R Deppisch

Ghent University, Gent, VLG, Belgium

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Publications (53)192.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: One of the main objectives of dialysis is uremic retention product elimination. Efficiency of dialysis modalities varies both regarding the range of solutes removed and the extent of such removal. We analyzed plasma (or blood) concentrations of marker solutes in intermittent treatment schedules using hemodiafiltration (HDF). Methods: Elimination and rebound of uremic solutes were measured in 10 patients (77 ± 12 kg, 66.5 ± 9.2 years) treated with postdilution HDF in one 4-hour treatment and in two 2-hour treatments on consecutive days (Polyflux 2.1 m(2), QB 451 ± 53 ml/min, QD 598 ± 13 ml/min). Blood urea, creatinine, phosphate, β2-microglobulin, complement factor D and advanced glycation end products were analyzed before, during and after HDF for 24-48 h. Results: Applying two 2-hour HDF treatments on consecutive days resulted in significantly lower plasma (or blood) levels of urea, creatinine, phosphate, β2-microglobulin, and advanced glycation end products after 48 h than using one 4-hour session. Conclusions: Increased treatment frequency could further optimize blood purification in HDF therapy.
    Blood Purification 04/2013; 35(1-3):224-229. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The elimination of substances between 10 and 50 kDa by conventional high-flux membranes is not satisfactory. We investigated in vivo the elimination of middle-sized uremic solutes by conventional polyflux (PF) and modified high-cut-off (HCO) membranes. All 12 patients underwent four treatments, two with the HCO dialyzer and two with the PF dialyzer, each in either a haemodialysis (HD) or haemodiafiltration (HDF) mode. The reduction ratio of urea, creatinine, β2-microglobulin (β2M), leptin, soluble TNF-RI, complement factor D, IL-6, sIL-6 receptor, advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and albumin was determined. In addition, the amount removed was determined in the dialysate for β2M, complement factor D, AGEs and albumin. Treatment with HCO removed β2M, sTNF-RI, factor D, and high molecular AGE significantly better than conventional high-flux membranes. The albumin loss was higher when using HCO membranes. HCO membranes are a promising approach to improve removal of uremic toxins not affected by conventional high-flux membranes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Blood Purification 01/2013; 36(3-4):287-94. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Residual renal function (RRF) impacts outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Some PD fluids contain glucose degradation products (GDPs) which have been shown to affect cell systems and tissues. They may also act as precursors of advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs) both locally and systemically, potentially inflicting damage to the kidney as the major organ for AGE elimination. We conducted a clinical study in PD patients to see if the content of GDP in the PD fluid has any influence on the decline of the residual renal function. In a multicentre approach, 80 patients (GFF > or = 3 mL/min/1.732 or creatinine clearance > or =3 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) were randomized to treatment with a PD fluid containing low levels of GDP or standard PD fluid for 18 months. RRF was assessed every 4-6 weeks. Fluid balance, mesothelial cell mass marker CA125, peritoneal membrane characteristics, C-reactive protein (CRP), total protein, albumin, electrolytes and phosphate were measured repeatedly. Data from 69 patients revealed a significant difference in monthly RRF change: -1.5% (95% CI = -3.07% to +0.03%) with low GDP (43 patients) vs -4.3% (95% CI = -6.8% to -2.06%) with standard fluids (26 patients) (P = 0.0437), independent of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker medication. Twenty-four-hour urine volume declined more slowly with low-GDP fluid compared to standard fluids (12 vs 38 mL/month, P = 0.0241), and monthly change of phosphate level was smaller (+0.013 vs +0.061 mg/dL, P = 0.0381). Our prospective study demonstrates for the first time a significant benefit concerning preservation of RRF and urine volume of using a PD fluid with low GDP levels. These findings suggest that GDPs might affect patient outcome related to RRF.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 03/2010; 25(7):2288-96. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Haemodialysis (HD) catheter-related blood stream infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with acute and chronic renal failure. We conducted a randomized, prospective, double-blinded trial investigating the clinical value of bismuth-coated non-tunneled HD catheters in patients in need of temporary short-term vascular access. A standard catheter (SC) was compared to a surface-modified, bismuth-film-coated catheter (FCC). After removal of the catheter for any reason, both arterial and venous lumina were rinsed and the fluid cultured for detection of bacterial colony-forming units (CFU). The catheter tip was placed in a tube containing sterile saline, sonicated and shortly centrifuged to remove debris (3 min at 1000 g). The supernatant was cultured and assayed for DNA content. Seventy-seven patients in three HD units were randomized. Thirteen patients suffered from acute renal failure, 60 patients from chronic renal failure, and four patients without renal insufficiency were treated with plasma exchange. The time to catheter removal was not significantly different between groups, with a mean of 18.5 +/- 2 days for SC and 15.1 +/- 2 days for FCC. In most cases, the reasons for catheter removal were related to no further need for extracorporeal therapy or establishment of a permanent vascular access. Six catheters for SC and four catheters for FCC were removed because of presumed infection. Bacterial colonization was significantly lower for coated catheters compared to standard catheters, both for cultured catheter tips as well as for CFU in rinse fluids (P < 0.05). Surface modification with bismuth film reduces bacterial colonization of temporary non-tunneled HD catheters in a clinical trial. Larger trials with these modified catheters are justified to further investigate the effect on catheter-related infections, complications and costs.