Jean M Mitchell

Georgetown University, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (22)54.86 Total impact

  • Jean M Mitchell
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    ABSTRACT: Federal law allows physicians in some circumstances to refer patients for additional services to a facility in which the physician has a financial interest. The practice of physician self-referral for imaging and pathology services has been criticized because it can lead to increased use and escalating health care expenditures, with little or no benefit to patients. This study examined Medicare claims for men in a set of geographically dispersed counties to determine how the "in-office ancillary services" exception affected the use of surgical pathology services and cancer detection rates associated with prostate biopsies. I found that self-referring urologists billed Medicare for 4.3 more specimens per prostate biopsy than the adjusted mean of 6 specimens per biopsy that non-self-referring urologists sent to independent pathology providers, a difference of almost 72 percent. Additionally, the regression-adjusted cancer detection rate in 2007 was twelve percentage points higher for men treated by urologists who did not self-refer. This suggests that financial incentives prompt self-referring urologists to perform prostate biopsies on men who are unlikely to have prostate cancer. These results support closing the loophole that permits self-referral to "in-office" pathology laboratories.
    Health Affairs 04/2012; 31(4):741-9. · 4.64 Impact Factor
  • Jean M Mitchell
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    ABSTRACT: Physician-owned specialty hospitals and ambulatory surgery centers have become commonplace in many markets throughout the United States. Little is known about whether the financial incentives linked to ownership affect frequency of outpatient surgery. To evaluate if financial incentives linked to physician ownership influence frequency of outpatient orthopedic surgical procedures. We analyzed 5 years of claims data from a large private insurer in Idaho to compare frequency by orthopedic surgeon owners and nonowners of surgical procedures that could be performed in either ambulatory surgery centers or hospital outpatient surgery departments. Frequency of use, calculated as number of patients treated with the specific diagnoses who received the surgical procedure of interest divided by the number of patients with such diagnoses treated by each physician. Age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios indicate that the likelihood of having carpal tunnel repair was 54% to 129% higher for patients of surgeon owners compared with surgeon nonowners. For rotator cuff repair, the adjusted odds ratios of having surgery were 33% to 100% higher for patients treated by physician owners. The age- and sex-adjusted probability of arthroscopic surgery was 27% to 78% higher for patients of surgeon owners compared with surgeon nonowners. The consistent finding of higher use rates by physician owners across time clearly suggests that financial incentives linked to ownership of either specialty hospitals or ambulatory surgery centers influence physicians' practice patterns.
    Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) 08/2010; 145(8):732-8. · 4.32 Impact Factor
  • Jean M Mitchell, R Robert Lagalia
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    ABSTRACT: Since the late 1990s, the use of advanced diagnostic imaging modalities has increased by double-digit rates, outpacing the rate of increase of medical spending overall. In an attempt to assure the appropriate use of advanced imaging procedures, private insurers are increasingly contracting with radiology benefit management programs (RBMs) to reduce overall use and expenditures for radiology services. This article describes the services offered by RBMs and then presents trends in utilization of advanced imaging procedures from three health plans that adopted RBM prior authorization protocols. The implementation of prior authorization protocols by each plan was associated with declines in use of advanced imaging procedures, especially during the first year of the program. Although more rigorous empirical analysis is required in order to draw definitive conclusions, these trends suggest that RBM prior authorization initiatives may be a viable approach for addressing concerns about appropriate use of advanced imaging.
    Medical Care Research and Review 03/2009; 66(3):339-51. · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Jean M Mitchell, Darrell J Gaskin
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    ABSTRACT: Although not widely recognized, tooth decay is the most common childhood chronic disease among children ages five to seventeen. Despite higher rates of dental caries and greater needs, low-income minority children enrolled in Medicaid are more likely to go untreated relative to their higher income counterparts. No research has examined this issue for children with special needs. We analyzed Medicaid enrollment and claims data for special-needs children enrolled in the District of Columbia Medicaid program to evaluate receipt of recommended preventive dental care. Use of preventive dental care is abysmally low and has declined over time. Enrollment in managed care rather than fee for service improves the likelihood that special-needs children receive recommended preventive dental services, whereas residing farther from the Metro is an impediment to receipt of dental care.
    Journal of Health Politics Policy and Law 11/2008; 33(5):883-905. · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • Jean M Mitchell
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    ABSTRACT: Although physician-owned specialty hospitals have become increasingly prevalent in recent years, little research has examined whether the financial incentives linked to ownership influence physicians' referral rates for services performed at the specialty hospital. We compared the practice patterns of physician owners of specialty hospitals in Oklahoma, before and after ownership, to the practice patterns of physician nonowners who treated similar cases over the same time period in Oklahoma markets without physician-owned specialty hospitals. We constructed episodes of care for injured workers with a primary diagnosis of back/spine disorders. We used pre-post comparisons and difference-in-differences analysis to evaluate changes in practice patterns for physician owners and nonowners over the time period spanned by the entry of the specialty hospital. Findings suggest the introduction of financial incentives linked to ownership coincided with a significant change in the practice patterns of physician owners, whereas such changes were not evident among physician nonowners. After physicians established ownership interests in a specialty hospital, the frequency of use of surgery, diagnostic, and ancillary services used in the treatment of injured workers with back/spine disorders increased significantly. Physician ownership of specialty hospitals altered the frequency of use for an array of procedures rendered to patients treated at these hospitals. Given the growth in physician-owned specialty hospitals, these findings suggest that health care expenditures will be substantially greater for patients treated at these institutions relative to persons who obtain care from nonself-referral providers.
    Medical Care 08/2008; 46(7):732-7. · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Jean M Mitchell
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    ABSTRACT: Recent reports by the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission have highlighted sharp increases in the use of advanced diagnostic imaging procedures among the Medicare fee-for-service population. Little research has examined whether such trends also exist among persons with generous private insurance coverage. Moreover, research documenting changes in the share of utilization linked to self-referral is nonexistent. Using data from a large private insurer in California, we document trends in utilization for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans over the time period 2000-2004. We collected data that enable us to calculate relative changes in use rates by provider type (self-referral physicians, radiologists, hospitals, and independent diagnostic testing facilities). Examining trends in the share of utilization performed by provider type can offer insights as to the effects of self-referral on rates of use. Rates of use for the 3 advanced imaging modalities examined-MRI, CT, and PET-increased rapidly between 2000 and 2004. PET utilization increased by almost 400%, whereas the corresponding increases for MRI and CT exceeded 50%. Findings suggest that physician self-referral arrangements and independent diagnostic testing facilities seem to be contributing to this greater use of advanced imaging, especially for MRI and PET. In contrast, relative changes in use of advanced imaging performed at hospitals were small. Use rates for all 3 modalities were much higher in southern California compared with the northern region of the state. Use of highly reimbursed advanced imaging, a major driver of higher health care costs, should be based on clear clinical practice guidelines to ensure appropriate use.
    Medical Care 06/2008; 46(5):460-6. · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Jean M Mitchell, Darrell J Gaskin, Chahira Kozma
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    ABSTRACT: Managed care plans that involve some form of capitation may have adverse effects on children with special health care needs because the financial incentives to control costs may result in under-treatment and restrict access to expensive services and specialty providers. Proponents highlight the advantages of a managed care model, including case management and coordination of services. In light of this debate, only a few state Medicaid programs have implemented a managed care option for children with special health care needs. This study evaluates the effects of plan choice (partially capitated managed care versus fee-for-service) on whether children with disabilities eligible for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and enrolled in the District of Columbia's Medicaid program are in compliance with the guidelines for health supervision visits established by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Our findings, based on five years of claims data, show that SSI-eligible children with disabilities enrolled in a partially capitated managed care plan are significantly more likely to be in compliance with the AAP guidelines for health supervision visits compared to their fee-for-service counterparts. Moreover, we find that selection due to unobservable characteristics does not significantly bias the estimated program effects.
    Inquiry: a journal of medical care organization, provision and financing 02/2008; 45(2):198-214. · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • Jean M Mitchell
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    ABSTRACT: Physician ownership of specialty hospitals has become commonplace in recent years in several states where certificate-of-need laws do not exist. The study examines trends in utilization rates for complex and simple spinal fusion procedures performed on injured workers with back/spine disorders in two markets in Oklahoma. During the time period we examine, physician-owned spine or orthopedic specialty hospitals entered both market areas in Oklahoma. Because there were no market areas in Oklahoma without physician-owned spine or orthopedic hospitals to use as a comparison group, we also analyzed trends in utilization for these surgical procedures performed on Medicare beneficiaries. We compared utilization for these procedures in Oklahoma and three other states with a high concentration of physician-owned specialty hospitals (Kansas, South Dakota, and Arizona) to utilization rates for back surgery performed on Medicare patients who reside in the Northeast region. States in the Northeast constitute an appropriate control group because there are no physician-owned specialty hospitals in this region. Both analyses indicate that the entry of the physician-owned specialty hospitals was followed by substantial increases in the market area utilization rates for complex spinal fusion surgery. Conversely, such dramatic changes did not occur in the Northeast where physician-owned specialty hospitals do not exist. After considering but ruling out alternative explanations, the findings imply that the financial incentives linked to ownership coincided with significant changes in physicians' practice patterns.
