Amaya Aleixandre

Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Are you Amaya Aleixandre?

Claim your profile

Publications (46)96.73 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of endothelial-relaxing factors as possible antihypertensive mechanism of low-molecular-weight procyanidin rich grape seed extract (LM-GSPE). Thirty 17–20-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were administered water or 375 mg/kg LM-GSPE by intragastric gavage. One millilitre of saline, 30 mg/kg NG-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) or 5 mg/kg indomethacin was administrated intraperitoneally. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were recorded before and 6 h after oral administration. Plasma concentration of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (PGF1α) was quantified. In addition, we evaluated the relaxation caused by LM-GSPE in different aorta preparations. The antihypertensive effect of LM-GSPE was completely and partially abolished by l-NAME and indomethacin, respectively. In addition, plasma PGF1α was increased in LM-GSPE-administered rats. Finally, LM-GSPE relaxed the intact aorta preparations but did not relax the endothelium-denuded aorta rings. l-NAME inhibited the relaxation caused by LM-GSPE in the SHR aorta rings, but indomethacin did not. Therefore, the antihypertensive effect of LM-GSPE in SHR is endothelium dependent, and it could be mediated by changes in endothelium-derived nitric oxide bioavailability. Nevertheless, prostacyclin could also contribute additionally to this effect.
    Journal of Functional Foods 01/2014; 6:419-427. · 2.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We evaluate the short-term effect of a Fraxinus excelsior L. seed extract, named FraxiPure (FRP) on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Water, Captopril and different doses of FRP were orally administered. Blood pressure was recorded by the tail cuff method and plasma samples were collected to determine antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde equivalents. In other trials, 18 h fasted SHR were administered water, FRP, Furosemide, Torasemide, and Captopril. In these animals, urine was collected for 4 h to obtain the urine volumetric excretion (UVE). Plasma samples of these animals were used to establish the fractional excretion (FE) of different ions (Na+, Cl−, K+, Ca2 + and PO43 −) and metabolites (creatinine, urea and uric acid).FRP shows antihypertensive effect. The decrease in blood pressure caused by FRP was slightly lower than that of Captopril and more accentuated than that of Torasemide. FRP and Torasemide significantly increased UVE. Torasemide significantly increased FE(Na+) and FE(Cl−) and showed a clear uricosuric effect. FRP showed slight natriuretic effects and behaved as a potassium-sparing diuretic. FRP significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased plasma malondialdehyde equivalents. The antihypertensive effect of FRP in SHR can therefore be related with its diuretic and antioxidant properties.
    Food Research International. 08/2013; 53(1):81–87.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Grapes are a good source of flavonoids, which have been previously demonstrated to exert beneficial healthy effects on cardiovascular diseases. The aims of this study were to extensively characterise a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) (total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and HPLC–MS phenolic profile) and, to assess its antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) which is a model of genetically hypertensive rat analogue to the essential hypertension in humans. The hypotensive effect of GSPE was also proved in normotensive Wistar–Kyoto rats. Chromatographic analysis of the extract showed that the most abundant polyphenols are monomers and dimers, in their free forms and linked to a gallate. GSPE produced a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of SHR dose-dependently up to 375 mg/kg (maximum decrease 6 h post-administration) and did not affect blood pressure of Wistar–Kyoto rats. GSPE increased the activity of an antioxidant endogen system, but did not affect plasma ACE activity in these animals.
    Food Research International 05/2013; 51(2):587-595. · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The involvement of endothelial-relaxing factors on the vascular and antihypertensive effects of a cocoa fiber product (CFP) obtained from cocoa husks was studied. We carried out in vitro experiments with aorta rings from untreated spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in vivo experiments with SHR. CFP did not relax the endothelium denuded aorta rings and N(W)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) partially blocked the vascular relaxing and antihypertensive effects of CFP. Nevertheless, indomethacin did not modify these effects. Nitric oxide mediates therefore the antihypertensive and aorta relaxing effects of CFP in SHR.