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 03/2010; 25(8):2651-6. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Susceptibility to infection and thrombosis of intravascular catheters is increased by surface irregularities, which might be prevented by coating. BaSO4 release from conventional haemodialysis catheters (CC) and modified catheters (MC) which had been coated with a surface-modifying additive (SMA) was assessed in vivo and in vitro. For the in vivo part, patients were randomized to receive a temporary CC or MC, with crossover after 1 week. After retrieval, catheters were examined using scanning electron microscopy to assess surface integrity, and an in vitro model of catheter exposure to the bloodstream was used to evaluate surface morphology and susceptibility to bacterial adhesion and proliferation. BaSO(4) moieties covered 14.7 +/- 3.7% of the surface of unused CC. After in vivo use in 16 patients, 62.7 +/- 32.9 x 10(3) holes/mm(2) were detected, indicating BaSO(4) detachment from 3.3 +/- 1.7% of the catheter surface. No defects were observed in unused CC and in MC, whether used or unused. After incubation of four catheters (two of each type) with Staphylococcus epidermidis, the two degraded CC showed an immediate and strong bacterial growth as indicated by an increase in medium impedance of 0.512%/10 min compared to -0.021%/10 min in MC (P < 0.001). Short-term exposure of CC to the bloodstream causes BaSO(4) particle release, resulting in surface irregularities predisposing to bacterial proliferation. BaSO(4) release can be prevented by SMA coating.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 11/2009; 25(4):1207-13. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In peritoneal dialysis (PD) residual renal function contributes to improved patient survival and quality of life. Glucose degradation products (GDP) generated by heat sterilization of PD fluids do not only impair the peritoneal membrane, but also appear in the systemic circulation with the potential for organ toxicity. Here we show that in a rat model of advanced renal failure, GDP affect the structure and function of the remnant kidney. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a two stage subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) or sham operation and were left untreated for 3 weeks. The SNX + GDP group continuously received chemically defined GDP intravenously for 4 weeks; the SNX and the sham-operated rats remained without GDP. The complete follow-up for all groups was 7 weeks postoperatively. We analysed renal damage using urinary albumin excretion as well as a semiquantitative score for glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage, as well as for immunohistochemical analyses. The SNX + GDP rats developed significantly more albuminuria and showed a significantly higher score of glomerulosclerosis index (GSI) and tubulointerstitial damage index (TII) as compared to SNX or control rats. In the SNX + GDP group the expression of carboxymethyllysine and methylglyoxal was significantly higher in the tubulointerstitium and the glomeruli compared to the SNX rats. Caspase 3 staining and TUNEL assay were more pronounced in the tubulointerstitium and the glomeruli of the SNX + GDP group. In SNX + GDP animals, the expression of the slit diaphragm protein nephrin, was significantly lower compared to SNX or control animals. In summary, our data suggests that GDP can significantly advance chronic kidney disease and argues that PD solutions containing high GDP might deteriorate residual renal function in PD.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 06/2008; 38(5):296-305. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) are at increased risk of cardiovascular events and have elevated externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS; which propagates thrombus formation) in a small subpopulation of platelets. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 1) removing uremic toxins by hemodialysis on PS externalization in patients with either CKD or CKD and DM and 2) ultrafiltrate (UF) from these individuals on PS externalization in healthy platelets. PS externalization was quantified by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter using annexin V in platelet-rich plasma. PS externalization was elevated threefold in CKD patients and returned to basal values during 3-h hemodialysis. In contrast, it was elevated fivefold in individuals with CKD and DM and was still threefold above control after 3-h treatment. UF significantly increased PS externalization in a small subpopulation of platelets from healthy controls. The effect of UF from individuals with CKD and DM was significantly greater than that from patients with CKD alone, and the responses were partially inhibited by the protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) inhibitor rottlerin and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A/2C) receptor antagonist ritanserin. The data suggest that uremic toxins present in UF mediate PS externalization in a small subpopulation of platelets, at least in part, via the 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor and PKCdelta and demonstrate that DM further enhances platelet PS externalization in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. This may explain, at least in part, the additional increase in vascular damage observed in CKD patients when DM is present.
