Amy Moquin

University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States

Are you Amy Moquin?

Claim your profile

Publications (9)64.99 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: T follicular helper (Tfh) cells promote T cell-dependent humoral immune responses by providing T cell help to B cells and by promoting germinal center (GC) formation and long-lived antibody responses. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control Tfh cell differentiation in vivo are incompletely understood. Here we show that interleukin-2 (IL-2) administration impaired influenza-specific GCs, long-lived IgG responses, and Tfh cells. IL-2 did not directly inhibit GC formation, but instead suppressed the differentiation of Tfh cells, thereby hindering the maintenance of influenza-specific GC B cells. Our data demonstrate that IL-2 is a critical factor that regulates successful Tfh and B cell responses in vivo and regulates Tfh cell development.
    Immunity 03/2012; 36(5):847-56. · 19.80 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Influenza A infection induces a massive inflammatory response in the lungs that leads to significant illness and increases the susceptibility to secondary bacterial pneumonia. The most efficient way to prevent influenza infection is through vaccination. While inactivated vaccines induce protective levels of serum antibodies to influenza hemaglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) surface proteins, these are strain specific and offer little protection against heterosubtypic influenza viruses. In contrast, live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) induce a T cell response in addition to antibody responses against HA and NA surface proteins. Importantly, LAIV vaccination induces a response in a mouse model that protects against illness due to heterosubtypic influenza strains. While it is not completely clear what is the mechanism of action of LAIV heterosubtypic protection in humans, it has been shown that LAIV induces heterosubtypic protection in mice that is dependent upon a Type 1 immune response and requires CD8 T cells. In this study, we show that LAIV-induced immunity leads to significantly reduced viral titers and inflammatory responses in the lungs of mice following heterosubtypic infection. Not only are viral titers reduced in LAIV vaccinated mice, the amounts of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in lung tissue are significantly lower. Additionally, we show that LAIV vaccination of healthy adults also induces a robust Type 1 memory response including the production of chemokines and cytokines involved in T cell activation and recruitment. Thus, our results indicate that LAIV vaccination functions by inducing immune memory which can act to modulate the immune response to subsequent heterosubtypic challenge by influencing both innate and adaptive responses.
    Vaccine 08/2011; 29(44):7849-56. · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Seasonal influenza epidemics recur due to antigenic drift of envelope glycoprotein antigens and immune evasion of circulating viruses. Additionally, antigenic shift can lead to influenza pandemics. Thus, a universal vaccine that protects against multiple influenza virus strains could alleviate the continuing impact of this virus on human health. In mice, accelerated clearance of a new viral strain (cross-protection) can be elicited by prior infection (heterosubtypic immunity) or by immunization with the highly conserved internal nucleoprotein (NP). Both heterosubtypic immunity and NP-immune protection require antibody production. Here, we show that systemic immunization with NP readily accelerated clearance of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus isolate in an antibody-dependent manner. However, human immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine (TIV) only rarely and modestly boosted existing levels of anti-NP IgG. Similar results were observed in mice, although the reaction could be enhanced with adjuvants, by adjusting the stoichiometry among NP and other vaccine components, and by increasing the interval between TIV prime and boost. Importantly, mouse heterosubtypic immunity that had waned over several months could be enhanced by injecting purified anti-NP IgG or by boosting with NP protein, correlating with a long-lived increase in anti-NP antibody titers. Thus, current immunization strategies poorly induce NP-immune antibody that is nonetheless capable of contributing to long-lived cross-protection. The high conservation of NP antigen and the known longevity of antibody responses suggest that the antiviral activity of anti-NP IgG may provide a critically needed component of a universal influenza vaccine.
    Journal of Virology 03/2011; 85(10):5027-35. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus causes recurring seasonal epidemics and occasional influenza pandemics. Because of changes in envelope glycoprotein Ags, neutralizing Abs induced by inactivated vaccines provide limited cross-protection against new viral serotypes. However, prior influenza infection induces heterosubtypic immunity that accelerates viral clearance of a second strain, even if the external proteins are distinct. In mice, cross-protection can also be elicited by systemic immunization with the highly conserved internal nucleoprotein (NP). Both T lymphocytes and Ab contribute to such cross-protection. In this paper, we demonstrate that anti-NP IgG specifically promoted influenza virus clearance in mice by using a mechanism involving both FcRs and CD8(+) cells. Furthermore, anti-NP IgG rescued poor heterosubtypic immunity in B cell-deficient mice, correlating with enhanced NP-specific CD8 T cell responses. Thus, Ab against this conserved Ag has potent antiviral activity both in naive and in influenza-immune subjects. Such antiviral activity was not seen when mice were vaccinated with another internal influenza protein, nonstructural 1. The high conservation of NP Ag and the known longevity of Ab responses suggest that anti-NP IgG may provide a critically needed component of a universal influenza vaccine.