    Nitric Oxide 11/2012; · 3.27 Impact Factor
  • M. Quiñones, M. Miguel, A. Aleixandre
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years, a number of studies have endorsed the beneficial effects of polyphenols intake on health, especially on the cardiovascular system. This is important since cardiovascular diseases are the main death cause worldwide. The effects of polyphenols are mainly due to their antioxidant properties. These compounds present vasodilating effects, and they can improve the lipid profile and lessen the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). They show clear antiinflammatory effects and they can modulate the apoptotic pathways in the vascular endothelium. This review defines from the structural viewpoint the different groups of polyphenols that may occur in vegetables, and updates the knowledge on their bioavailability. Some of the recent studies establishing their beneficial properties at a cardiovascular level are also included.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 02/2012; 27(1):76-89. · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • M Quiñones, M Miguel, A Aleixandre
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years, a number of studies have endorsed the beneficial effects of polyphenols intake on health, especially on the cardiovascular system. This is important since cardiovascular diseases are the main death cause worldwide. The effects of polyphenols are mainly due to their antioxidant properties. These compounds present vasodilating effects, and they can improve the lipid profile and lessen the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). They show clear antiinflammatory effects and they can modulate the apoptotic pathways in the vascular endothelium. This review defines from the structural viewpoint the different groups of polyphenols that may occur in vegetables, and updates the knowledge on their bioavailability. Some of the recent studies establishing their beneficial properties at a cardiovascular level are also included.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 02/2012; 27(1):76-89. · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    David Sánchez, Marta Miguel, Amaya Aleixandre
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The consumption of dietary fiber (DF) has increased since it was related to the prevention of a range of illnesses and pathological conditions. DF can modify some gut hormones that regulate satiety and energy intake, thus also affecting lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. Among these gut hormones are ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, and cholecystokinin. Adipose tissue is known to express and secrete a variety of products known as "adipocytokines," which are also affected by DF. Some of the most relevant adipocytokines include adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. The release of adipocytokines, by either adipocytes or macrophage-infiltrated adipose tissue, leads to a chronic subinflammatory state that could play a central role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, therefore increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with obesity. DF modulation of these molecules could also have positive effects on obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. This review is focused on the effects of DF on the above-mentioned gut peptides and adipocytokines.
    Journal of medicinal food 12/2011; 15(3):223-30. · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    M Quiñones, M Miguel, B Muguerza, A Aleixandre
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated the short-term effect of a cocoa polyphenol extract (CPE), in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male 17-22-week-old SHR were administered by intragastric gavage water, 50 mg kg(-1) Captopril or CPE at different doses (13, 26, 80 and 160 mg kg(-1)). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were recorded by the tail cuff method before the administration and also 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h post-administration. Highly significant decreases in the SBP and in the DBP were observed when captopril or CPE was administered to SHR. The cocoa extract produced a dose dependent effect in the SBP of the SHR up to the dose of 80 mg kg(-1). Nevertheless this dose of CPE did not decrease the arterial blood pressure in the normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats. The decrease in the SBP caused by 80 mg kg(-1) of CPE in the SHR (-39.1 ± 3.7 mm Hg) was maximum 6 h post-administration, and the initial values of SBP were recovered 72 h post-administration of this extract. Paradoxically, 160 mg kg(-1) of the cocoa extract caused a decreased antihypertensive effect than lower doses of CPE. In addition, the decrease in DBP was always more accentuated when the dose of CPE administered was lower. Our results suggest that CPE may be used as a functional food ingredient with beneficial effects for controlling arterial blood pressure.
    Food & Function 11/2011; 2(11):649-53. · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    M Quiñones, B Muguerza, M Miguel, A Aleixandre
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The involvement of endothelial-relaxing factors on the antihypertensive effect of a polyphenol-rich cocoa powder named CocoanOX (CCX) was studied. Thirty 17-20-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), weighing 314 ± 3g were used. They were divided into two groups of 15 animals, that were respectively administered by gastric intubation distilled water or 300 mg/kg CCX dissolved in distilled water, between 9 am and 10 am. 2h after the oral administration, 5 of the animals in each group were intraperitoneally administered 1 ml saline. The remaining rats in both groups were divided into another two groups of 5 animals that were respectively administered 30 mg/kg Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) dissolved in 1 ml of saline or 5 mg/kg indomethacin also dissolved in 1 ml of saline by the same procedure. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was recorded in the rats by the tail cuff method before the initial oral administration and also 4h after this administration. CCX caused a significant decrease in SBP (-49.5 ± 4.9 mmHg; p<0.05). L-NAME caused a clear increase in SBP in the rats (+16.2 ± 4.3 mmHg; p<0.05), and the effect of CCX was not observed in the SHR that were treated with L-NAME (+4.1 ± 1.7 mmHg; p<0.05). Nevertheless, indomethacin treatment did not modify SBP in the SHR and this compound failed to modify the antihypertensive effect of CCX in these animals. In conclusion, this study proves the participation of NO in the antihypertensive effect of CCX in the SHR strain. When CCX is administered, the synthesis, or the bioavailability, of this endothelial factor could increase, but other mechanisms may also participate in the antihypertensive effect of this cocoa powder. In any case, further investigation should be carried out to characterize the signalling pathways involved in the antihypertensive effect of CCX.