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 02/2008; 294(1):F220-8. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 01/2008; 22(12):3381-90. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Discrepancies in reported uremic toxin concentrations were evaluated for 78 retention solutes. For this analysis, 378 publications were screened. Up to eight publications per toxin were retained. The highest and the lowest reported concentrations, as well as the median reported concentration were registered. The ratio between the highest and the lowest (H/L) concentrations and, for some solutes, also the ratio between the highest and the median (H/M) concentrations were calculated. The compounds were arbitrarily subdivided into three groups based on their H/L ratio: group A, H/L < 3 (n = 33); group B, 3 < H/L < 8.5 (n = 20); and group C, H/L > 8.5 (n = 25). Solutes of groups A and B showed a low to intermediate scatter, suggesting a homogeneity of reported data. Group C showed a more substantial scatter. For at least 10 compounds of group C, extremely divergent concentrations were registered (H/M > 5.5) using scatter plot analysis. For all solutes of groups A and B, the highest reported concentration could be used as a reference. For some solutes of group C and for the compounds showing a divergent scatter analysis, however, more refined directives should be followed.
    Artificial Organs 09/2007; 31(8):600-11. · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end products (AGE) are substantially elevated in individuals with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease (CKD). These patients are at greatly increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to investigate the novel hypothesis that AGE elicit externalization of the platelet membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS). This contributes to hemostasis through propagation of the coagulation cascade leading to thrombus formation. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared by differential centrifugation, and PS externalization was quantified by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter using annexin V-FITC. Human serum albumin (HSA)-AGE was generated by incubating HSA with glucose for 2, 4, or 6 wk, and total HSA-AGE was assessed by fluorescence intensity. The 2-wk HSA-AGE preparation (0-2 mg/ml) stimulated a concentration-dependent increase in PS externalization in a subpopulation of platelets that was threefold at 2 mg/ml. In contrast, the 4- and 6-wk preparations were maximal at 0.5 mg/ml and fivefold in magnitude. These effects mirrored the change in total HSA-AGE content of the preparations. The PS response was maximal at 10 min and inhibited by the PKC-delta inhibitor rottlerin and the serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)](2A/2C) receptor antagonist ritanserin in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonist 1,2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane mimicked the effect of HSA-AGE on PS externalization. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that HSA-AGE stimulates PS externalization in a subpopulation of platelets via the 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor. This may have important consequences for platelet involvement in inflammatory responses and the increased cardiovascular risk observed in individuals with diabetes and/or CKD.
