[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Newly synthesized proteins are usually exported through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi due to the presence in their primary sequence of a hydrophobic signal peptide that is recognized by the ER translocation system. However, some secreted proteins lack a signal peptide and are exported independently of ER-Golgi. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)1 is included in this group of polypeptides, as well as S100A13 that is a small calcium-binding protein critical for FGF1 export. Classically secreted proteins are transported into ER in their unfolded states. To determine the role of protein tertiary structure in FGF1 export through the cell membrane, we produced the chimeras of FGF1 and S100A13 with dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The specific DHFR inhibitor, aminopterin, prevents its unfolding. We found that aminopterin did not inhibit the release of FGF1:DHFR and S100A13:DHFR. Thus, FGF1 and S100A13 can be exported in folded conformation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2009; 381(3):350-4. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is controlled by several regulatory mechanisms, including the Notch and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways. FGF1, a prototype member of FGF family, lacks a signal peptide and is released through an endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi-independent mechanism. A soluble extracellular domain of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (sJ1) inhibits Notch signaling and induces FGF1 release. Thrombin, a key protease of the blood coagulation cascade and a potent inducer of angiogenesis, stimulates rapid FGF1 release through a mechanism dependent on the major thrombin receptor protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1. This study demonstrates that thrombin cleaves Jagged1 in its extracellular domain. The sJ1 form produced as a result of thrombin cleavage inhibits Notch-mediated CBF1/Suppressor of Hairless [(Su(H)]/Lag-1-dependent transcription and induces FGF1 expression and release. The overexpression of Jagged1 in PAR1 null cells results in a rapid thrombin-induced export of FGF1. These data demonstrate the existence of novel cross-talk between thrombin, FGF, and Notch signaling pathways, which play important roles in vascular formation and remodeling.
Molecular biology of the cell 10/2008; 19(11):4863-74. · 5.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sphingosine kinase 1 catalyzes the formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate, a lipid mediator involved in the regulation of angiogenesis. Sphingosine kinase 1 is constitutively released from cells, even though it lacks a classical signal peptide sequence. Because copper-dependent non-classical stress-induced release of FGF1 also regulates angiogenesis, we questioned whether sphingosine kinase 1 is involved in the FGF1 release pathway. We report that (i) the coexpression of sphingosine kinase 1 with FGF1 inhibited the release of sphingosine kinase 1 at 37 degrees C; (ii) sphingosine kinase 1 was released at 42 degrees C in complex with FGF1; (iii) sphingosine kinase 1 null cells failed to release FGF1 at stress; (iv) sphingosine kinase 1 is a high affinity copper-binding protein which formed a complex with FGF1 in a cell-free system, and (v) sphingosine kinase 1 over expression rescued the release of FGF1 from inhibition by the copper chelator, tetrathiomolybdate. We propose that sphingosine kinase 1 is a component of the copper-dependent FGF1 release pathway.
Experimental Cell Research 10/2007; 313(15):3308-18. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) is a signal peptide-less protein that is secreted into the extracellular compartment as part of a multiprotein release complex, consisting of aFGF, S100A13 (a calcium binding protein), and a 40 kDa (p40) form of synaptotagmin (Syt1), a protein that participates in the docking of a variety of secretory vesicles. p40 Syt1, and specifically its C2A domain, is believed to play a major role in the non-classical secretion of the aFGF release complex mediated by the interaction of aFGF and p40 Syt1with the phospholipids of the cell membrane inner leaflet. In the present study, we investigate the structural characteristics of aFGF and the C2A domain of p40 Syt1 under acidic conditions, using a variety of biophysical techniques including multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Urea-induced equilibrium unfolding (at pH 3.4) of both aFGF and the C2A domain are non-cooperative and proceed with the accumulation of stable intermediate states. 1-Anilino-8-napthalene sulfonate (ANS) binding and size-exclusion chromatography results suggest that both aFGF and the C2A domain exist as partially structured states under acidic conditions (pH 3.4). Limited trypsin digestion analysis and 1H-15N chemical shift perturbation data reveal that the flexibility of certain portions of the protein backbone is increased in the partially structured state(s) of aFGF. The residues that are perturbed in the partially structured state(s) in aFGF are mostly located at the N- and C-terminal ends of the protein. In marked contrast, most of the interactions stabilizing the native secondary structure are preserved in the partially structured state of the C2A domain. Isothermal titration calorimetry data indicate that the binding affinity between aFGF and the C2A domain is significantly enhanced at pH 3.4. In addition, both aFGF and the C2A domain exhibit much higher lipid binding affinity in their partially structured states. The translocation of the multiprotein FGF release complex across the membrane appears to be facilitated by the formation of partially structured states of aFGF and the C2A domain of p40 Syt1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombin induces cell proliferation and migration during vascular injury. We report that thrombin rapidly stimulated expression and release of the pro-angiogenic polypeptide fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). Thrombin failed to induce FGF1 release from protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) null fibroblasts, indicating that this effect was dependent on PAR1. Similarly to thrombin, FGF1 expression and release were induced by TRAP, a specific oligopeptide agonist of PAR1. These results identify a novel aspect of the crosstalk between FGF and thrombin signaling pathways which both play important roles in tissue repair and angiogenesis.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2006; 350(3):604-9. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)1 is released from cells as a constituent of a complex that contains the small calcium binding protein S100A13, and the p40 kDa form of synaptotagmin (Syt)1, through an ER-Golgi-independent stress-induced pathway. FGF1 and the other components of its secretory complex are signal peptide-less proteins. We examined their capability to interact with lipid bilayers by studying protein-induced carboxyfluorescein release from liposomes of different phospholipid (pL) compositions. FGF1, p40 Syt1, and S100A13 induced destabilization of liposomes composed of acidic but not of zwitterionic pL. We produced mutants of FGF1 and p40 Syt1, in which specific basic amino acid residues in the regions that bind acidic pL were substituted. The ability of these mutants to induce liposomes destabilization was strongly attenuated, and they exhibited drastically diminished spontaneous and stress-induced release. Apparently, the non-classical release of FGF1 and p40 Syt1 involves destabilization of membranes containing acidic pL.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2006; 349(1):192-9. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S100A13 is a member of the S100 protein family that is involved in the copper-dependent nonclassical secretion of signal peptideless proteins fibroblast growth factor 1 and interleukin 1 lpha. In this study, we investigate the effects of interplay of Cu2+ and Ca2+ on the structure of S100A13 using a variety of biophysical techniques, including multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Results of the isothermal titration calorimetry experiments show that S100A13 can bind independently to both Ca2+ and Cu2+ with almost equal affinity (Kd in the micromolar range). Terbium binding and isothermal titration calorimetry data reveal that two atoms of Cu2+/Ca2+ bind per subunit of S100A13. Results of the thermal denaturation experiments monitored by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism, limited trypsin digestion, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (using 1H-15N heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectra) reveal that Ca2+ and Cu2+ have opposite effects on the stability of S100A13. Binding of Ca2+ stabilizes the protein, but the stability of the protein is observed to decrease upon binding to Cu2+. 1H-15N chemical shift perturbation experiments indicate that S100A13 can bind simultaneously to both Ca2+ and Cu2+ and the binding of the metal ions is not mutually exclusive. The results of this study suggest that the Cu2+-binding affinity of S100A13 is important for the formation of the FGF-1 homodimer and the subsequent secretion of the signal peptideless growth factor through the nonclassical release pathway.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) lacks a signal sequence and is exported by an unconventional release mechanism. The nonclassical export of FGF-1 has been shown to be inhibited by an anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory drug, amlexanox (AMX). We investigate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the inhibitory action of AMX on the release of FGF-1, using a variety of biophysical techniques including multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. AMX binds to FGF-1 and enhances its conformational stability. AMX binds to locations close to Cys30 and sterically blocks Cu(2+)-induced oxidation, leading to the formation of the homodimer of FGF-1. AMX-induced inhibition of the formation of the FGF-1 homodimer is observed both under cell-free conditions and in living cells. Results of this study suggest a novel approach for the design of drugs against FGF-1-mediated disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Notch signaling involves proteolytic cleavage of the transmembrane Notch receptor after binding to its transmembrane ligands, Delta or Jagged; and the resultant soluble intracellular domain of Notch stimulates a cascade of transcriptional events. The Delta1 ligand also undergoes proteolytic cleavage upon Notch binding, resulting in the production of a free intracellular domain. We demonstrate that the expression of the intracellular domain of Delta1 results in a non-proliferating senescent-like cell phenotype which is dependent on the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor, p21, and is abolished by co-expression of constitutively active Notch1. These data suggest a new intracellular role for Delta1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural deformations of lipid hybrid bilayer membranes induced by signal peptideless (SPL) proteins have been studied for the first time using the inherently surface specific nonlinear optical technique of sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy. Specifically, deformations of 1,2-distearoylphosphatidylglycerol(DSPG) membranes induced by interaction with FGF-1, a SPL protein which is released asa function of cellular stress through a nonclassical pathway, have been investigated. FGF-1 was found to induce lipid alkyl chain deformations in previously highly ordered DSPG membranes at the extremely low concentration of 1 nM at 60 degrees C. The deformation process was shown to exhibit a degree of reversibility upon removal of the protein by rinsing with buffer solution.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-classical protein release independent of the ER-Golgi pathway has been reported for an increasing number of proteins lacking an N-terminal signal sequence. The export of FGF1 and IL-1alpha, two pro-angiogenic polypeptides, provides two such examples. In both cases, export is based on the Cu2+-dependent formation of multiprotein complexes containing the S100A13 protein and might involve translocation of the protein across the membrane as a 'molten globule'. FGF1 and IL-1alpha are involved in pathological processes such as restenosis and tumor formation. Inhibition of their export by Cu2+ chelators is thus an effective strategy for treatment of several diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the extravesicular p40 domain of the transmembrane protein, p65 synaptotagmin (Syt) 1, is essential for the non-classical export of the signal peptide-less structure, FGF1, it was not possible to identify a specific intracellular protease responsible for the processing of p65 Syt1. Surprisingly, analysis of the p65 Syt1 coding sequence revealed the presence of two potential alternative ATG codons corresponding to Met103 and Met113 both of which were flanked by Kozak sequences. Indeed, in vitro translation of a Met103Ile but not a Met113Ile p65 Syt1 point mutant exhibited reduced expression of p40 Syt1 and the double p65 Syt1 Met103Ile and Met113Ile point mutant was unable to translate the p40 Syt1 isoform. Since the expression of the p65 Syt1 double point mutant inhibited the stress-induced release of FGF1, it is likely that the alternative translation of the p65 Syt1 transcript at Met103 may be involved in the generation of intracellular p40 Syt1, a critical component of the FGF1 release pathway.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2003; 310(4):1041-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copper is involved in the promotion of angiogenic and inflammatory events in vivo and, although recent clinical data has demonstrated the potential of Cu2+ chelators for the treatment of cancer in man, the mechanism for this activity remains unknown. We have previously demonstrated that the signal peptide-less angiogenic polypeptide, FGF1, uses intracellular Cu2+ to facilitate the formation of a multiprotein aggregate that enables the release of FGF1 in response to stress and that the expression of the precursor form but not the mature form of IL-1alpha represses the stress-induced export of FGF1 from NIH 3T3 cells. We report here that IL-1alpha is a Cu2+-binding protein and human U937 cells, like NIH 3T3 cells, release IL-1alpha in response to temperature stress in a Cu2+-dependent manner. We also report that the stress-induced export of IL-1alpha involves the intracellular association with the Cu2+-binding protein, S100A13. In addition, the expression of a S100A13 mutant lacking a sequence novel to this gene product functions as a dominant-negative repressor of IL-1alpha release, whereas the expression of wild-type S100A13 functions to eliminate the requirement for stress-induced transcription. Lastly, we present biophysical evidence that IL-1alpha may be endowed with molten globule character, which may facilitate its release through the plasma membrane. Because Cu2+ chelation also represses the release of FGF1, the ability of Cu2+ chelators to potentially serve as effective clinical anti-cancer agents may be related to their ability to limit the export of these proinflammatory and angiogenic signal peptide-less polypeptides into the extracellular compartment.