Francoise Perdreau-Remington

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

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Publications (63)385.12 Total impact

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    Sheila Adams-Sapper, Binh An Diep, Francoise Perdreau-Remington, Lee W Riley
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains belonging to a single lineage frequently account for a large proportion of extraintestinal E. coli infections in many parts of the world. However, limited information exists on the community prevalence and clonal composition of drug-susceptible E. coli strains. Between July 2007 and September 2010, we analyzed all consecutively collected Gram-negative bacteria isolates from patients with blood stream infection (BSI) admitted to a public hospital in San Francisco for drug susceptibility and associated drug-resistance genes. The E. coli isolates were genotyped for fimH single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and multilocus sequence types (MLST). Among 539 isolates, E. coli accounted for 249 (46%); 74 (30%) of them were susceptible to all tested drugs, and 129 (52%) were multidrug resistant (MDR). Only five MLST genotypes accounted for 2/3 of the E. coli isolates; the most common were ST131 (23%) and ST95 (18%), respectively. Forty-seven (92%) of 51 ST131 isolates, whereas only 8 (20%) of 40 ST95 isolates were MDR (p<0.0001). The Simpson's diversity index for drug-susceptible ST genotypes was 87%, while the index for MDR ST genotypes was 81%. ST95 strains were comprised of four fimH types, and one of these (f-6) accounted for 67% of the 21 susceptible isolates (p<0.003). A large proportion (>70%) of both MDR and susceptible E. coli BSI isolates represented community-onset infections. These observations show that factors other than the selective pressures of antimicrobial agents used in hospitals contribute to community-onset extraintestinal infections caused by clonal groups of E. coli regardless of their drug resistance.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 11/2012; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since its emergence in 2000, epidemic spread of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone USA300 has led to a high burden of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in the United States, yet its impact on MRSA bloodstream infections (BSIs) is poorly characterized. To assess clonality of the MRSA isolates causing SSTI and BSI during the epidemic period, a stratified, random sample of 1350 unique infection isolates (from a total of 7252) recovered at the Community Health Network of San Francisco from 2000 to 2008 were selected for genotyping. Risk factors and outcomes for 549 BSI cases caused by the USA300 epidemic clone and non-USA300 MRSA clones were assessed by retrospective review of patient medical records. From 2000 to 2008, secular trends of USA300 SSTI and USA300 BSI were strongly correlated (Pearson r = 0.953). USA300 accounted for 55% (304/549) of BSIs as it was the predominant MRSA clone that caused community-associated (115/160), healthcare-associated community-onset (125/207), and hospital-onset (64/182) BSIs. Length of hospitalization after BSI diagnosis and mortality rates for USA300 and non-USA300 were similar. Two independent risk factors for USA300 BSI were identified: concurrent SSTI (adjusted relative risk, 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2-1.6]) and anti-MRSA antimicrobial use in the preceding 30 days (0.7 [95% CI, .6-.8]). Isolates from concurrent SSTI were indistinguishable genotypically from the USA300 isolates that caused BSI. USA300 SSTIs serve as a source for BSI. Strategies to control the USA300 SSTI epidemic may lessen the severity of the concurrent USA300 BSI epidemic.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2012; 55(6):781-8. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid detection of nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) followed by appropriate infection control procedures reduces MRSA infection and transmission. We compared the performance and workflow of two Food and Drug Administration-approved nucleic acid amplification assays, the LightCycler MRSA Advanced Test and the Xpert MRSA test, with those of directly plated culture (MRSASelect) using 1202 nasal swabs collected at three U.S. sites. The sensitivity of the LightCycler test (95.2%; 95% CI, 89.1% to 98.4%) and Xpert assay (99%; 95% CI, 94.8% to 100%) did not differ compared with that of culture; the specificity of the two assays was identical (95.5%; 95% CI, 94.1% to 96.7%) compared with culture. However, sequencing performed on 71 samples with discordant results among the three methods confirmed the presence of MRSA in 40% of samples that were positive by both molecular methods but negative by culture. Workflow analysis from all sites including batch runs revealed average hands-on sample preparation times of 1.40, 2.35, and 1.44 minutes per sample for the LightCycler, Xpert, and MRSASelect methods, respectively. Discrete event simulation analysis of workflow efficiencies revealed that the LightCycler test used less hands-on time for the assay when greater than eight batched samples were run. The high sensitivity and specificity, low hands-on time, and efficiency gains using batching capabilities make the LightCycler test suitable for rapid batch screening of MRSA colonization.