    AJP Cell Physiology 08/2007; 293(1):C328-36. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients on long-term dialysis eventually develop amyloid deposits with beta2-microglobulin as a predominant component. Although several studies have suggested that high-flux membranes reduce beta2-microglobulin in plasma compared with low-flux dialyzers, the mechanisms underlying this observation are still discussed. We revisited this important subject and measured beta2-microglobulin in the plasma of healthy individuals (n = 8), and patients undergoing hemodialysis (n = 20) who for assigned periods of time were either treated with a low-flux membrane (cuprophan) or high-flux (polyamide) dialyzer with an ELISA. The number of blood cells was determined by FACS. Beta2-microglobulin was also measured on the surface of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes before, directly after, and 4 h after hemodialysis. Expression of beta2-microglobulin, c-fos, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 mRNA was determined in whole blood samples with quantitative RT-PCR using an internal standard in parallel. In the second part of the study, patients were assigned in a two-group cross-over design either to low- or high-flux dialyzers (n = 9 in each group), and dialyzer membranes were changed every 4 weeks for two consecutive periods. Serum beta2-microglobulin concentrations were measured at the end of each period. Healthy controls had a low plasma beta2-microglobulin level of 1.2 +/- 0.3 mg/l. Before hemodialysis, patients on low-flux dialyzers had a plasma beta2-microglobulin level of 42.0 +/- 14.0 mg/l, patients treated with high-flux dialyzers 21.5 +/- 10.8 mg/l (p < 0.05 vs. low-flux dialyzers). In contrast, there was no significant difference in plasma concentrations of active transforming growth factor-beta1 with the two different membrane types. The difference in serum beta2-microglobulin between low- and high-flux membranes was more prominent directly after hemodialysis as well as 4 h after hemodialysis compared with the values directly before the start of treatment. At all studied time-points, leukocytes and platelets were significantly higher in patients on low-flux membranes. Healthy control persons exhibited a significantly higher amount of beta2-microglobulin bound to granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes compared with dialysis patients. Interestingly, beta2-microglobulin bound to granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes was significantly increased in patients treated with high-flux membranes compared with low-flux filters. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed no significant difference in beta2-microglobulin expression in whole blood before hemodialysis, directly after hemodialysis, and 4 h after hemodialysis. However, TNF-alpha and c-fos transcripts were significantly higher in whole blood obtained from patients treated with low-flux membranes compared to high-flux dialyzers. The two-group cross-over study over three periods of 4 weeks revealed that switching from low-flux to high-flux dialyzers significantly reduced serum beta2-microglobulin levels. Patients treated with a polyamide high-flux membrane had lower beta2-microglobulin concentrations compared with those patients on low-flux dialyzers. This difference might not be mediated by an increase in beta2-microglobulin mRNA, but may be caused by less beta2-microglobulin released from the blood cells in patients treated with high-flux dialyzers, in addition to a better beta2-microglobulin clearance.
    Blood Purification 01/2007; 25(5-6):432-40. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been hypothesized that in renal failure, exogenous glycation compounds from food accumulate and play a major pathogenetic role when renal excretion is impaired. To address this, a diet containing a defined amount of the lysine Amadori product (AP) lactuloselysine was used. Plasma concentrations and cumulative urinary excretion of AP were assessed in 16 healthy subjects, 12 renal failure patients and 6 continuous ambulatory peitoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Amadori product was measured as furosine using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) after acid hydrolysis. A diet low in glycation compounds significantly decreased excretion of APs in healthy subjects. In healthy individuals, ingestion of lactuloselysine bound to food proteins caused only a minor acute increase (8.24+/-1.11 mg/day, 2% of the administered dose) of AP excretion in the urine; in patients with renal failure not yet on dialysis, the increase in AP excretion in the urine was significantly less (4.0+/-0.51 mg/day) and the same was true in CAPD patients (0.21+/-0.09 mg/day). The plasma concentration of total APs, i.e. the sum of APs as free amino acids and residues bound to plasma proteins, did not change in any of the three groups, however. Dietary APs do not accumulate in the blood even in advanced renal failure. The amount of APs measured as furosine excreted in the urine is significantly less, however, in renal failure and CAPD patients compared with healthy subjects. Although the findings exclude accumulation of lactuloselysine in renal failure, they do not generally exclude accumulation of other food-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs).