    The Journal of Immunology 02/2011; 186(7):4331-9. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The omentum is a site of B1 cell lymphopoiesis and immune responsiveness to T cell-independent antigens. However, it is unknown whether it supports immune responses independently of conventional lymphoid organs. We showed that the omentum collected antigens and cells from the peritoneal cavity and supported T cell-dependent B cell responses, including isotype switching, somatic hypermutation, and limited affinity maturation, despite the lack of identifiable follicular dendritic cells. The omentum also supported CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to peritoneal antigens and recruited effector T cells primed in other locations. Unlike conventional lymphoid organs, milky spots in the omentum developed in the absence of lymphoid tissue-inducer cells, but required the chemokine CXCL13. Although the lymphoid architecture of milky spots was disrupted in lymphotoxin-deficient mice, normal architecture was restored by reconstitution with lymphotoxin-sufficient hematopoietic cells. These results indicate that the milky spots of the omentum function as unique secondary lymphoid organs that promote immunity to peritoneal antigens.
    Immunity 06/2009; 30(5):731-43. · 19.80 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The omentum is a site of B1 lymphopoiesis and immune responsiveness to T-independent antigens. However, it is unknown whether it supports immune responses independently of conventional lymphoid organs. We show that the omentum collects antigens and cells from the peritoneal cavity and supports T-dependent B cell responses, including isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and limited affinity maturation, despite the lack of identifiable follicular dendritic cells. The omentum also supports CD4 and CD8 responses to peritoneal antigens and recruits effector T cells primed in other locations. Unlike conventional lymphoid organs, milky spots in the omentum develop in the absence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells, but require CXCL13. Although the lymphoid architecture of milky spots is disrupted in lymphotoxin-deficient mice, normal architecture is restored by reconstitution with lymphotoxin-sufficient hematopoietic cells. These results indicate that the milky spots of the omentum function as unique secondary lymphoid organs that promote immunity to peritoneal antigens.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current influenza vaccines elicit Abs to the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase envelope proteins. Due to antigenic drift, these vaccines must be reformulated annually to include the envelope proteins predicted to dominate in the following season. By contrast, vaccination with the conserved nucleoprotein (NP) elicits immunity against multiple serotypes (heterosubtypic immunity). NP vaccination is generally thought to convey protection primarily via CD8 effector mechanisms. However, significant titers of anti-NP Abs are also induced, yet the involvement of Abs in protection has largely been disregarded. To investigate how Ab responses might contribute to heterosubtypic immunity, we vaccinated C57BL/6 mice with soluble rNP. This approach induced high titers of NP-specific serum Ab, but only poorly detectable NP-specific T cell responses. Nevertheless, rNP immunization significantly reduced morbidity and viral titers after influenza challenge. Importantly, Ab-deficient mice were not protected by this vaccination strategy. Furthermore, rNP-immune serum could transfer protection to naive hosts in an Ab-dependent manner. Therefore, Ab to conserved, internal viral proteins, such as NP, provides an unexpected, yet important mechanism of protection against influenza. These results suggest that vaccines designed to elicit optimal heterosubtypic immunity to influenza should promote both Ab and T cell responses to conserved internal proteins.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2008; 181(6):4168-76. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunity to heterosubtypic strains of influenza is thought to be mediated primarily by memory T cells, which recognize epitopes in conserved proteins. However, the involvement of B cells in this process is controversial. We show in this study that influenza-specific memory T cells are insufficient to protect mice against a lethal challenge with a virulent strain of influenza in the absence of B cells. B cells contribute to protection in multiple ways. First, although non-neutralizing Abs by themselves do not provide any protection to challenge infection, they do reduce weight loss, lower viral titers, and promote recovery of mice challenged with a virulent heterosubtypic virus in the presence of memory T cells. Non-neutralizing Abs also facilitate the expansion of responding memory CD8 T cells. Furthermore, in cooperation with memory T cells, naive B cells also promote recovery from infection with a virulent heterosubtypic virus by generating new neutralizing Abs. These data demonstrate that B cells use multiple mechanisms to promote resistance to heterosubtypic strains of influenza and suggest that vaccines that elicit both memory T cells and Abs to conserved epitopes of influenza may be an effective defense against a wide range of influenza serotypes.
    The Journal of Immunology 02/2008; 180(1):454-63. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunity to heterosubtypic strains of influenza is thought to be mediated primarily by memory T cells, which recognize epitopes in conserved proteins. However, the involvement of B cells in this process is controversial. We show here that influenza-specific memory T cells are insufficient to protect mice against a lethal challenge with a virulent strain of influenza in the absence of B cells. B cells contribute to protection in multiple ways. First, although non-neutralizing antibodies by themselves do not provide any protection to challenge infection, they do reduce weight loss, lower viral titers and promote recovery of mice challenged with a virulent heterosubtypic virus in the presence of memory T cells. Non-neutralizing antibodies also facilitate the expansion of responding memory CD8 T cells. Furthermore, in cooperation with memory T cells, naïve B cells also promote recovery from infection with a virulent heterosubtypic virus by generating new neutralizing antibodies. These data demonstrate that B cells use multiple mechanisms to promote resistance to heterosubtypic strains of influenza and suggest that vaccines that elicit both memory T cells and antibodies to conserved epitopes of influenza may be an effective defense against a wide range of influenza serotypes.

Publication Stats

315 Citations
64.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2012
    • University of Rochester
      • Division of Allergy, Immunology and Rheumatology
      Rochester, NY, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Trudeau Institute
      Saranac Lake, New York, United States
  • 2011
    • Naval Health Research Center
      San Diego, California, United States