    Medical Care Research and Review 09/2007; 64(4):395-415. · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Jean M Mitchell, Darrell J Gaskin
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate how enrollment in a partially capitated managed care (MC) option versus the fee-for-service (FFS) system affects caregivers' ratings of dimensions of access to services among children with special health care needs (SHCN). The data were collected from telephone interviews during the summer and fall of 2002 with a random sample of 1088 caregivers of children with SHCN who qualified for Supplemental Security Income and therefore were enrolled the Medicaid program for children with SHCN in the District of Columbia. We used a 2-step procedure in which we first estimated plan choice and then constructed a selectivity correction to control for the potential selection bias linked to plan choice. We estimated the second stage equations predicting caregiver's ratings of dimensions of access as a function of the selectivity correction, the plan choice dummy variable and other exogenous variables. After controlling for the potential selection bias linked to plan choice and other confounding factors, we find that caregivers of children in FFS are significantly more likely than caregivers of children enrolled in the partially capitated MC plan to rate the following dimensions of access as either fair or poor: "access to specialists' care" (P < 0.01), "access to emergency room care" (P < 0.01), "convenience of the doctor's office" (P < 0.01), and "waiting time between making the appointment actual visit" (P < 0.05). We attribute these differences in caregivers' ratings of dimensions of access that exist between partially capitated MC and FFS enrollees to case management and care coordination services along with higher fees paid for pediatrician's and specialists' services available under MC option.
    Medical Care 03/2007; 45(2):146-53. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little research has examined whether Medicaid managed care plans (MCPs) that incorporate case management are effective in coordinating services for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). This study evaluates the effects of enrollment of special needs children into a partially capitated MCP (with ongoing case management) versus the fee-for-service (FFS) option on use of therapeutic services, specifically speech, occupational, and physical therapy by site of service (school versus health care sector). Results show that special needs children enrolled in the partially capitated MCP are significantly more likely to obtain occupational and physical therapy at school relative to their FFS counterparts. Moreover, children enrolled in FFS are significantly less likely to be either regular or frequent users of each type of therapy relative to children enrolled in managed care. We attribute much of these disparities in use of therapeutic services at school to the availability of case management and coordination that is an integral component of the partially capitated MCP.
    Health care financing review 02/2007; 28(4):109-23. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    Jean M Mitchell
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    ABSTRACT: Using data from a large insurer in California, we identified the self-referral status of providers who billed for advanced imaging in 2004. Nearly 33 percent of providers who submitted bills for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, 22 percent of those who submitted bills for computed tomography (CT) scans, and 17 percent of those who submitted bills for positron-emission tomography (PET) scans were classified as "self-referral." Among them, 61 percent of those who billed for MRI and 64 percent of those who billed for CT did not own the imaging equipment. Rather, they were involved in lease or payment-per-scan referral arrangements that might violate federal and state laws.
    Health Affairs 01/2007; 26(3):w415-24. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    Jean M Mitchell, Darrell J Gaskin
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate factors affecting plan choice (partially capitated managed care [MC] option versus the fee-for-service [FFS] system) and unmet needs for health care services among children who qualified for supplemental security income (SSI) because of a disability. We conducted telephone interviews during the summer and fall of 2002 with a random sample of close to 1,088 caregivers of SSI eligible children who resided in the District of Columbia. We employed a two-step procedure where we first estimated plan choice and then constructed a selectivity correction to control for the potential selection bias associated with plan choice. We included the selectivity correction, the dummy variable indicating plan choice and other exogenous regressors in the second stage equations predicting unmet need. The dependent variables in the second stage equations include: (1) having an unmet need for any service or equipment; (2) having an unmet need for physician or hospital services; (3) having an unmet need for medical equipment; (4) having an unmet need for prescription drugs; (5) having an unmet need for dental care. More disabled children (those with birth defects, chronic conditions, and/or more limitations in activities of daily living) were more likely to enroll in FFS. Children of caregivers with some college education were more likely to opt for FFS, whereas children from higher income households were more prone to enroll in the partially capitated MC plan. Children in FFS were 9.9 percentage points more likely than children enrolled in partially capitated MC to experience an unmet need for any type of health care services (p<.01), while FFS children were 4.5 percentage points more likely than partially capitated MC enrollees to incur a medical equipment unmet need (p<.05). FFS children were also more likely than partially capitated MC enrollees to experience unmet needs for prescription drugs and dental care, however these differences were only marginally significant. We speculate that the case management services available under the MC option, low Medicaid FFS reimbursements and provider availability account for some of the differences in unmet need that exist between partially capitated MC and FFS enrollees.
    Health Services Research 10/2005; 40(5 Pt 1):1379-99. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    Darrell J Gaskin, Jean M Mitchell
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    ABSTRACT: About 11-14% of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) have unmet needs during a given year. Little is known about the determinants of unmet health care needs for CSHCN. The objective of this study was to explore the association between access to care (unmet needs) among CSHCN and their caregivers' mental health status as well as children's mental health status. We surveyed a random sample of 1,088 caregivers of CSHCN who resided in the District of Columbia during the summer and fall of 2002. In the survey, we collected information on children's unmet needs mental health status (PARS) and their caregivers' mental health status (CES-D). We estimated the association between mental health status determinants of unmet needs adjusting for selection bias associated with plan choice (partially capitated managed care versus FFS) with an instrumental variables probit estimation technique. We used caregivers' preferences about physicians and hospitals networks, and whether the caregiver and child had the same last name to identify the plan choice equation. We found that caregivers with symptoms of depression were 26.3% more likely to report any unmet need, 67.6% more likely to report unmet hospital and physician need, 66.1% more likely to report unmet mental health care need and 38.8% more likely to report unmet need for other health care services. Caregivers of children with poor psychological adjustment were 26.3% more likely to report their child had an unmet need and 92.3% more likely to report an unmet mental health care need. Our analyses show that children whose caregivers experience symptoms of depression are significantly more likely to encounter difficulties obtaining needed medical and mental health care services. Furthermore, the findings reported here indicate that children with poor psychological adjustment are significantly more likely to experience unmet needs for medical and mental health care services. Our study has some limitations. First, most of the children in our sample are African-American, so these findings may differ for children of other races. Second, these findings may not be applicable to CSHCN who reside in rural areas. Third, we recognize the possibility that child and caregiver mental health is potentially endogenous. The mental health status of CSHCN and their caregivers are barriers to care. Policymakers should be concerned about the mental health status of children with special health care needs and their caregivers as such problems appear to be barriers to obtaining care. Therefore, to adequately address the access problems of children with special health care needs, policy must address the mental health problems of children and their caregivers. Providing mental health care for caregivers and children has the potential for improving overall access for CSHCN. IMPLICATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Future research should determine the causal relationship between mental health problems of CSHCN and their caregivers and the level unmet health care needs.
    The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics 04/2005; 8(1):29-35. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper analyzes how voluntary enrollment in the fee-for-service (FFS) system versus a partially capitated managed care plan affects changes in access to care over time for special needs children who receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) due to a disability. Four indicators of access are evaluated, including specialty care, hospital care, emergency care, and access to a regular doctor. We employ the Heckman two-step estimation procedure to correct for the potential nonrandom selection bias linked to plan choice. The findings show that relative to their counterparts in the partially capitated managed care plan, SSI children enrolled in the FFS plan are significantly more likely to encounter an access problem during either of the time periods studied. Similarly, FFS enrollees are significantly more likely than partially capitated managed care participants to experience persistent access problems across three of the four dimensions of care. Possible explanations for the deterioration in access associated with FFS include the lack of case management services, lower reimbursement relative to the partially capitated managed care plan, and provider availability.
    Inquiry: a journal of medical care organization, provision and financing 02/2005; 42(2):145-59. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    Jean M Mitchell
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years physician ownership of so-called limited-service hospitals has become commonplace in many states lacking certificate-of-need regulations. Empirical evidence documenting the effects of these facilities is sparse. This study compares practice patterns of physician-owners of limited-service cardiac hospitals and physician-nonowners who treat cardiac patients at competing full-service community hospitals. Analyses of six years of Arizona inpatient discharge data show that physician-owners treat higher volumes of profitable cardiac surgical diagnosis-related groups (DRGs), higher percentages of low-severity cases, and higher percentages of cases with generous insurance compared with physician-nonowners who treat cardiac patients in community hospitals.
    Health Affairs 01/2005; Suppl Web Exclusives:W5-481-90. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    Jean M Mitchell, Darrell J Gaskin
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    ABSTRACT: States have been reluctant to enroll children with special health care needs (SHCN) into capitated managed care, because the financial incentives inherent in such plans may elicit undertreatment, restrict access to specific services and providers, and have adverse effects on quality. Little research has examined how children with SHCN who qualify for Supplemental Security Income (SSI) fare under managed care versus the fee-for-service (FFS) system. To examine how enrollment of children with SHCN with SSI into a Medicaid capitated managed care plan differs from regular FFS with respect to unmet needs and access to care in the District of Columbia. We conducted telephone interviews with a random sample of 1088 caregivers of children with SHCN who resided in the District of Columbia during the summer and fall of 2002. 1) Usual source of care; 2) unmet need for the following services during the 6-month period prior to the interview: physician/hospital, mental health, therapy services, dental care, durable medical equipment and supplies, prescription drugs, and home health services; and 3) caregivers' ratings of dimensions of access to services. The percentage of FFS children who did not receive needed dental care, durable medical equipment/supplies, or prescription drugs was significantly larger than the percentage of children enrolled in the capitated managed care plan. We found no significant differences by plan type in unmet need for physician/hospital care, mental health services, home health service, or therapy services. The most problematic areas of access seem to be "wait time between making an appointment and the actual visit," "waiting time in the doctor's office," "office hours for appointments," "getting medical advice by phone," and "getting specialist's care if needed." For each of these dimensions of access, children in the FFS system experienced significantly more of such access problems, compared with children in Health Services for Children With Special Needs (HSCSN). These 4 dimensions of access cause problems for 18% to 29% of FFS parents but only 13.6% to 22.3% of caregivers with a child in HSCSN. Three other dimensions of access, "convenience of doctor's office," "getting emergency care if needed," and "getting hospital care if needed," also seemed to pose significantly more problems for caregivers with children in FFS plans, compared with those in HSCSN. These dimensions of access were only problematic for 9% to 14% of FFS caregivers and 5.9% to 7.7% of caregivers with children enrolled in HSCSN. Children in the managed care option have lower levels of unmet need than children in FFS plans. Caregivers of children in FFS plans encountered more difficulties in navigating the health care system, compared with those with children in managed care. We conclude that a combination of factors that characterize the capitated managed care plan are responsible for improving access to care and mitigating the level of unmet need among children with SHCN. These include the comprehensive care plan assessment, ongoing case management, primary care providers' gatekeeping role, and higher physician reimbursement.
    PEDIATRICS 08/2004; 114(1):196-204. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether area-level Medicare physician fees for mastectomy and breast conserving surgery were associated with treatment received by Medicare beneficiaries with localized breast cancer and to compare these results with an earlier analysis conducted using small areas (three-digit zip codes) as the unit of observation. Medicare claims and physician survey data for a national sample of elderly (aged 67 or older) Medicare beneficiaries with localized breast cancer treated in 1994 (unweighted n = 1,787). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to estimate a model of treatment received as a function of Medicare fees, controlling for other area economic factors, patient demographic and clinical characteristics, physician experience, and region. In 1994, average Medicare fees (adjusted for the effects of modifiers and procedure mix) for mastectomy (MST) and breast conserving surgery (BCS) were 904 dollars and 305 dollars, respectively. Holding other fees and factors fixed, a 10 percent increase in the BCS fee increased the odds of breast conserving surgery with radiation therapy relative to mastectomy to 1.34 (p = 0.02), while a 10 percent decrease in the MST fee increased the odds of breast conserving surgery with radiation therapy to 1.86 (p < 0.01). Among older women with localized breast cancer, financial incentives appear to influence the use of mastectomy and breast conserving surgery with radiation therapy. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that physicians are responsive to financial incentives when the alternative procedures have clinically equivalent outcomes and the patient's clinical condition does not dominate the treatment choice. We also find that the fee effects derived from this analysis of individual data with more precise measurement of both diagnosis and treatment are qualitatively similar to the results of the small-area analysis. This suggests that the earlier study was not severely affected by ecological bias or other data limitations inherent in Medicare claims data.