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 03/2006; 21(2):383-8. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peritoneal dialysis is limited by morphologic changes of the peritoneal membrane. Use of peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF) that contain glucose degradation products (GDP) generates advanced glycation end-products (AGE) within the peritoneal cavity. It is unknown whether peritoneal damage is causally related to AGE-receptor for AGE (RAGE) interaction. The effects of PDF were compared with different amounts of GDP on morphologic changes of the peritoneal membrane in 48 wild-type (WT) and 48 RAGE-deficient mice. PDF (1 ml) were instilled twice daily over a period of 12 wk. Groups with eight animals each received no manipulation (sham); sham instillation (sham i.p.); or filter-sterilized, glucose-free, conventional low GDP- or high GDP PDF. In vitro (generation of AGE fluorescence in PDF) and in vivo (immunohistochemistry for carboxymethyllysine), a GDP-dependent increase of AGE formation occurred. Inflammation and neoangiogenesis were augmented in WT mice that were treated with high GDP accompanied by upregulation of CD3+ T cells, increased NF-kappaB binding activity, increased lectin, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Furthermore, pronounced submesothelial fibrosis was found with increased expression of TGF-beta1. Exposure to low GDP resulted in only mild inflammation and neoangiogenesis (compared with sham i.p.) and no fibrosis in WT mice. The findings in WT contrasted with those in RAGE-deficient mice, which showed no increased inflammation (CD3+ T cells and NF-kappaB binding activity), neoangiogenesis (by lectin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression), or fibrosis (expression of TGF-beta1) after long-term exposure to GDP-containing PDF. Peritoneal damage by GDP in PDF is dependent at least in part on AGE-RAGE interaction.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2006; 17(1):199-207. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of bacterial cytokine-inducing substances (CIS) such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and exotoxins have been detected in dialysate and may contribute to inflammation in hemodialysis patients. Short DNA fragments, oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of 6 to 20 nucleotides, are able to bind to Toll-like receptors and are stimulatory on immune cells. ODN induce natural killer cell activity and induce IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 from mononuclear cells. The presence of ODN in dialysate samples and bacterial cultures was investigated. ODN were extracted from fluids by adsorption to reverse-phase columns. ODN were detected in 18 of 20 investigated dialysate samples, in eight of 10 reverse-osmosis water samples, and in all cultures from various bacterial strains. The presence of bacterial DNA in dialysate was confirmed by PCR specific for bacterial tRNA gene sequences. Saline for intravenous use contained 0.02 +/- 0.01 microg/ml DNA, dialysate samples contained 0.28 +/- 0.02 microg/ml, and Pseudomonas cultures contained 1.0 +/- 0.03 microg/ml DNA. ODN from bacterial cultures were only partially removed by ultrafiltration and were able to diffuse through regular high-flux dialyzer membranes. Synthetic cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide-containing ODN were able to induce IL-6 in human mononuclear cells. It is concluded that short bacterial-derived DNA fragments are present in clinically used fluids, e.g., dialysate. These fragments are of sufficient small size to pass through dialyzer membranes. Bacterial DNA fragments may be an overlooked factor contributing to inflammation in hemodialysis patients.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2005; 15(12):3207-14. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been identified to be accumulated in blood and tissues of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). AGEs have been shown to modulate immune competent cell activities and in this way they may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. All studies in this context have been performed, however, with generated mix of glycation compounds, and not with structures similar to those encountered in uremia. In the present study, the immunologic effect of specific AGE compounds, known to be retained in uremia, has been evaluated. Four albumin preparations, modified chemically at lysine or arginine residues, respectively, to contain N-epsilon-carboxymethyllysine (CML albumin), N-epsilon-carboxyethyllysine (CEL albumin), glyoxal-induced imidazolinones (Arg I albumin) or methylglyoxal-induced imidazolinones (Arg II albumin) were applied. Their effect on chemiluminescence production, CD14 expression, and the DNA synthesis of calcitriol-differentiated HL-60 (monocyte/macrophage phenotype) was studied. The phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated chemiluminescence production of the calcitriol differentiated HL-60 cells was enhanced in the presence of CEL albumin (44.1 +/- 18.5 vs. 64.7 +/- 28.1 counts 10(3)/30 min) (P < 0.05), Arg I albumin (46.4 +/- 18.8 vs. 66.1 +/- 32.6 counts 10(3)/30 min) (P < 0.05) and CML albumin (41.9 +/- 25.5 vs. 60.9 +/- 5.5 counts 10(3)/30 min) (P= 0.0625) pointing to an increase in free radical production. The latter AGE compounds also significantly increased the calcitriol-induced CD14 expression on HL-60 cells (1675 +/- 796 vs. 2075 +/- 1044; 768 +/- 143 vs. 890 +/- 150; 647 +/- 63 vs. 716 +/- 69 mean fluorescence intensity) (P < 0.05, respectively) pointing to an increase in expression of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor. Finally, the DNA synthesis of the calcitriol-differentiated HL-60 cells was enhanced in the presence of Arg I albumin [34.5 +/- 4.6 vs. 27.7 +/- 9.7% 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells] (P < 0.05) resulting in an increased cell proliferation. Genuine AGE compounds, as they are encountered in the uremic condition, activate leukocyte response, and hence could play a role in uremia related atherogenesis.
