[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over 290,000 patients are undergoing hemodialysis (HD) in Japan. With old age, the odds of undergoing HD treatment sharply increase, as does the prevalence of cognitive impairment. The aim of the present work was to assess cognitive impairment in HD patients and its relation to clinical characteristics.
Using a cross-sectional design, we administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to 154 HD outpatients and 852 participants from the Iwaki Health Promotion Project 2010, representing the general population.
The prevalence of cognitive impairment based on the MMSE was 18.8% in HD patients. HD patients showed a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment in older groups (50 years and older). In a logistic regression model with age, gender and amount of education as covariates, undergoing HD was a significant independent factor (OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.33 to 3.94) associated with a lower MMSE score. Among HD patients, we found that level of education was associated with MMSE score.
There is a high prevalence of cognitive impairment among HD patients that has adverse implications for hospitalization and shortens their life expectancy. HD treatment was an independent risk factor for cognitive impairment. Clinicians should carefully monitor and treat cognitive impairment in HD patients. Further studies are required to determine the reasons for cognitive impairment in HD patients.
Annals of General Psychiatry 08/2011; 10:20. · 1.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) often causes post-ictal delirium (PID), to date, the specific risk factors of PID have not been described. The purpose of the present study was therefore to elucidate the predictors of PID via identification of the characteristics of patients with PID.
ECT was conducted in 50 patients and all patients underwent more than four sessions. A sine wave or a brief-pulse square wave ECT instrument was used. After convulsions the patients' PID was monitored for 30 min. The patients were allocated into four groups based on PID severity (none, mild, moderate or severe PID). Variables, including age, gender, duration of illness, diagnosis, clinical features (psychotic or catatonic features) and stimulus waveform (sine or brief pulse square waveform), were analyzed.
Moderate to severe PID developed during the ECT sessions in 18 patients (36%). Most patients with severe delirium were successfully treated with i.v. bolus of propofol (1-2 mg/kg). Although the incidence of PID was 24% in patients without catatonic features, the incidence in patients with catatonic features was extremely high (88%; P < 0.001). Multiple regression analyses showed that the severity of PID correlated significantly with the presence of catatonic features (beta = 0.428, P < 0.01).
The presence of catatonic features before ECT is a predictor of PID. Propofol is useful for the treatment of PID.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 05/2009; 63(2):180-5. · 2.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 48-year-old man who had a history of schizophrenia for 30 years was treated with electroconvulsive therapies. Because of poor seizure even at maximum electrical dosage, aminophylline was administered just before initiating electroconvulsive therapy. Although aminophylline augmentation lengthened the seizure duration, tachycardia and hypertension were observed. Therefore, we switched to bemegride, an antagonist to barbiturate, and seizure length was improved without any side effects. The present case suggested that bemegride is one of the alternative measures in patients with poor seizure quality.
The journal of ECT 11/2008; 25(1):61-3. · 1.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 92-year-old woman who suffered from dementia with psychotic feature was admitted to a psychiatric ward. She refused to eat or take any medications. After 0.5 mg i.v. injection haloperidol, prolongation of QTc interval occurred in the electrocardiogram. Therefore two sessions of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) were performed carefully after informed consent was obtained by her family. Almost no psychotic symptoms were observed after the first ECT. No cognitive side-effects were observed during and after the two ECT sessions. This demonstrates that ECT can be used as an alternative treatment when elderly dementia patients with psychotic feature cannot tolerate medication.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 11/2007; 61(5):568-70. · 2.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to obtain information that would enable caregivers to provide the necessary psychological care for hemodialysis patients. A total of 608 hemodialysis patients completed the questionnaire of the Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness-Five Factor Inventory and were subsequently classified by personality types using cluster analysis. In comparison to the norms for the general Japanese adult population, the four-dimensional average of extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness among hemodialysis patients was significantly lower (P < 0.001), especially for openness. The openness score correlated with each of the following: age (P < 0.001), employment (P < 0.01), and diabetes (P < 0.001). Four personality types were defined based on these dimensions. High scores for agreeableness, extroversion and conscientiousness characterized the agreeable type (22.6%). The patients in this type will likely accept their own experiences in a positive manner. Submissive types (22.0%) received the lowest scores for conscientiousness, though extroversion, openness, and agreeableness were also low. It is necessary to enhance a sense of independence and responsibility in patients with submissive type personalities. Sensitive types (21.5%) were characterized by the highest neuroticism scores and low scores for the other four dimensions. The patients in this type were likely to be persistent with changes in conditions. The last type was the balanced type (33.9%), which was defined by scores within mean range. In clinical practice, it is particularly important that the submissive and sensitive types should receive appropriate mental health care.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 08/2007; 61(4):339-47. · 2.04 Impact Factor