    The Journal of molecular diagnostics: JMD 05/2012; 14(4):367-75. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mobile drug-resistance genes with identical nucleic acid sequences carried by multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains that cause community-acquired infections are becomingly increasingly dispersed worldwide. Over a 2-year period, we analysed gram-negative bacterial (GNB) pathogens from the blood of inpatients at an urban public hospital to determine what proportion of these isolates carried such globally dispersed drug-resistance genes. Of 376 GNB isolates, 167 (44 %) were Escherichia coli, 50 (13 %) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 25 (7 %) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 25 (7 %) were Proteus mirabilis and 20 (5 %) were Enterobacter cloacae; the remainder (24 %) comprised 26 different GNB species. Among E. coli isolates, class 1 integrons were detected in 64 (38 %). The most common integron gene cassette configuration was dfrA17-aadA5, found in 30 (25 %) of 119 drug-resistant E. coli isolates and in one isolate of Moraxella morganii. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes were found in 16 E. coli isolates (10 %). These genes with identical sequences were found in nearly 40 % of bloodstream E. coli isolates in the study hospital, as well as in a variety of bacterial species from clinical and non-clinical sources worldwide. Thus, a substantial proportion of bloodstream infections among hospitalized patients were caused by E. coli strains carrying drug-resistance genes that are dispersed globally in a wide variety of bacterial species.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 04/2012; 61(Pt 7):968-74. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    Pierre Tattevin, Binh An Diep, Michael Jula, Françoise Perdreau-Remington
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a longitudinal analysis of 661 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates obtained from patients in a long-term care facility. USA300 clone increased from 11.3% of all MRSA isolates in 2002 to 64.0% in 2006 (p<0.0001) and was mostly recovered from skin or skin structures (64.3% vs. 27.0% for non-USA300 MRSA; p<0.0001).
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 07/2009; 15(6):953-5. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    Clinical Infectious Diseases 06/2009; 48(10):1483-4. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent MRSA bacteremia (PB) represents an important subset of Staphylococcus aureus infections and correlates with poor clinical outcomes. We profiled relevant in vitro phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of MRSA isolates from 39 persons with bacteremia (21 had PB and 18 had resolving bacteremia [RB]). We also compared the intrinsic virulence and responsiveness to vancomycin of selected PB and RB strains in an experimental endocarditis model (IE). PB and RB isolates differed significantly with regard to several in vitro characteristics that are believed to impact endovascular infections. PB isolates exhibited significantly more resistance to the cationic defensin hNP-1, enhanced membrane fluidity, and substantially greater adhesion to fibronectin, fibrinogen, and endothelial cells. Genotypically, PB isolates had higher frequency of SCCmec II, CC30, and spa 16; and higher rates of agr type III, cap8, tst-1, and cna carriage. Finally, a prototypic PB strain was more resistant to vancomycin treatment in the infective endocarditis model than a RB comparator strain, despite equivalent virulence profiles. Our findings indicate that PB isolates may have specific virulence signatures that distinguish them from RB isolates. These data suggest that methods might be developed to identify patients at higher risk for PB in real-time, thereby optimizing the effectiveness of anti-MRSA therapeutic strategies.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2009; 199(2):201-8. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone USA300 contains a novel mobile genetic element, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), that contributes to its enhanced capacity to grow and survive within the host. Although ACME appears to have been transferred into USA300 from S. epidermidis, the genetic diversity of ACME in the latter species remains poorly characterized. To assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of ACME, 127 geographically diverse S. epidermidis isolates representing 86 different multilocus sequence types (STs) were characterized. ACME was found in 51% (65/127) of S. epidermidis isolates. The vast majority (57/65) of ACME-containing isolates belonged to the predominant S. epidermidis clonal complex CC2. ACME was often found in association with different allotypes of staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) which also encodes the recombinase function that facilities mobilization ACME from the S. epidermidis chromosome. Restriction fragment length polymorphism, PCR scanning and DNA sequencing allowed for identification of 39 distinct ACME genetic variants that differ from one another in gene content, thereby revealing a hitherto uncharacterized genetic diversity within ACME. All but one ACME variants were represented by a single S. epidermidis isolate; the singular variant, termed ACME-I.02, was found in 27 isolates, all of which belonged to the CC2 lineage. An evolutionary model constructed based on the eBURST algorithm revealed that ACME-I.02 was acquired at least on 15 different occasions by strains belonging to the CC2 lineage. ACME-I.02 in diverse S. epidermidis isolates were nearly identical in sequence to the prototypical ACME found in USA300 MRSA clone, providing further evidence for the interspecies transfer of ACME from S. epidermidis into USA300.
    PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(11):e7722. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 11/2008; 49(2):231-3. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    Pierre Tattevin, Binh An Diep, Michael Jula, Françoise Perdreau-Remington
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a longitudinal analysis of 502 unique methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates originating from San Francisco jail inmates between 2000 and 2007. Strain USA300, first encountered in 2001, accounted for 82.1% (412/502) of MRSA infections. Non-USA300 MRSA strains were rarely found after 2005 (one isolate in 2006, three in 2007).
    Journal of clinical microbiology 11/2008; 46(12):4056-7. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have become a major public health problem in both the community and hospitals. Few studies have characterized the incidence and clonal composition of disease-causing strains in an entire population. Our objective was to perform a population-based survey of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of MRSA disease in San Francisco, California. We prospectively collected 3985 MRSA isolates and associated clinical and demographic information over a 12-month period (2004-2005) at 9 San Francisco-area medical centers. A random sample of 801 isolates was selected for molecular analysis. The annual incidence of community-onset MRSA disease among San Francisco residents was 316 cases per 100,000 population, compared with 31 cases per 100,000 population for hospital-onset disease. Persons who were aged 35-44 years, were men, and were black had the highest incidence of community-onset disease. The USA300 MRSA clone accounted for 234 cases of community-onset disease and 15 cases of hospital-onset disease per 100,000 population, constituting an estimated 78.5% and 43.4% of all cases of MRSA disease, respectively. Patients with community-onset USA300 MRSA versus non-USA300 MRSA disease were more likely to be male, be of younger age, and have skin and soft-tissue infections. USA300 strains were generally more susceptible to multiple antibiotics, although decreased susceptibility to tetracycline was observed in both community-onset (P = .008) and hospital-onset (P = .03) USA300 compared to non-USA300 strains. The annual incidence of community-onset MRSA disease in San Francisco is substantial, surpassing that of hospital-onset disease. USA300 is the predominant clone in both the community and hospitals. The dissemination of USA300 from the community into the hospital setting has blurred its distinction as a community-associated pathogen.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 07/2008; 46(11):1637-46. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epidemic character of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, especially the geographically widespread clone USA300, is poorly understood. USA300 isolates carry a type IV staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) element conferring beta-lactam antibiotic class resistance and a putative pathogenicity island, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME). Physical linkage between SCCmec and ACME suggests that selection for antibiotic resistance and for pathogenicity may be interconnected. We constructed isogenic mutants containing deletions of SCCmec and ACME in a USA300 clinical isolate to determine the role played by these elements in a rabbit model of bacteremia. We found that deletion of type IV SCCmec did not affect competitive fitness, whereas deletion of ACME significantly attenuated the pathogenicity or fitness of USA300. These data are consistent with a model in which ACME enhances growth and survival of USA300, allowing for genetic "hitchhiking" of SCCmec. SCCmec in turn protects against exposure to beta-lactams.