    Kidney International 12/2004; 66(5):1873-80. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The albumin serum level is one of the most important nutritional indices and is directly correlated to the uremic patient's hemodialysis outcome. One of the factors that can interfere with protein metabolism is the possible loss of albumin through the dialysis membrane that can contribute to keeping levels chronically low, especially for high-flux convective treatments requiring high permeability membranes and the removal of high volumes of plasma water. Twenty stable patients undergoing chronic renal replacement therapy for at least 3 months were included. Each patient performed four hemofiltration treatments, 2 in post-dilution and 2 in pre-dilution (post-D, pre-D) with a polyamide membrane (Poliflux, 2.1 m2). The amount of albumin found in the ultrafiltrate was 2.9 +/- 1.5 g in post-D and 1.7 +/- 0.8 g in pre-D (p < 0.01). Albumin loss during online HF was lower than 3 g per treatment, and significantly lower in pre-D than in post-D. Furthermore, we observed a correlation between the transmembrane pressure and the albumin loss in both techniques, but with different slopes (y = 0.351x - 10.014 in post-dilution and y = 0.0639x + 8.2403 in pre-dilution; p = 0.01): the same transmembrane pressure determines larger albumin losses in post-dilution than in pre-dilution. Convective treatments that utilize high exchange volume can be performed with no risk of a significant albumin loss, particularly in pre-D where the proteic component's contact with the dialysis membrane is lower. In post-dilution the transmembrane pressure is a relevant factor in determining the protein loss.
    Blood Purification 02/2004; 22(3):261-8. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The choice of the correct concentration of potential uremic toxins for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments remains a major area of concern; errors at this level might result in incorrect decisions regarding therpeutic correction of uremia and related clinical complications. An encyclopedic list of uremic retention solutes was composed, containing their mean normal concentration (CN), their highest mean/median uremic concentration (CU), their highest concentration ever reported in uremia (CMAX), and their molecular weight. A literature search of 857 publications on uremic toxicity resulted in the selection of data reported in 55 publications on 90 compounds, published between 1968 and 2002. For all compounds, CU and/or CMAX exceeded CN. Molecular weight was lower than 500 D for 68 compounds; of the remaining 22 middle molecules, 12 exceeded 12,000 D. CU ranged from 32.0 ng/L (methionine-enkephalin) up to 2.3 g/L (urea). CU in the ng/L range was found especially for the middle molecules (10/22; 45.5%), compared with 2/68 (2.9%) for a molecular weight <500 D (P < 0.002). Twenty-five solutes (27.8%) were protein bound. Most of them had a molecular weight <500 D except for leptin and retinol-binding protein. The ratio CU/CN, an index of the concentration range over which toxicity is exerted, exceeded 15 in the case of 20 compounds. The highest values were registered for several guanidines, protein-bound compounds, and middle molecules, to a large extent compounds with known toxicity. A ratio of CMAX/CU <4, pointing to a Gaussian distribution, was found for the majority of the compounds (74/90; 82%). For some compounds, however, this ratio largely exceeded 4 [e.g., for leptin (6.81) or indole-3-acetic acid (10.37)], pointing to other influencing factors than renal function, such as gender, genetic predisposition, proteolytic breakdown, posttranslation modification, general condition, or nutritional status. Concentrations of retention solutes in uremia vary over a broad range, from nanograms per liter to grams per liter. Low concentrations are found especially for the middle molecules. A substantial number of molecules are protein bound and/or middle molecules, and many of these exert toxicity and are characterized by a high range of toxic over normal concentration (CU/CN ratio). Hence, uremic retention is a complex problem that concerns many more solutes than the current markers of urea and creatinine alone. This list provides a basis for systematic analytic approaches to map the relative importance of the enlisted families of toxins.