    Health Services Research 05/2003; 38(2):553-73. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study is motivated by the potential problem of using observational data to draw inferences about treatment outcomes when experimental data are not available. We compare two statistical approaches, ordinary least-squares (OLS) and instrumental variables (IV) regression analysis, to estimate the outcomes (three-year post-treatment survival) of three treatments for early stage breast cancer in elderly women: mastectomy (MST), breast conserving surgery with radiation therapy (BCSRT), and breast conserving surgery only (BCSO). The primary data source was Medicare claims for a national random sample of 2907 women (age 67 or older) with localized breast cancer who were treated between 1992 and 1994. Contrary to randomized clinical trial (RCT) results, analysis with the observational data found highly significant differences in survival among the three treatment alternatives: 79.2% survival for BCSO, 85.3% for MST, and 93.0% for BCSRT. Using OLS to control for the effects of observable characteristics narrowed the estimated survival rate differences, which remained statistically significant. In contrast, the IV analysis estimated survival rate differences that were not significantly different from 0. However, the IV-point estimates of the treatment effects were quantitatively larger than the OLS estimates, unstable, and not significantly different from the OLS results. In addition, both sets of estimates were in the same quantitative range as the RCT results.We conclude that unadjusted observational data on health outcomes of alternative treatments for localized breast cancer should not be used for cost-effectiveness studies. Our comparisons suggest that whether one places greater confidence in the OLS or the IV results depends on at least three factors: (1) the extent of observable health information that can be used as controls in OLS estimation, (2) the outcomes of statistical tests of the validity of the instrumental variable method, and (3) the similarity of the OLS and IV estimates. In this particular analysis, the OLS estimates appear to be preferable because of the instability of the IV estimates.
    Health Economics 04/2003; 12(3):171-86. · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • Jean M Mitchell, Jack Hadley, Darrell J Gaskin
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    ABSTRACT: Relatively little research has examined physicians' supply responses to Medicare fee cuts especially whether fee reductions for specific procedures have "spillover" effects that cause physicians to increase the supply of other services they provide. In this study we investigate whether ophthalmologist changed their provision of non-cataract services to Medicare patients over the time period 1992-1994, when the Medicare Fee Schedule (MFS) resulted in a 17.4% reduction in the average fee paid for a cataract extraction. Following the McGuire-Pauly model of physician behavior (McGuire and Pauly, 1991), we estimated a supply function for non-cataract procedures that included three price variables (own-price, a Medicare cross-price and a private cross-price) and an income effect. The Medicare cross-price and income variables capture spillover effects. Consistent with the model's predictions, we found that the Medicare cross-price is significant and negative, implying that a 10% reduction in the fee for a cataract extraction will cause ophthalmologists to supply about 5% more non-cataract services. Second, the income variable is highly significant, but its impact on the supply of non-cataract services is trivial. The suggests that physicians behave more like profit maximizing firms than target income seekers. We also found that the own-price and the private cross-price variables are highly significant and have the expected positive and negative effects on the volume of non-cataract services respectively. Our results demonstrate the importance of evaluating volume responses to fee changes for the array of services the physician performs, not just the procedure whose fee has been reduced. Focusing only on the procedure whose fee has been cut will yield an incomplete picture of how fee reductions for specific procedures affect physician supply decisions.
    International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics 10/2002; 2(3):171-88. · 0.49 Impact Factor
  • Jack Hadley, Jean M Mitchell
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    ABSTRACT: Using survey data collected in 1991 and 1997 from a panel of almost 1,500 physicians, we analyzed the relationship between changes in physicians' incomes, practice autonomy, and satisfaction, and the growth of HMOs and physicians' perceived financial incentives. Both the growth of HMOs and financial incentives to reduce services were significantly related to lower income growth, reductions in practice autonomy, and decreases in satisfaction. Changes in income and autonomy were both positively and significantly related to changes in satisfaction. Controlling for changes in income and autonomy, HMO growth was no longer significantly related to changes in satisfaction. Having a perceived financial incentive to reduce services remained a negative and significant determinant of the change in career satisfaction.
    International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics 04/2002; 2(1):37-50. · 0.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

352 Citations
54.86 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2012
    • Georgetown University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2007
    • RAND Corporation
      Santa Monica, California, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • The Washington Institute
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Health Policy and Management
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • United States Government Accountability Office
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2002
    • Urban Institute
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States