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2008; 197(11):1523-30. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection with multidrug-resistant, community-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been reported but seems to be isolated. To determine the incidence of a multidrug-resistant MRSA clone (USA300) in San Francisco, and to determine risk factors for the infection. Population-based survey and cross-sectional study using chart review. 9 hospitals in San Francisco (population-based survey) and 2 outpatient clinics in San Francisco and Boston (cross-sectional study). Persons with culture-proven MRSA infections in 2004 to 2006. Annual incidence, spatial clustering, and risk factors for multidrug-resistant USA300 infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction assays, and DNA sequencing were used to characterize MRSA isolates. The overall incidence of multidrug-resistant USA300 infection in San Francisco was 26 cases per 100,000 persons (95% CI, 16 to 36 cases per 100,000 persons); the incidence was higher in 8 contiguous ZIP codes with a higher proportion of male same-sex couples. Male-male sex was a risk factor for multidrug-resistant USA300 infection (relative risk, 13.2 [CI, 1.7 to 101.6]; P < 0.001) independent of past MRSA infection (relative risk, 2.1 [CI, 1.2 to 3.7]; P = 0.007) or clindamycin use (relative risk, 2.1 [1.2 to 3.6]; P = 0.007). The risk seemed to be independent of HIV infection. In San Francisco, multidrug-resistant USA300 manifested most often as infection of the buttocks, genitals, or perineum. In Boston, the infection was recovered exclusively from men who had sex with men. The study was retrospective, and sexual risk behavior was not assessed. Infection with multidrug-resistant USA300 MRSA is common among men who have sex with men, and multidrug-resistant MRSA infection might be sexually transmitted in this population. Further research is needed to determine whether existing efforts to control epidemics of other sexually transmitted infections can control spread of community-associated, multidrug-resistant MRSA.
    Annals of internal medicine 03/2008; 148(4):249-57. · 13.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Infection with multidrug-resistant, community-associated, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been reported but appears to be isolated. Objectives: To determine the incidence of a multidrug-resistant MRSA clone (USA300) in San Francisco, and to determine risk factors for the infection. DESIGN: Population-based survey and cross-sectional study using chart review. SETTING: 9 hospitals in San Francisco (population-based survey) and 2 outpatient clinics in San Francisco and Boston (cross-sectional study). PATIENTS: Persons with culture-proven MRSA infections in 2004 to 2006. MEASUREMENTS: Annual incidence, spatial clustering, and risk factors for multidrug-resistant USA300 infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction assays, and DNA sequencing were used to characterize MRSA isolates. RESULTS: The overall incidence of multidrug-resistant USA300 infection in San Francisco was 26 cases per 100 000 persons (95% CI, 16 to 36 cases per 100 000 persons); the incidence was higher in 8 contiguous ZIP codes with a higher proportion of male same-sex couples. Male-male sex was a risk factor for multidrug-resistant USA300 infection (relative risk, 13.2 [CI, 1.7 to 101.6]; P < 0.001) independent of past MRSA infection (relative risk, 2.1 [CI, 1.2 to 3.7]; P = 0.007) or clindamycin use (relative risk, 2.1 [1.2 to 3.6]; P = 0.007). The risk seemed to be independent of HIV infection. In San Francisco, multidrug-resistant USA300 manifested most often as infection of the buttocks, genitals, or perineum. In Boston, multidrug-resistant USA300 was recovered exclusively from men who have sex with men. Limitations: The study was retrospective, and sexual risk behavior was not assessed. CONCLUSIONS: Infection with multidrug-resistant USA300 MRSA is common among men who have sex with men, and multidrug-resistant MRSA infection might be sexually transmitted in this population. Further research is needed to determine whether existing efforts to control epidemics of other sexually transmitted infections can control spread of community-associated multidrug-resistant MRSA.
    Annals of internal medicine 01/2008; · 13.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains have recently been associated with severe necrotizing infections. Greater than 75% of these strains carry the genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), suggesting that this toxin may mediate these severe infections. However, to date, studies have not provided evidence of toxin production. Twenty-nine community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 2 community-acquired methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains were collected from patients with infections of varying severity. Strains were analyzed for the presence of lukF-PV and SCCmecA type. PVL production in lukF-PV gene-positive strains was measured by ELISA, and the amount produced was analyzed relative to severity of infection. Only 2 of the 31 strains tested, 1 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus abscess isolate and 1 nasal carriage methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolate, were lukF-PV negative. All methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were SCCmec type IV. PVL was produced by all strains harboring lukF-PV, although a marked strain-to-strain variation was observed. Twenty-six (90%) of 29 strains produced 50-350 ng/mL of PVL; the remaining strains produced PVL in excess of 500 ng/mL. The quantity of PVL produced in vitro did not correlate with severity of infection. Although PVL likely plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these infections, its mere presence is not solely responsible for the increased severity. Factors that up-regulate toxin synthesis in vivo could contribute to more-severe disease and worse outcomes in patients with community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 01/2008; 45(12):1550-8. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Empirical use of beta-lactam antibiotics, the preferred agents for treating uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections, may no longer be appropriate for these infections because of the increasing prevalence of community strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Retrospective studies, however, suggest that outcomes are good even when beta-lactams are used. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of 166 outpatient subjects comparing placebo to cephalexin at 500 mg orally four times for 7 days after incision and drainage of skin and soft tissue abscesses. The primary outcome was clinical cure or failure 7 days after incision and drainage. S. aureus was isolated from 70.4% of abscess cultures. Of the isolates tested 87.8% were MRSA, 93% of which were positive for Panton-Valentine leucocidin genes. Clinical cure rates were 90.5% (95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.96) in the 84 placebo recipients and 84.1% (95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 0.91) in the 82 cephalexin recipients (difference in the two proportions, 0.0006; 95% confidence interval, -0.0461 to 0.0472; P = 0.25). The 90.5% cure rate observed in the placebo arm and 84.1% cure rate observed in the cephalexin arm provide strong evidence that antibiotics may be unnecessary after surgical drainage of uncomplicated skin and soft tissue abscesses caused by community strains of MRSA.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2007; 51(11):4044-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) are associated with SCCmec IV and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. CO-MRSA epidemiologic studies suggest that genotypic variation exists within one geographic region. We compared MRSA genotypes and demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with CO-MRSA SSTI between two regional medical centers. We also examined factors associated with SCCmec IV and PVL carriage. A total of 279 MRSA SSTI isolates from 2000 to 2002 at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) and Stanford University Hospital (SUH) were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR for SCCmec and PVL genes. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics. Ninety-three percent and 69% of MRSA SSTI were caused by CO-MRSA at SFGH and SUH, respectively. Patients with CO-MRSA SSTI at SFGH were more likely to be nonwhite, younger, homeless, and have no previous exposure to health care (P < 0.01). SFGH CO-MRSA strains were more likely to carry SCCmec type IV and PVL genes (90% and 55%, respectively) than SUH strains (29% and 16%, respectively). In multivariate analyses, nonwhite ethnicity was associated with both SCCmec type IV and PVL carriage (odds ratio [OR] of 2.65 and 95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.19 to 5.95 and OR of 1.94 and 95% CI of 1.03 to 3.65, respectively). ST8:USA300:IV became the dominant clone at SFGH, but not at SUH, by 2002. Despite geographic proximity, CO-MRSA SSTI exhibited differing SCCmec types, PVL carriage, and clonal dynamics. CO-MRSA SSTI at SUH were more likely to represent feral isolates of nosocomial origin. Clinicians should assess for nosocomial and community risk factors, realizing that different populations with CO-MRSA SSTI may require separate antimicrobial strategies.