    Kidney International 05/2003; 63(5):1934-43. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and other carbonyl and oxidative stress compounds are supposed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of several diseases and their complications, i.e., diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy, atherosclerosis, and chronic renal failure. In the present investigation, we were interested in the relationship of AGEs in plasma to other prominent factors in the patients on chronic hemodialysis treatment-27 patients with diabetes mellitus, 35 patients without diabetes mellitus. AGE-group reactivity was estimated using a spectrofluorometric method (excitation 350 nm, emission 430 nm) and is expressed in arbitrary units (AU). We found significantly higher AGEs levels in diabetics than in non-diabetics on regular hemodialysis treatment both before (2.7 +/- 0.7 x 10(4) AU vs. 2.2 +/- 0.6 x 10(4) AU, p < 0.001) and after the dialysis session (2.3 +/- 0.5 x 10(4) AU vs. 1.8 +/- 0.7 x 10(4) AU, p < 0.005). AGEs were significantly reduced during hemodialysis in both groups of patients--by 15.4% in the diabetic go (p < 0.001) and by 17.3% in non-diabetics (p < 0.005). In the patients with diabetes mellitus, AGEs did not correlate with parameters of the glucose metabolism correction (blood glucose, HbA1c). We observed a significant correlation between AGEs and leptin (r = 0.48, p < 0.05) as well as the leptin/body fat ratio (r = 0.56, p < 0.05) only in hemodialyzed patients with diabetes mellitus. These findings suggest more detailed studies to identify the molecular links between carbonyl stress, i.e., advanced glycation end products, and leptin metabolism, sign of microinflammation and hypertension.
    Renal Failure 03/2003; 25(2):277-86. · 0.94 Impact Factor
  • Ingrid Ledebo, Anders Wieslander, Reinhold Deppisch
    Contributions to nephrology 02/2003; · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adequate vascular access is a major prerequisite for hemodialysis treatment. Catheter related complications, in particular thrombus formation, are frequent, difficult to handle, and cost intensive. We investigated whether a new surface modified catheter containing a microdomain structure is beneficial for catheter survival. Surface thrombogenicity of standard double lumen catheters (STD-DC) and surface modified film-coated domain structured double lumen catheters (FCDS-DC) consisting of a novel reactive polyurethane copolymer coating was assessed by measurement of thrombinantithrombin (TAT) III complex in vitro. Furthermore, in a randomized observational study with 20 patients on hemodialysis, we analyzed catheter survival of either STD-DC (GamCath GDK 11 French, length 12.5 or 15 cm) or FCDS-DC (GamCath Dolphin GDK 11 French, length 12.5 or 15 cm). Catheter care protocol was identical, and dialysis treatment parameters were kept constant in both groups. In vitro measured surface thrombogenicity was reduced in the modified catheter compared with standard catheter. The clinical investigation revealed that both number of days before catheter removal according to clinical requirements and number of treatments per catheter were significantly higher with the modified catheter as compared with the standard catheter (14.5 vs. 10.3 days; 7 vs. 4 treatments; p < 0.03, Fisher-Yates test). Micropatterned surface coating with a polyurethane polymer significantly increased catheter survival and the number of treatments per catheter.
    ASAIO Journal 01/2003; 49(6):708-12. · 1.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
192.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2009
    • Ghent University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Gent, VLG, Belgium
  • 2000–2003
    • Gambro AB
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2001
    • Gambro
      Хехинген, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1999
    • Technische Universität Dresden
      • Lebensmittelchemie
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 1997
    • Institut für Immunologie und Genetik
      Kaiserlautern, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany
  • 1995–1996
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • Cardiac Surgery Clinic
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1992
    • Heidelberg University
      Tiffin, Ohio, United States
  • 1990–1992
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • • Institute of Immunology and Serology
      • • Department of Immunology and Serology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany