[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At the end of translation in bacteria, ribosome recycling factor (RRF) is used together with elongation factor G to recycle the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits for the next round of translation. In x-ray crystal structures of RRF with the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome, RRF binds to the large ribosomal subunit in the cleft that contains the peptidyl transferase center. Upon binding of either E. coli or Thermus thermophilus RRF to the E. coli ribosome, the tip of ribosomal RNA helix 69 in the large subunit moves away from the small subunit toward RRF by 8 A, thereby disrupting a key contact between the small and large ribosomal subunits termed bridge B2a. In the ribosome crystals, the ability of RRF to destabilize bridge B2a is influenced by crystal packing forces. Movement of helix 69 involves an ordered-to-disordered transition upon binding of RRF to the ribosome. The disruption of bridge B2a upon RRF binding to the ribosome seen in the present structures reveals one of the key roles that RRF plays in ribosome recycling, the dissociation of 70S ribosomes into subunits. The structures also reveal contacts between domain II of RRF and protein S12 in the 30S subunit that may also play a role in ribosome recycling.
Journal of Molecular Biology 04/2008; 376(5):1334-47. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aminoglycosides are widely used antibiotics that cause messenger RNA decoding errors, block mRNA and transfer RNA translocation, and inhibit ribosome recycling. Ribosome recycling follows the termination of protein synthesis and is aided by ribosome recycling factor (RRF) in bacteria. The molecular mechanism by which aminoglycosides inhibit ribosome recycling is unknown. Here we show in X-ray crystal structures of the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome that RRF binding causes RNA helix H69 of the large ribosomal subunit, which is crucial for subunit association, to swing away from the subunit interface. Aminoglycosides bind to H69 and completely restore the contacts between ribosomal subunits that are disrupted by RRF. These results provide a structural explanation for aminoglycoside inhibition of ribosome recycling.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prokaryotic ribosome is an important target of antibiotic action. We determined the X-ray structure of the aminoglycoside kasugamycin (Ksg) in complex with the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome at 3.5-A resolution. The structure reveals that the drug binds within the messenger RNA channel of the 30S subunit between the universally conserved G926 and A794 nucleotides in 16S ribosomal RNA, which are sites of Ksg resistance. To our surprise, Ksg resistance mutations do not inhibit binding of the drug to the ribosome. The present structural and biochemical results indicate that inhibition by Ksg and Ksg resistance are closely linked to the structure of the mRNA at the junction of the peptidyl-tRNA and exit-tRNA sites (P and E sites).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe two structures of the intact bacterial ribosome from Escherichia coli determined to a resolution of 3.5 angstroms by x-ray crystallography. These structures provide a detailed view of the interface between the small and large ribosomal subunits and the conformation of the peptidyl transferase center in the context of the intact ribosome. Differences between the two ribosomes reveal a high degree of flexibility between the head and the rest of the small subunit. Swiveling of the head of the small subunit observed in the present structures, coupled to the ratchet-like motion of the two subunits observed previously, suggests a mechanism for the final movements of messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translocation.