing platform and differential pulse voltammetry detection, is constructed in this paper. The thin-layer MoS2 nanosheets were prepared via a simple ultrasound exfoliation method from bulk MoS2, which is simpler and no distortion compared with mechanical cleavage and lithium intercalation. Most importantly, this procedure allows the formation of MoS2 with enhanced electrochemical activity. Based on the high electrochemical activity and different affinity toward ssDNA versus dsDNA of the thin-layer MoS2 nanosheets sensing platform, the tlh gene sequence assay can be performed label-freely from 1.0×10(-16)M to 1.0×10(-10)M with a detection limit of 1.9×10(-17)M. Without labeling and the use of amplifiers, the detection method described here not only expands the application of MoS2, but also offers a viable alternative for DNA analysis, which has the priority in sensitivity, simplicity, and costs. Moreover, the proposed sensing platform has good electrocatalytic activity, and can be extended to detect more targets, such as guanine and adenine, which further expands the application of MoS2.
    Biosensors & Bioelectronics 09/2014; 64C:386-391. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2014.09.030 · 6.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to achieve the large direct electrochemical signals of guanine and adenine, an urgent request to explore novel electrode materials and interfaces has been put forward. In this paper, a poly(xanthurenic acid, Xa)-reduced graphene oxide (PXa-ERGNO) interface, which has rich negatively charged active sites and accelerated electron transfer ability, was fabricated for monitoring the positively charged guanine and adenine. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and differential pulse voltammetry were adopted to characterize the morphology and prove the electrochemical properties of the prepared interface. The PXa-ERGNO interface with rich negative charge and large electrode surface area was an excellent sensing platform to prompt the adsorption of the positively charged guanine and adenine via strong π-π* interaction or electrostatic adsorption. The PXa-ERGNO interface exhibited prominent synergistic effect and good electrocatalytic activity for sensitive determination of guanine and adenine compared with sole PXa or ERGNO modified electrode. The sensing platform we built could be further applied in the adsorption and detection of other positively charged biomolecules or aromatic molecules.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 07/2014; 6(14). DOI:10.1021/am502598k · 6.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel one-step electrochemical synthesis via a pulse potentiostatic method (PPM) was adopted to prepare a nanocomposite of poly(xanthurenic acid, Xa)–electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (PXa–ERGNO), which was applied for simultaneous detection of guanine and adenine. In the synthesis process, the graphene oxide (GNO) could be electrochemically reduced to reduced graphene oxide in the cathodic potential section; meanwhile, Xa (an unconventional and low toxicity biomonomer) could be electropolymerized in the anodic potential section. The optimization of fabrication was based on the electrooxidation signals of DNA bases. Since the negative charge and specific structure of the nanocomposite can prompt the adsorption of the electropositive guanine and adenine via strong π–π* interactions or electrostatic adsorption, the resulting nanocomposite shows high electrocatalytic ability for the detection of guanine and adenine.
    03/2014; 5(7). DOI:10.1039/C3PY00997A
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a type of direct DNA impedance detection using the self-redox signal change of sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) enhanced by graphene oxide (GNO) was reported, here SPAN is a copolymer obtained from aniline and m-aminobenzenesulfonic acid. The resulting nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The π-π planar structure of GNO and the carboxyl groups on the surface of GNO ensured it could act as an excellent substrate for adsorption and polymerization of aniline monomer. Because of the existence of GNO, the electrochemical activities of SPAN were enhanced obviously. Owing to abundant sulfonic acid groups, the resulting nanocomposite showed obvious self-redox signal even at physiological pH, which is beneficial for biosensing field. DNA probes with amine groups could be covalently attached to the modified electrode surface through the acyl chloride cross-linking reaction of sulfonic groups and amines. When the flexible probe DNA was successfully grafted, the electrode was coated and electron transfer between electrode and buffer was restrained. Thus, the inner impedance value of SPAN (rather than using outer classic EIS probe, [Fe(CN)6]3-/4-) increased significantly. After hybridization, the rigid helix opened the electron channel, which induced impedance value decreased dramatically. As an initial application of this system, the PML/RARA fusion gene sequence formed from promyelocytic leukemia (PML) and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) was successfully detected.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 10/2013; 5(21). DOI:10.1021/am403090y · 6.72 Impact Factor
  • Meng Du · QianQian Kong · Tao Yang · Kui Jiao
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    ABSTRACT: Herein, we present the electrochemical co-deposition of Al3+/graphene composites directly from an aqueous mixture containing graphene oxide (GO) and Al3+. The obtained Al3+/graphene composites with good electrochemical activity were regarded as an appropriate immobilization platform for double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The nontoxic redox probe xanthurenic acid (XA) was successfully applied to recognize single-stranded DNA and dsDNA. We illustrated that the scission of dsDNA caused by GO combining with some metal ions could be detected by monitoring the electrochemical signals of XA.