    Pharmacological Research 06/2011; 64(5):478-81. · 4.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study we evaluated the effect of the administration of different soluble fiber enriched-diets on inflammatory and redox state of Zucker fatty rats. Four groups of ten 8 week-old female Zucker fatty rats were used. The four groups were respectively fed the following diets until the 15th week of life: standard diet (obese control), 10% high methoxylated apple pectin (HMAP)-, 5% soluble cocoa fiber (SCF)-, and 10% β-glucan-enriched diets. A group of Zucker lean rats fed the standard diet was also used as control for normal values of this rat strain. The plasma levels of tumoral necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), adiponectin, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured at the end of treatment. The reduced glutathione liver levels were also obtained at that moment. TNF-α plasma levels decreased somewhat in Zucker fatty rats fed the different fibers, and MDA plasma levels significantly decreased in these animals. Nevertheless, adiponectin plasma levels increased in the Zucker fatty rats fed the SCF enriched diet, but did not change in the HMAP and the β-glucan group. The Zucker fatty rats fed the different fiber showed a trend towards increased the reduced glutathione liver levels, but significant differences with obese control rats were only obtained in the β-glucan group. The results obtained in this study suggest that the intake of the different soluble fiber-enriched diets that we have evaluated could prevent and/or attenuate the inflammatory and/or the prooxidative state of the metabolic syndrome.
    Pharmacological Research 02/2011; 64(1):31-5. · 4.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigate the mechanisms involved in the long-term antihypertensive effect of a polyphenol-rich cocoa powder, named CocoanOX® (CCX), in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We have carried out two different batches of experiments. For the first batch of experiments, forty 3 week-old male SHR were randomly divided with ad libitum intake into four groups of 10 animals, that respectively received the following drinking fluids up to the 20th week of life (treatment period): tap water (control), CCX 100 mg/kg/day, CCX 200 mg/kg/day and CCX 400 mg/kg/day. Five 20 week-old rats of each group were sacrificed by decapitation. From the 20th to 24th week of life all the remaining animals were given tap water (follow-up period), and all of them were sacrificed at the end of the follow-up period. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione in the liver, plasma and aorta angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity and plasma angiotensin II were determined in all the sacrificed SHR that were included in this batch of experiments. Plasma MDA decreased and liver reduced glutathione increased in the 20 week-old CCX treated SHR. These effects were not observed in the rats that were sacrificed after the follow-up period. CCX treatment did not modify aorta ACE activity, but the activity of ACE and the levels of angiotensin II increased in the plasma of the SHR treated with the highest dose of CCX. ACE activity returned to basal values in the SHR that were sacrificed after the follow-up period. However, angiotensin II levels were slightly higher after withdrawal of CCX.For the second batch of experiments we used aorta rings obtained from untreated SHR, and we evaluated the relaxation caused by CCX in different aorta preparations. CCX relaxed the intact aorta preparations but this cocoa did not relax the endothelium-denuded aorta rings from the untreated SHR. l-NAME, but not indomethacin, inhibited the relaxation caused by CCX in the SHR aorta rings. We postulate that the antihypertensive effect of CCX might be mediated by an improvement of endothelial release of nitric oxide and by a reduction of oxidative stress. The inhibition of ACE could be implicated in the antihypertensive effect of CCX.
    Food Research International 01/2011; 44(5):1203-1208. · 3.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have evaluated the effect of the long-term intake of a cocoa powder, with high concentration of polyphenols, named CocoanOX (CCX), on the development of hypertension of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Systolic blood pressure was measured weekly in the rats, from the 6th to 24th week of life, by the tail cuff method. The development of hypertension was attenuated in the groups treated with captopril or CCX. The antihypertensive effect was more accentuated in the group treated with captopril, and it was paradoxically more accentuated in the group treated with the lowest dose of CCX than in the other CCX groups. The arterial blood pressure increased in the treated SHR when the corresponding antihypertensive treatment was removed. Both, CCX and the standard cocoa, improved the aorta endothelial function in the SHR. In conclusion, CCX could be used as a functional food ingredient with antihypertensive activity.
