[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A r t i c l e s Proteasomes are vital in generating peptides for presentation on MHC class I molecules 1 . Each proteasome consists of 14 structural subunits and 6 catalytic subunits (two each of the β1, β2 and β5 subunits) 2 . In addition to these three catalytic subunits, three alternative catalytic subunits denoted β1i (LMP2 or Psmb9), β2i (MECL1 or Psmb10) and β5i (LMP7 or Psmb8) are constitutively expressed in a number of hematopoietic cells and are induced in other cell types by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) 2,3 . When expressed, these alternative subunits are preferen-tially incorporated into newly assembling complexes to form immuno-proteasomes 3 and change the catalytic activities of these complexes. Compared with the constitutive proteasomes, immunoproteasomes cleave more rapidly after hydrophobic and basic amino acid residues and less rapidly after acidic ones 4–6 . As peptides with hydrophobic or sometimes basic C termini preferentially bind to MHC class I mol-ecules 7 , it has long been suggested that immunoproteasomes have a specialized role in creating antigenic peptides. However, mice lacking individual immunoproteasome catalytic subunits have relatively modest changes in antigen presentation. For example, β5i-deficient mice have moderately (~50%) lower MHC class I surface expression 8 and lower or higher efficiency in presenting only a few epitopes, whereas the majority of immunogenic peptides examined are pre-sented normally 8–15 . The published analyses have examined only the presentation of known epitopes, and it is unknown whether and how often immunoproteasome-deficient mice present different peptides compared with wild-type mice. To determine whether the modest changes in these mice were due to some contribution from the remaining immunoproteasome catalytic subunits, we created a mouse that was triply deficient, lacking all three immune subunits. Because the genes encoding β1i (Psmb9) and β5i (Psmb8) are so close together on chromosome 17, which made the chance of generating a doubly deficient mouse by crossing β5i-null with β1i-null mice vanishingly small, we chose to create a new sequential deletion of these two genes. We then bred the β1i and β5i doubly deficient mice to β2i-deficient (Psmb10-null) mice to create the animal with a triple immunoproteasome deficiency. We found that the triply deficient mice had altered presentation of most of the epitopes we tested, both in vitro and in vivo, and that these changes in antigen presentation were sufficient to cause triply deficient mice to reject wild-type cells. RESULTS Generation of immunoproteasome–triply deficient mice To generate the β1i β5i doubly deficient animals, we designed a sequential deletion strategy (Fig. 1a). First a LacZ-FRT-neo-FRT construct was fused in frame to the start codon (27 base pairs (bp) downstream of the 5′ end of exon 1) of Psmb8 (which encodes β5i), removing the remainder of exon 1 plus exons 2 through 5 by homolo-gous recombination. The neo gene was then removed by enhanced FLP recombinase (FLPe) activity in the bacteria. An alkaline phosphatase–loxP-neo-loxP construct was then fused in frame to the
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of immunoproteasomes to antigen presentation has been unclear because animals totally lacking immunoproteasomes had not been available. Having now developed mice lacking the three immunoproteasome catalytic subunits, we found that the dendritic cells of these mice had defects in presenting several major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I epitopes. During viral infection in vivo, the presentation of a majority of MHC class I epitopes was markedly reduced in immunoproteasome-deficient animals compared with wild-type animals, whereas presentation of MHC class II peptides was unaffected. According to mass spectrometry, the repertoire of MHC class I-presented peptides was ∼50% different from that in wild-type mice, and these differences were sufficient to stimulate robust transplant rejection of wild-type cells in mutant mice. These results indicated that immunoproteasomes were more important in antigen presentation than previously thought.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous experiments using enzyme inhibitors, cell lysates, and purified enzyme have suggested that puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) plays a role in creating and destroying MHC class I-presented peptides although its precise contribution to these processes is unknown. To examine the importance of this enzyme in MHC class I Ag presentation, we have generated PSA-deficient mice and cell lines from these animals. PSA-deficient mice are smaller and do not reproduce as well as wild type mice. In addition, dendritic cells from PSA-deficient mice display more MHC class I molecules on the cell surface, suggesting that PSA normally limits Ag presentation by destroying certain peptides in these key APCs. Surprisingly, MHC class I levels are not altered on other PSA-deficient cells and the processing and presentation of peptide precursors in PSA-deficient fibroblasts is normal. Moreover, PSA-deficient mice have normal numbers of T cells in the periphery, and respond as well as wild type mice to eight epitopes from three viruses. These data indicate that PSA may play a role in limiting MHC class I Ag presentation in dendritic cells in vivo but that it is not essential for generating most MHC class I-presented peptides or for stimulating CTL responses to several Ags.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2008; 180(3):1704-12. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistin-like molecule (RELM)-beta is a cysteine-rich cytokine implicated in insulin resistance and asthmatic responses, but its function remains an enigma. We now report that RELM-beta has a role in promoting airway inflammation and lung remodeling in the mouse lung. RELM-beta is strongly induced by diverse allergens and T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines by an IL-13- and STAT6-dependent mechanism. To understand the in vivo role of RELM-beta, we delivered recombinant murine RELM-beta intratracheally to naïve mice. RELM-beta induced dose-dependent leukocyte accumulation (most prominently involving macrophages) and goblet cell hyperplasia. The most prominent effect induced by RELM-beta was increased perivascular and peribronchial collagen deposition. Mice genetically deficient in RELM-beta had reduced accumulation of collagen and goblet cell hyperplasia in an experimental model of allergic airway inflammation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that RELM-beta had fibroblast motogenic activity. These results identify RELM-beta as a Th2-associated cytokine with potent inflammatory and remodeling activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistin-like molecule (RELM) beta is a cysteine-rich cytokine expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and implicated in insulin resistance and gastrointestinal nematode immunity; however, its function primarily remains an enigma.
We sought to elucidate the function of RELM-beta in the gastrointestinal tract.
We generated RELM-beta gene-targeted mice and examined colonic epithelial barrier function, gene expression profiles, and susceptibility to acute colonic inflammation.
We show that RELM-beta is constitutively expressed in the colon by goblet cells and enterocytes and has a role in homeostasis, as assessed by alterations in colon mRNA transcripts and epithelial barrier function in the absence of RELM-beta. Using acute colonic inflammatory models, we demonstrate that RELM-beta has a central role in the regulation of susceptibility to colonic inflammation. Mechanistic studies identify that RELM-beta regulates expression of type III regenerating gene (REG) (REG3beta and gamma), molecules known to influence nuclear factor kappaB signaling.
These data define a critical role for RELM-beta in the maintenance of colonic barrier function and gastrointestinal innate immunity.
These findings identify RELM-beta as an important molecule in homeostatic gastrointestinal function and colonic inflammation, and as such, these results have implications for a variety of human inflammatory gastrointestinal conditions, including allergic gastroenteropathies.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 08/2006; 118(1):257-68. · 12.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To detect viral infections and tumors, CD8+ T lymphocytes monitor cells for the presence of antigenic peptides bound to MHC class I molecules. The majority of MHC class I-presented peptides are generated from the cleavage of cellular and viral proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Many of the oligopeptides produced by this process are too long to stably bind to MHC class I molecules and require further trimming for presentation. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is an IFN-inducible cytosolic aminopeptidase that can trim precursor peptides to mature epitopes and has been thought to play an important role in Ag presentation. To examine the role of LAP in generating MHC class I peptides in vivo, we generated LAP-deficient mice and LAP-deficient cell lines. These mutant mice and cells are viable and grow normally. The trimming of peptides in LAP-deficient cells is not reduced under basal conditions or after stimulation with IFN. Similarly, there is no reduction in presentation of peptides from precursor or full-length Ag constructs or in the overall supply of peptides from cellular proteins to MHC class I molecules even after stimulation with IFN. After viral infection, LAP-deficient mice generate normal CTL responses to seven epitopes from three different viruses. These data demonstrate that LAP is not an essential enzyme for generating most MHC class I-presented peptides and reveal redundancy in the function of cellular aminopeptidases.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2005; 175(10):6605-14. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The eotaxin chemokines have been implicated in allergen-induced eosinophil responses in the lung. However, the individual and combined contribution of each of the individual eotaxins is not well defined. We aimed to examine the consequences of genetically ablating eotaxin-1 or eotaxin-2 alone, eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 together, and CCR3. Mice carrying targeted deletions of these individual or combined genes were subjected to an OVA-induced experimental asthma model. Analysis of airway (luminal) eosinophilia revealed a dominant role for eotaxin-2 and a synergistic reduction in eotaxin-1/2 double-deficient (DKO) and CCR3-deficient mice. Examination of pulmonary tissue eosinophilia revealed a modest role for individually ablated eotaxin-1 or eotaxin-2. However, eotaxin-1/2 DKO mice had a marked decrease in tissue eosinophilia approaching the low levels seen in CCR3-deficient mice. Notably, the organized accumulation of eosinophils in the peribronchial and perivascular regions of allergen-challenged wild-type mice was lost in eotaxin-1/2 DKO and CCR3-deficient mice. Mechanistic analysis revealed distinct expression of eotaxin-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells consistent with macrophages. Taken together, these results provide definitive evidence for a fundamental role of the eotaxin/CCR3 pathway in eosinophil recruitment in experimental asthma. These results imply that successful blockade of Ag-induced pulmonary eosinophilia will require antagonism of multiple CCR3 ligands.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2005; 175(8):5341-50. · 5.52 Impact Factor