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology 06/2007; 45(6):1798-803. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a case of treatment failure caused by a strain of USA300 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin and reduced susceptibility to daptomycin. The strain was isolated from the bone of a 56-year-old man with lumbar osteomyelitis after a 6-week treatment course of vancomycin for catheter-associated septic thrombophlebitis.
    Emerging infectious diseases 04/2007; 13(3):491-3. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    Walter Dehority, Emily Wang, Patty S Vernon, Carla Lee, Francoise Perdreau-Remington, John Bradley
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    ABSTRACT: Neonatal necrotizing fasciitis is rare and is predominantly associated with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Necrotizing fasciitis associated with community-associated methicillin-resistant S aureus (CA-MRSA) has only recently been reported in the literature, primarily among adults. We present a case of a previously healthy neonate with necrotizing fasciitis of the back caused by CA-MRSA, pulsed-field type USA-300. We describe a 5-day-old infant with necrotizing fasciitis of the back caused by CA-MRSA. Treatment of necrotizing fasciitis requires prompt medical evaluation, prompt surgical debridement, and appropriate antibiotic selection. The potential involvement of CA-MRSA in necrotizing fasciitis in children needs to be considered before institution of antibiotics.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 12/2006; 25(11):1080-1. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report the microbiological, clinical, and pathological characteristics of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CAMRSA) infections of the eye and orbit. Prospective case series. Nine patients with CAMRSA infections of the eye and orbit were identified during a 6-month period at 2 tertiary care hospitals in San Francisco. Case identification was by prospective case selection and retrospective laboratory review of 549 MRSA cultures collected in the 2 hospitals. Ophthalmic microbial isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and compared with a control CAMRSA clone (USA300). Clinical characteristics of patients infected with CAMRSA were reviewed, and all surgical specimens underwent pathological examination. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis banding patterns of MRSA isolates, antibiotic sensitivity profiles, patient demographics, systemic and ocular complications of infection, and posttreatment visual acuities. Nine ophthalmic isolates were CAMRSA clone USA300. The infections included orbital cellulitis, endogenous endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, lid abscesses, and septic venous thrombosis. Patients were treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, rifampin, clindamycin, or vancomycin based on microbial sensitivity studies and severity of infection. Eight of the 9 patients had no history of hospitalization. Seven patients required hospitalization, 3 required surgery, and an additional 4 required invasive procedures. Eight patients had good visual outcomes, but 1 deteriorated to no light perception. Pathological analyses showed extensive necrosis in eyelid and orbital specimens, and disorganized atrophy bulbi in an enucleated eye. The USA300 CAMRSA clone, which carries Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes, can cause aggressive infections of the eye and orbit in hospital-naive patients. Treatment of infections often required debridement of necrotic tissues in addition to non-beta-lactam class antibiotics. In communities where CAMRSA is prevalent, ophthalmologists should obtain microbial cultures and sensitivity studies to help guide antibiotic therapy for severe ophthalmic infections.
    Ophthalmology 09/2006; 113(8):1455-62. · 5.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
385.12 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2012
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      San Francisco, CA, United States
    • University of Utah
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • 2009
    • New University of Lisbon
      • Institute of Chemical and Biological Technology (ITQB)
      Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
  • 2002–2008
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2007
    • Stanford University
      Palo Alto, California, United States
  • 2006
    • McGill University
      • Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2004–2006
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • School of Public Health
      Berkeley, CA, United States
  • 2005
    • Alameda County Medical Center
      Oakland, California, United States
  • 2003
    • Centers for Disease Control, Lesotho
      Maseru, Maseru, Lesotho
  • 1995–1996
    • University of Cologne
      • Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany