[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the individual and combined effects of teriparatide and anti-RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand) monoclonal antibody in ovariectomized mice. Three-month-old female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham operated. Four weeks after OVX, they were assigned to 3 different groups to receive anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody (Ab) alone (5 mg/kg single injection at 4 weeks after OVX, Ab group), teriparatide alone (80 μg/kg daily injection for 4 weeks from 4 weeks after OVX, PTH group), or mAb plus teriparatide (Ab + PTH group). Mice were sacrificed 8 weeks after OVX. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the femur and lumbar spine. Hind limbs were subjected to histological and histomorphometric analysis. Serum osteocalcin and CTX-I levels were measured to investigate the bone turnover. Compared with Ab group, Ab + PTH group showed a significant increase in BMD at distal femur and femoral shaft. Cortical bone volume was significantly increased in PTH and Ab + PTH groups compared with Ab group. Bone turnover in Ab + PTH group was suppressed to the same degree as in Ab group. The number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells was markedly reduced in Ab and Ab + PTH groups. These results suggest that combined treatment of teriparatide with anti-RANKL antibody has additive effects on BMD in OVX mice compared with individual treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) plays an essential role in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. However, the detailed underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. Formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements and chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (FAIRE-seq and ChIP-seq) analyses indicated the cooperation of Smad2/3 with c-Fos during osteoclastogenesis. Biochemical analysis and immunocytochemical analysis revealed that physical interaction between Smad2/3 and c-Fos is required for their nuclear translocation. The gene expression of Nfatc1, a key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, was regulated by RANKL and TGF-β, and c-Fos binding to open chromatin sites was suppressed by inhibition of TGF-β signaling by SB431542. Conversely, Smad2/3 binding to Nfatc1 was impaired by c-Fos deficiency. These results suggest that TGF-β regulates RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through reciprocal cooperation between Smad2/3 and c-Fos. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 11/2014; 30(5). DOI:10.1002/jbmr.2418 · 6.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone is a highly vascularized organ, thus angiogenesis is a vital process during bone remodeling. However, the role of vascular systems in bone remodeling is not well recognized. Here we show that netrin-4 inhibits osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Co-cultures of bone marrow macrophages with vascular endothelial cells markedly inhibited osteoclast differentiation. Adding a neutralizing antibody, or RNA interference against netrin-4, restored in vitro osteoclast differentiation. Administration of netrin-4 prevented bone loss in an osteoporosis mouse model by decreasing the osteoclast number. We propose that vascular endothelial cells interact with bone in suppressing bone resorption through netrin-4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease accompanied by alveolar bone resorption by osteoclasts. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an etiological agent for periodontitis, produces cysteine proteases called gingipains, which are classified based on their cleavage site specificity, i.e., arginine (Rgps) and lysine (Kgps) gingipains. We previously reported that Kgp degraded osteoprotegerin (OPG), an osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor secreted by osteoblasts, and enhanced osteoclastogenesis induced by various Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands (Yasuhara R, et al. Biochem J, 419, 159-166, 2009). Osteoclastogenesis is induced not only by TLR ligands but also by proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-17A, in inflammatory conditions such as periodontitis. Although Kgp augmented osteoclastogenesis induced by TNF-α and IL-1β in co-cultures of mouse osteoblasts and bone marrow cells, it suppressed that induced by IL-17A. In a comparison of proteolytic degradation of these cytokines by Kgp in a cell-free system with that of OPG, TNF-α and IL-1β were less susceptible, while IL-17A and OPG were equally susceptible to degradation by Kgp. These results indicate that the enhancing effect of Kgp on cytokine-induced osteoclastogenesis is dependent on the difference in degradation efficiency between each cytokine and OPG. In addition, elucidation of the N-Terminal amino acid sequences of OPG fragments revealed that Kgp primarily cleaved OPG in its death domain homologous region, which might prevent dimer formation of OPG required for inhibition of RANKL. Collectively, our results suggest that degradation of OPG by Kgp is a crucial event in development of osteoclastogenesis and bone loss in periodontitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alternative nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, mainly the RelB-p52 heterodimer, plays important roles in bone metabolism
through an unknown mechanism. We have previously reported that alymphoplasia (aly/aly) mice, which lack active NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), show mild osteopetrosis due to the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis.
p100 retains RelB in the cytoplasm and inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in aly/aly cells. Furthermore, the overexpression of RelB in aly/aly cells rescues RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by inducing p100 processing. In contrast, the overexpression of p65 in aly/aly cells has no effect. However, the overexpression of RelB fails to rescue RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in the presence
of p100ΔGRR, which cannot be processed to p52, suggesting that p100 processing is a key step in RelB-rescued, RANKL-induced
osteoclastogenesis in aly/aly cells. In this study, Cot (cancer Osaka thyroid), an MAP3K, was up-regulated by RelB overexpression. Analysis of the Cot
promoter demonstrated that p65 and RelB bound to the distal NF-κB-binding site and that RelB but not p65 bound to the proximal
NF-κB-binding site in the Cot promoter. The knocking down of Cot expression significantly reduced the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis
induced by RelB overexpression. The phosphorylation of IKKα at threonine 23 and its kinase activity were indispensable for
the processing of p100 and osteoclastogenesis by RelB-induced Cot. Finally, constitutively activated Akt enhanced osteoclastogenesis
by RelB-induced Cot, and a dominant-negative form of Akt significantly inhibited it. Taken together, these results indicate
that the overexpression of RelB restores RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by activation of Akt/Cot/IKKα-induced p100 processing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
Because high doses of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are required to achieve a certain level of bone regeneration in primates, thereby causing side effects such as inflammation, combination therapies using BMPs along with agents that can reduce the required amount of BMPs have been developed. Recently, we found that subcutaneous injections of W9 peptide (W9), which has been established as a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) antagonist, promoted BMP-induced ectopic bone formation. Since TNF-α is known to reduce bone formation, we investigated the stimulatory mechanism of W9 on bone formation by using TNF-α-deficient, TNF type 1 receptor (TNFR1)-deficient, and wild-type (WT) mice.Methods
Collagen discs containing either BMP-2 (1 μg) alone or BMP-2 (1 μg) with W9 (0.56 mg) (BMP-2+W9) were implanted into the back muscles of 5-week-old male mice. The animals were sacrificed on day 12 after implantation. Radiographic and histomorphometric analyses were performed on the dissected ectopic bones.ResultsA significant increase in ectopic bone was observed in the BMP-2+W9 group compared to the BMP-2 group in WT mice. Bone histomorphometric technique revealed a significant increase of osteoblast surface and mineralized bone indices in the BMP-2+W9 group compared to the BMP-2 group in WT mice. Interestingly, W9 also increased the bone mineral content of ectopic bone induced by BMP-2 in both TNF-α deficient and TNFR1-deficient mice, to the same extent as in WT mice.Conclusion
Our data suggest that W9 promotes bone formation by a mechanism other than antagonism of TNF-α action.
Journal of Oral Biosciences 02/2013; 55(1):47–54. DOI:10.1016/j.job.2012.12.005
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts are bone resorbing, multinucleate cells that differentiate from mononuclear macrophage/monocyte-lineage hematopoietic precursor cells. Although previous studies have revealed important molecular signals, how the bone resorptive functions of such cells are controlled in vivo remains less well characterized. Here, we visualized fluorescently labeled mature osteoclasts in intact mouse bone tissues using intravital multiphoton microscopy. Within this mature population, we observed cells with distinct motility behaviors and function, with the relative proportion of static - bone resorptive (R) to moving - nonresorptive (N) varying in accordance with the pathophysiological conditions of the bone. We also found that rapid application of the osteoclast-activation factor RANKL converted many N osteoclasts to R, suggesting a novel point of action in RANKL-mediated control of mature osteoclast function. Furthermore, we showed that Th17 cells, a subset of RANKL-expressing CD4+ T cells, could induce rapid N-to-R conversion of mature osteoclasts via cell-cell contact. These findings provide new insights into the activities of mature osteoclasts in situ and identify actions of RANKL-expressing Th17 cells in inflammatory bone destruction.
The Journal of clinical investigation 01/2013; 123(2). DOI:10.1172/JCI65054 · 13.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date, parathyroid hormone is the only clinically available bone anabolic drug. The major difficulty in the development of such drugs is the lack of clarification of the mechanisms regulating osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Here, we report a peptide (W9) known to abrogate osteoclast differentiation in vivo via blocking receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-RANK signaling that we surprisingly found exhibits a bone anabolic effect in vivo. Subcutaneous administration of W9 3 times per day for 5 days significantly augmented bone mineral density in mouse cortical bone. Histomorphometrical analysis showed a decrease in osteoclastogenesis in the distal femoral metaphysis and a significant increase in bone formation in the femoral diaphysis. Our findings suggest that W9 exerts bone anabolic activity. To clarify the mechanisms involved in this activity, we investigated the effects of W9 on osteoblast differentiation/mineralization in MC3T3-E1 (E1) cells. W9 markedly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP, a marker enzyme of osteoblasts) activity and mineralization as shown by alizarin red staining. Gene expression of several osteogenesis-related factors was increased in W9-treated E1 cells. Addition of W9 activated p38 MAP kinase and Smad1/5/8 in E1 cells, and W9 showed osteogenesis stimulatory activity synergistically with BMP-2 in vitro and ectopic bone formation. Knockdown of RANKL expression in E1 cells reduced the effect of W9. Furthermore, W9 showed weak effect on RANKL-deficient osteoblasts in ALP assay. Taken together, our findings suggest that this peptide may be useful for the treatment of bone diseases and W9 achieves its bone anabolic activity through RANKL on osteoblasts accompanied by production of several autocrine factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of periodontal tissues, is characterized by excessive alveolar bone resorption. An increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio is thought to reflect the severity of periodontitis. Here, we examined alveolar bone loss in OPG-deficient (OPG(-/-)) mice and RANKL-overexpressing transgenic (RANKL-Tg) mice. Alveolar bone loss in OPG(-/-) mice at 12 weeks was significantly higher than that in RANKL-Tg mice. OPG(-/-) but not RANKL-Tg mice exhibited severe bone resorption especially in cortical areas of the alveolar bone. An increased number of osteoclasts was observed in the cortical areas in OPG(-/-) but not in RANKL-Tg mice. Immunohistochemical analyses showed many OPG-positive signals in osteocytes but not osteoblasts. OPG-positive osteocytes in the cortical area of alveolar bones and long bones were abundant in both wild-type and RANKL-Tg mice. This suggests the resorption in cortical bone areas to be prevented by OPG produced locally. To test the usefulness of OPG(-/-) mice as an animal model for screening drugs to prevent alveolar bone loss, we administered an antimouse RANKL antibody or risedronate, a bisphosphonate, to OPG(-/-) mice. They suppressed alveolar bone resorption effectively. OPG(-/-) mice are useful for screening therapeutic agents against alveolar bone loss.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing polykaryons differentiated from monocyte/macrophage-lineage hematopoietic precursors. It remains unclear whether osteoclasts originate from circulating blood monocytes or from bone tissue-resident precursors. To address this question, we combined two different experimental procedures: 1) shared blood circulation "parabiosis" with fluorescently labeled osteoclast precursors, and 2) photoconversion-based cell tracking with a Kikume Green-Red protein (KikGR). In parabiosis, CX(3)CR1-EGFP knock-in mice in which osteoclast precursors were labeled with EGFP were surgically connected with wild-type mice to establish a shared circulation. Mature EGFP(+) osteoclasts were found in the bones of the wild-type mice, indicating the mobilization of EGFP(+) osteoclast precursors into bones from systemic circulation. Receptor activator for NF-κB ligand stimulation increased the number of EGFP(+) osteoclasts in wild-type mice, suggesting that this mobilization depends on the bone resorption state. Additionally, KikGR(+) monocytes (including osteoclast precursors) in the spleen were exposed to violet light, and 2 d later we detected photoconverted "red" KikGR(+) osteoclasts along the bone surfaces. These results indicate that circulating monocytes from the spleen entered the bone spaces and differentiated into mature osteoclasts during a certain period. The current study used fluorescence-based methods clearly to demonstrate that osteoclasts can be generated from circulating monocytes once they home to bone tissues.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2012; 190(2). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1201345 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts are generated from monocyte/macrophage-lineage precursors in response to colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). CSF-1-mutated CSF-1(op/op) mice as well as RANKL(-/-) mice exhibit osteopetrosis (OP) caused by osteoclast deficiency. We previously identified RANKL receptor (RANK)/CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) double-positive cells as osteoclast precursors (OCPs), which existed in bone in RANKL(-/-) mice. Here we show that OCPs do not exist in bone but in spleen in CSF-1(op/op) mice, and spleen acts as their reservoir. IL-34, a newly discovered CSF-1R ligand, was highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells in spleen in CSF-1(op/op) mice. Vascular endothelial cells in bone also expressed IL-34, but its expression level was much lower than in spleen, suggesting a role of IL-34 in the splenic generation of OCPs. Splenectomy (SPX) blocked CSF-1-induced osteoclastogenesis in CSF-1(op/op) mice. Osteoclasts appeared in aged CSF-1(op/op) mice with up-regulation of IL-34 expression in spleen and bone. Splenectomy blocked the age-associated appearance of osteoclasts. The injection of 2-methylene-19-nor-(20S)-1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) (2MD), a potent analog of 1α,25-dihidroxyvitamin D(3), into CSF-1(op/op) mice induced both hypercalcemia and osteoclastogenesis. Administration of 2MD enhanced IL-34 expression not only in spleen but also in bone through a vitamin D receptor-mediated mechanism. Either splenectomy or siRNA-mediated knockdown of IL-34 suppressed 2MD-induced osteoclastogenesis. These results suggest that IL-34 plays a pivotal role in maintaining the splenic reservoir of OCPs, which are transferred to bone in response to diverse stimuli, in CSF-1(op/op) mice. The present study also suggests that the IL-34 gene in vascular endothelial cells is a unique target of vitamin D.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2012; 109(25):10006-11. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1207361109 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fos plays essential roles in the osteoclastic differentiation of precursor cells generated by colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL; also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11, Tnsf11). RANKL-deficient (RANKL(-/-)) mice and Fos(-/-) mice exhibit osteopetrosis due to an osteoclast deficiency. We previously reported that RANK-positive osteoclast precursors are present in bone of RANKL(-/-) mice but not Fos(-/-) mice. Here we report the role of Fos in RANK expression in osteoclast precursors. Medullary thymic epithelial cells and intestinal antigen-sampling microfold cells have been shown to express RANK. High expression of RANK was observed in some epithelial cells in the thymic medulla and intestine but not in osteoclast precursors in Fos(-/-) mice. RANK mRNA and protein levels in bone were lower in Fos(-/-) mice than RANKL(-/-) mice, suggesting that Fos-regulated RANK expression is tissue specific. When wild-type bone marrow cells were inoculated into Fos(-/-) mice, RANK-positive cells appeared along bones. RANK expression in wild-type macrophages was upregulated by coculturing with RANKL(-/-) osteoblasts as well as wild-type osteoblasts, suggesting that cytokines other than RANKL expressed by osteoblasts upregulate RANK expression in osteoclast precursors. CSF-1 receptor-positive cells were detected near CSF-1-expressing osteoblastic cells in bone in Fos(-/-) mice. CSF-1 upregulated RANK expression in wild-type macrophages but not Fos(-/-) macrophages. Overexpression of Fos in Fos(-/-) macrophages resulted in the upregulation of RANK expression. Overexpression of RANK in Fos(-/-) macrophages caused RANKL-induced signals, but failed to recover the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. These results suggest that Fos plays essential roles in the upregulation of RANK expression in osteoclast precursors within the bone environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclastogenesis is a highly regulated process governed by diverse classes of regulators. Among them, nuclear factor of activated T-cells calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) is the primary osteoclastogenic transcription factor, and its expression is transcriptionally induced during early osteoclastogenesis by receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), an osteoclastogenic cytokine. Here, we report the novel enzymatic function of JMJD5, which regulates NFATc1 protein stability. Among the tested Jumonji C (JmjC) domain-containing proteins, decreased mRNA expression levels during osteoclastogenesis were found for JMJD5 in RAW264 cells stimulated by RANKL. To examine the functional role of JMJD5 in osteoclast differentiation, we established stable JMJD5 knockdown cells, and osteoclast formation was assessed. Down-regulated expression of JMJD5 led to accelerated osteoclast formation together with induction of several osteoclast-specific genes such as Ctsk and DC-STAMP, suggesting that JMJD5 is a negative regulator in osteoclast differentiation. Although JMJD5 was recently reported as a histone demethylase for histone H3K36me2, no histone demethylase activity was detected in JMJD5 in vitro or in living cells, even for other methylated histone residues. Instead, JMJD5 co-repressed transcriptional activity by destabilizing NFATc1 protein. Protein hydroxylase activity mediated by the JmjC domain in JMJD5 was required for the observed functions of JMJD5. JMJD5 induced the association of hydroxylated NFATc1 with the E3 ubiquitin ligase Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL), thereby presumably facilitating proteasomal degradation of NFATc1 via ubiquitination. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that JMJD5 is a post-translational co-repressor for NFATc1 that attenuates osteoclastogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tetracyclines, such as doxycycline and minocycline, are used to suppress the growth of bacteria in patients with inflammatory diseases. Tetracyclines have been shown to prevent bone loss, but the mechanism involved is unknown. Osteoclasts and dendritic cells (DCs) are derived from common progenitors, such as bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). In this article, we show that tetracyclines convert the differentiation pathway, resulting in DC-like cells not osteoclasts. Doxycycline and minocycline inhibited the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis of BMMs, but they had no effects on cell growth and phagocytic activity. They influenced neither the proliferation nor the differentiation of bone-forming osteoblasts. Surprisingly, doxycycline and minocycline induced the expression of DC markers, CD11c and CD86, in BMMs in the presence of RANKL. STAT5 is involved in DC differentiation induced by GM-CSF. Midostaurin, a STAT5-signaling inhibitor, and an anti-GM-CSF-neutralizing Ab suppressed the differentiation induced by GM-CSF but not by tetracyclines. In vivo, the injection of tetracyclines into RANKL-injected mice and RANKL-transgenic mice suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and promoted the concomitant appearance of CD11c(+) cells. These results suggested that tetracyclines prevent bone loss induced by local inflammation, including rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis, through osteoclast-DC-like cell conversion.
The Journal of Immunology 02/2012; 188(4):1772-81. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1101174 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eldecalcitol (ED-71) is a new vitamin D₃ derivative recently approved for the treatment of osteoporosis in Japan. Previous studies have shown that the daily administration of ED-71 increases bone mineral density (BMD) by suppressing bone resorption in various animal models. In this study, we examined how ED-71 suppresses bone resorption in vivo, by analyzing bone histomorphometry and ex vivo osteoclastogenesis assays. Daily administration of ED-71 (50 ng/kg body weight) to 8-week-old male mice for 2 and 4 weeks increased BMD in the femoral metaphysis without causing hypercalcemia. Bone and serum analyses revealed that ED-71 inhibited bone resorption and formation, indicating that the increase in BMD is the result of the suppression of bone resorption. This suppression was associated with a decrease in the number of osteoclasts in trabecular bone. We previously identified cell cycle-arrested receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK)-positive bone marrow cells as quiescent osteoclast precursors (QOPs) in vivo. Daily administration of ED-71 affected neither the number of RANK-positive cells in vivo nor the number of osteoclasts formed from QOPs in ex vivo cultures. In contrast, ED-71 suppressed the expression of RANK ligand (RANKL) mRNA in femurs. Immunohistochemical experiments also showed that the perimeter of the RANKL-positive cell surface around the trabecular bone was significantly reduced in ED-71-treated mice than in the control mice. ED-71 administration also increased BMD in 12-week-old ovariectomized mice, through the suppression of RANKL expression in the trabecular bone. These results suggest that the daily administration of ED-71 increases BMD by suppressing RANKL expression in trabecular bone in vivo.
Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 02/2012; 27(2):461-73. DOI:10.1002/jbmr.555 · 6.83 Impact Factor