    Food Chemistry 10/2010; 122(4):1013-1019. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study we evaluated the short-term oral antihypertensive effect of several peptide sequences isolated from casein fractions, previously characterized as in vitro angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the rats were measured by the tail cuff method before administration and also 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h post-administration. The sequences LVYPFTGPIPN, HLPLP, IAK, YAKPVA and WQVLPNAVPAK showed a clear decrease in SBP and DBP in SHR. HPHPHLSF caused a significant decrease of the DBP in the SHR, but this sequence did not modify the SBP of these animals in a significant manner. KKYNVPQL did not modify SBP in the SHR, and caused a slight, but significant and maintained, decrease in DBP in these animals. SBP and DBP returned to baseline values 24 h post-administration of all peptides. In conclusion, these peptides are bioactive ingredients with potential benefit in the prevention and treatment of hypertension or other associated disorders.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 10/2010; 54(10):1422-7. · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objetives: Cocoa polyphenols have shown antihypertensive effects. We investigate the mechanism involved in the antihypertensive effect of CocoanOX (CCX), a cocoa powder prepared by an industrial procedure to prevent polyphenol degradation. Design and Methods: Male 3-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were divided into four groups of ten animals that were respectively long-term administered tap water (control), 100 mg/kg/day CCX, 200 mg/kg/day CCX or 400 mg/kg/day CCX. Five 20-week-old rats of each group were sacrificed and the different treatments were then removed in the remaining rats. Arterial blood pressure was weekly measured from the 6th to the 24th week of life in the SHR and all the rats were sacrificed at the end of the experimental period. The following measurements were performed in the sacrificed SHR: endothelium-dependent aorta relaxation to acetylcholine, plasma malonildialdehyde, angiotensin converting enzyme activity in plasma and aorta. Results: CCX improved in a dose-dependent manner acetylcholine relaxation in the aorta of the treated SHR. Plasma malonildialdehyde decreased in the CCX treated SHR. The effects mentioned before were not observed in the SHR after the withdrawal of CCX. CCX treatment did not modify aorta angiotensin converting enzyme activity, but the activity of this enzyme increased in the plasma of the SHR treated with the highest dose of CCX. Conclusion: The antihypertensive effect of CCX in SHR is mainly mediated by an improvement of endothelial function and by a reduction of oxidative stress.
    Journal of Hypertension 06/2010; 28:e500-e501. · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of a soluble cocoa fiber (SCF) were studied in Zucker fatty rats. Two groups of Zucker fatty rats were fed the following diets: standard diet and 5% SCF-enriched diet. A group of Zucker lean rats fed the standard diet was used for results comparison with obese Zucker animals. Solid and liquid intakes, body weight, plasma glucose, lipid profile, and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were recorded weekly. At the end of the experimental period insulin was determined, and fat apparent digestibility (FAD) and insulin resistance were calculated. The Zucker fatty rats fed 5% SCF-enriched diet showed less weight gain and food intake than those fed the standard diet. The group fed the fiber-enriched diet showed lower values of the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and triglyceride levels than the standard group. FAD was also lower in the fiber group. Both SBP and DBP were decreased. In addition, SCF reduced plasma glucose and insulin, and as a consequence the insulin resistance was also decreased. Our data demonstrate that SCF resulted in an improvement of the studied risk factors associated with cardiometabolic disorders.
    Journal of medicinal food 06/2010; 13(3):621-8. · 1.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect produced by long-term intake of a soluble cocoa fiber product (SCFP) on the development of hypertension of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was evaluated. Twenty male 3-week-old SHR were divided into two groups of 10 animals that drank either tap water (control) or a solution of SCFP (0.75 g/day SCFP) until the 20th week of life. Five 20-week-old rats of each group were sacrificed. Tap water as drinking fluid was given to all the animals from the 20th to 24th week of life. The 24-week-old rats were also sacrificed. Body weight, liquid and dry food intake, and arterial blood pressure (tail cuff) were recorded weekly. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glucose and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the plasma from the sacrificed rats were also obtained, and we evaluated the relaxation caused by acetylcholine in the aorta from these animals. SCFP attenuated the development of hypertension in SHR; however, the withdrawal of SCFP caused an increase in blood pressure in the rats. Body weight gain was slower in the group treated with SCFP. SCFP increased liquid intake but decreased dry food intake in the rats. SCFP decreased plasma MDA concentrations and slightly decreased plasma ACE activity, but no differences were observed in plasma glucose and in the aorta responses to acetylcholine in both groups of 20-week-old SHR. We have demonstrated the antihypertensive and antioxidant properties of SCFP. The control of body weight and the control of increased angiotensin II may be involved in the antihypertensive effect of this product.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2010; 58(3):1493-501. · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A natural flavonoid-enriched cocoa powder, commercially named CocoanOX and developed via a patented industrial process, was characterized and tested for a possible antihypertensive effect. The bioavailability of this polyphenol-rich cocoa powder developed at pilot scale was previously demonstrated in humans. The present results showed that this product was very rich in total procyanidins (128.9 mg/g), especially monomers, dimers, and trimers (54.1 mg/g), and mainly (-)-epicatechin (19.36 mg/g). The effect of a single oral administration of CocoanOX in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was evaluated at different doses (50, 100, 300, and 600 mg/kg). This product produced a clear antihypertensive effect in these animals, but these doses did not modify the arterial blood pressure in the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. Paradoxically, the maximum effect in the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of SHR was caused by 300 mg/kg of CocoanOX. This dose brought about a decrease in this variable very similar to that caused by 50 mg/kg Captopril. It was also surprising that the maximum effect in the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was caused by 100 mg/kg CocoanOX. The initial values of DBP and SBP were recovered in SHR, respectively, 24 and 48 h postadministration of the different doses of CocoanOX or Captopril. These results suggest that CocoanOX could be used as a functional ingredient with antihypertensive effect, although it would be also necessary to carry out bioavailability and clinical studies to demonstrate its long-term antihypertensive efficiency in humans.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2009; 57(14):6156-62. · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    M. Miguel, M.M. Contreras, I. Recio, A. Aleixandre
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity and the antihypertensive effect, after a single oral administration, of a pepsin hydrolysed bovine casein (HBC) and a fraction with molecular mass lower than 3000 Da (HBC < 3000). ACE-inhibitory activity was measured by spectrophotometric assay. These products were orally administered by gastric intubation. The systolic (SBP) and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats by the tail cuff method before administration and also 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 h post-administration. HBC showed a potent ACE-inhibitory activity. This activity was 10 times higher in HBC < 3000. HBC and HBC < 3000 decreased the arterial blood pressure of the rats. The decrease in the SBP observed for HBC (400 mg/kg) or HBC < 3000 (200 mg/kg) was less pronounced than that caused by 50 mg/kg of captopril (antihypertensive positive control). However, the maximal decreases in DBP caused by HBC or HBC < 3000 were as high as the maximum decrease observed for captopril. The antihypertensive effect of these products was transient and reverted 24 h after the administration. HBC and HBC < 3000 exert antihypertensive effect caused by small peptides with ACE-inhibitory activity.
    Food Chemistry. 01/2009;
  • Amaya Aleixandre, Marta Miguel
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inclusion of fiber in the diet has been linked to the prevention of a range of illnesses and conditions. This review contains several ideas about the possible benefits of dietary fiber intake in patients with metabolic syndrome. The principal beneficial effects of a fiber-rich diet in these patients are: prevention of obesity, improved glucose levels, and control of the profile of blood lipids. We now also know that dietary fiber may favor the control of arterial blood pressure. Animal experiments have also shown the benefit of different types of fiber on these variables. Of particular relevance are the studies using obese Zucker rats, which present similar anomalies to those seen in patients with metabolic syndrome. There is therefore a growing interest in discovering new sources of natural fiber. Some of these different kinds of fiber may then be used as functional ingredients to obtain foods with properties that are beneficial to health.
    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 12/2008; 48(10):905-12. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated the effect of a highly methoxylated apple pectin (HMAP) on cardiometabolic risk factors in Zucker fatty rats. beta-Glucan, a fiber known for its hypocholesterolemic properties, also was used. The rats fed both fiber-enriched diets exhibited a reduction in body weight and in total cholesterol and triglycerides when compared to the Zucker fatty rats fed the standard diet. The effect on the lipid profile was more remarkable in the HMAP group. A decrease in blood glucose was only noticed in this group. Moreover, a decrease in plasma insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-beta was noticed in the fiber groups, and in particular in the HMAP group, these variables being similar to the lean rats. Blood pressure and endothelial function were similar in all the Zucker fatty rats. These results warrant evaluation in humans to determine if HMAP could be used as a functional ingredient to reduce lipid profile, insulin resistance, and other cardiometabolic risk factors.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2008; 56(10):3574-81. · 2.91 Impact Factor