    Science China-Chemistry 09/2013; 56(9). DOI:10.1007/s11426-013-4858-0 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the comparison of two kinds of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGNO) and zirconia composites, obtained by one-step (ZrO2-ERGNO) and stepwise (ZrO2/ERGNO) electrodeposition for DNA sensing, is systematically studied. The resulting composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and differential pulse voltammetry. The results indicated that the ZrO2-ERGNO presented fine globular nanostructure. However, ZrO2/ERGNO presented agglomerate massive microstructure due to the absence of the oxygen-containing groups of graphene oxide, confirming the oxygen-containing groups provided a better affinity for the deposition of ZrO2. Due to the strong binding of the phosphate groups of DNA with the zirconia film, DNA probes were attached on the ZrO2-based composites. ZrO2-ERGNO/Au owning fine nanostructure presented larger surface area than microstructured ZrO2/ERGNO/Au. Moreover, compared with microstructured ZrO2/ERGNO, the nanostructured ZrO2-ERGNO provided more accessible space for immobilized DNA probe hybridization with target sequence, which consequently resulted in higher hybridization efficiency. Therefore, the ZrO2-ERGNO was chosen for fabricating DNA sensor with a limit of detection 1.21×10(-14)molL(-1).
    Analytica chimica acta 07/2013; 786:29-33. DOI:10.1016/j.aca.2013.05.023 · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we prepared large-area, three-dimensional interconnected graphene oxide (GNO) intercalated by self-doped polyaniline nanofibers (SPAN, a copolymer of aniline and m-aminobenzenesulfonic acid) through a simple adsorption and intercalation route via sonication of the mixed dispersions of both components. The strong π–π* stacking between the backbones of SPAN and the GNO basal planes, and the electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged SPAN and graphene oxide sheets yield a unique free-standing, three-dimensional interconnected nanostructure. The nanocomposite possesses a large specific surface area and maintains a homogenous and stable dispersion with SPAN, which endows it with a high conductivity and good electrocatalytic activity. Because the negative charge and specific structure of the nanocomposite can prompt the adsorption of positively charged guanine and adenine via strong π–π* interactions or electrostatic adsorption, the hybrid was adopted as an excellent sensing platform for highly sensitive determination of guanine and adenine. The electrocatalytic platform exhibited some advantages, such as high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability.
    05/2013; 1(23):2926-2933. DOI:10.1039/C3TB20171F
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    ABSTRACT: A novel and simple synchronous electrochemical synthesis of poly(xanthurenic acid, Xa) -electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite (PXa-ERGNO) via cyclic voltammetry (CV) was reported, where graphene oxide (GNO) and Xa monomer were adopted as precursors. The resulting PXa-ERGNO nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The π-π* interactions between the conjugated GNO layers and aromatic ring of Xa enhanced the electropolymerization efficiency accompanied with an increased electrochemical response of PXa. The rich carboxyl groups of PXa-ERGNO film were applied to stably immobilize the probe DNA with amino groups at 5' end via covalent bonding. The captured probe could sensitively and selectively recognize its target DNA via EIS. The dynamic detection range was from 1.0 × 10-14 mol/L to 1.0 × 10-8 mol/L with a detection limit of 4.2 × 10-15 mol/L due to the synergistic effect of integrated PXa-ERGNO nanocomposite. This graphene-based electrochemical platform showed intrinsic advantage, such as simplicity, good stability, and high sensitivity, which could serve as an ideal platform for the biosensing field.
    ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 04/2013; 5(9). DOI:10.1021/am400370s · 6.72 Impact Factor
  • Meng Du · Tao Yang · Xiuhong Guo · Ling Zhong · Kui Jiao
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    ABSTRACT: Herein, an electrochemical platform was employed for the detection of protein. Fe2O3 was electrochemically deposited on graphene modified glassy carbon electrode surface. Electrodeposition conditions, such as temperature, and time, were optimized for controlling morphologies and electrochemical activities of Fe2O3. Negatively charged lysozyme-binding aptamer (LBA) was immobilized on positively charged Fe2O3 (isoelectric point ∼7.0) via electrostatic interaction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was adopted for indicator-free detection of lysozyme. The LBA on the outermost layer would catch lysozyme in solution by physical affinity, which induced the increase of impedimetric signals. In this strategy, a wide detection range (0.5ngmL(-1)-5μgmL(-1)) and low detection limit (0.16ngmL(-1)) for model target lysozyme was obtained. The results showed that indicator-free impedimetric aptasensing strategy had good sensitivity and selectivity.
    Talanta 02/2013; 105C:229-234. DOI:10.1016/j.talanta.2012.11.063 · 3.51 Impact Factor
  • Tao Yang · Xiuhong Guo · Yao Ma · Qianhe Li · Ling Zhong · Kui Jiao
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive electrochemical impedimetric DNA biosensor based on the integration of tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles, chitosan (CHIT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is presented in this paper. The MWNTs-SnO2-CHIT composite modified gold electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Compared with individual MWNTs-CHIT, SnO2-CHIT and bare gold electrode, this composite showed the most obvious electrochemical signal of the redox probe [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-). According to the change of the electron transfer resistance (Ret) induced by the hybridization, target DNA was successfully detected via EIS. This DNA electrochemical biosensor was applied to detect phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene in transgenic corn. The synergistic effect of the MWNTs-SnO2-CHIT remarkably enhanced DNA immobilization and hybridization detection. The dynamic detection range was from 1.0×10(-11)mol/L to 1.0×10(-6)mol/L with a detection limit of 2.5×10(-12)mol/L. This sensing platform showed inner advantage, such as simplicity, good stability, and high sensitivity.
    Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.colsurfb.2013.01.046 · 4.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Tao Yang · Xiao Li · Qianhe Li · Xiuhong Guo · Qian Guan · Kui Jiao
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the poly-xanthurenic acid (PXa) was electropolymerized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) on a pre-obtained electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGNO) film to construct a novel direct electrochemical DNA biosensor. Due to the unique properties of graphene, conjugated xanthurenic acid (Xa) monomers tended to be adsorbed on the graphene plane by π–π stacking and the electropolymerization efficiency was greatly improved, resulting in an enhanced electrochemical response of PXa. The PXa not only served as a substrate for DNA immobilization but also reflected the electrochemical transduction originating from DNA immobilization and hybridization without any outer indicators or complicated labeling. The capture probe was immobilized onto a modified electrode by covalent bonds between the amino groups of the capture probe and the carboxyl groups of the PXa/ERGNO film. The sensing platform could selectively recognize its target DNA. It is well-known that ssDNA is a flexible molecule while dsDNA acts as a rigid rod, which resulted in the change of the self-signals of the PXa after hybridization. The dynamic range of this DNA biosensor for detecting the sequence-specific DNA from promyelocytic leukemia was from 1.0 × 10−15 mol L−1 to 1.0 × 10−9 mol L−1 using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and the detection limit was 2.5 × 10−16 mol L−1.
    01/2013; 4(4):1228-1234. DOI:10.1039/C2PY20655B
  • Yuwei Hu · Tao Yang · Qianhe Li · Qian Guan · Kui Jiao
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    ABSTRACT: In very recent years, polyaniline or its derivatives have been adopted to efficiently immobilize probe DNA via π-π interaction between conjugated interface and DNA bases. In this work, self-doped polyaniline (SPAN)-DNA hybrid was adopted as the platform to construct a DNA biosensor with label-free, reagentless and electrochemical self-signal amplifying features. This was achieved by the π-π interaction between conjugated SPAN and DNA bases, also the intrinsic differences between single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The tightly cross-linked hybrid was tethered to Au electrode, which had been anchored by p-aminothiophenol (PATP) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) previously, based on the phosphoramidate bond between PATP and ssDNA. SPAN in the recognition surface exhibited well-defined redox signals under neutral conditions. Due to the intrinsic property differences between ssDNA and dsDNA, such as rigidity, π-stacked bases, charge distribution and long-range electron transfer, SPAN-DNA underwent a major conformational change after hybridization. The redox behaviors of SPAN were modulated by DNA, which served as signals to monitor hybridization. As an example, the gene fragment related to one of the screening genes for the genetically modified plants, cauliflower mosaic virus 35S gene was satisfactorily detected with this strategy. Under optimal conditions, the dynamic range for the DNA assay was from 1.0 × 10(-14) mol L(-1) to 1.0 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) with the detection limit of 2.3 × 10(-15) mol L(-1). This work presents the construction of a recognition surface for the highly-sensitive electrochemical DNA hybridization detection via the self-signal amplifying procedure of conjugated SPAN-DNA hybrid. Unlike most signal amplifying processes using outer indicators, complex labels or other reagents, this procedure possesses simplicity and convenience.
    The Analyst 01/2013; 138(4). DOI:10.1039/c2an36620g · 4.11 Impact Factor
  • Tao Yang · Qian Guan · Le Meng · Ruirui Yang · Qianhe Li · Kui Jiao
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we report a simple and low-cost method to prepare large-area, wavy graphene oxide (GNO) nanowalls intercalated by sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN). Through ultrasonication of a mixed dispersion of graphite oxide (GO) and SPAN, the negatively charged SPAN continuously diffused and was adsorbed and intercalated into the simultaneously resulting GNO layers to form a homogenous and three-dimensional interconnected nanowall structure. This unique morphology has a large specific surface area and improves the electrochemical response of [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−, which has been widely adopted to monitor the immobilization and hybridization of DNA. The accessible space, large specific surface area and richly conjugated structures were beneficial to efficiently immobilize a probe DNA via π-π* interactions between the conjugated interface and the DNA bases, which also ensured a highly sensitive and freely switchable impedimetric DNA detection due to a hybridization that induces the dsDNA to be released from the conjugated surface.
    RSC Advances 01/2013; 3(44):22430. DOI:10.1039/c3ra44076a · 3.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
573.86 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2015
    • Qingdao University of Science and Technology
      Tsingtao, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2010
    • Ocean University of China
      • College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
      Tsingtao, Shandong Sheng, China
  • 2009
    • Zhangzhou Normal University
      Lunki, Fujian, China