[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Donors of nitroxyl (HNO), the reduced congener of nitric oxide (NO), exert positive cardiac inotropy/lusitropy in vivo and in vitro, due in part to their enhancement of Ca(2+) cycling into and out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Here we tested whether the cardiac action of HNO further involves changes in myofilament-calcium interaction. Intact rat trabeculae from the right ventricle were mounted between a force transducer and a motor arm, superfused with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution (pH 7.4, room temperature) and loaded iontophoretically with fura-2 to determine [Ca(2+)](i). Sarcomere length was set at 2.2-2.3 microm. HNO donated by Angeli's salt (AS; Na(2)N(2)O(3)) dose-dependently increased both twitch force and [Ca(2+)](i) transients (from 50 to 1000 microm). Force increased more than [Ca(2+)](i) transients, especially at higher doses (332 +/- 33% versus 221 +/- 27%, P < 0.01 at 1000 microm). AS/HNO (250 microm) increased developed force without changing Ca(2+) transients at any given [Ca(2+)](o) (0.5-2.0 mm). During steady-state activation, AS/HNO (250 microm) increased maximal Ca(2+)-activated force (F(max), 106.8 +/- 4.3 versus 86.7 +/- 4.2 mN mm(-2), n = 7-8, P < 0.01) without affecting Ca(2+) required for 50% activation (Ca(50), 0.44 +/- 0.04 versus 0.52 +/- 0.04 microm, not significant) or the Hill coefficient (4.75 +/- 0.67 versus 5.02 +/- 1.1, not significant). AS/HNO did not alter myofibrillar Mg-ATPase activity, supporting an effect on the myofilaments themselves. The thiol reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT, 5.0 mm) both prevented and reversed HNO action, confirming AS/HNO redox sensitivity. Lastly, NO (from DEA/NO) did not mimic AS/HNO cardiac effects. Thus, in addition to reported changes in Ca(2+) cycling, HNO also acts as a cardiac Ca(2+) sensitizer, augmenting maximal force without altering actomyosin ATPase activity. This is likely to be due to modulation of myofilament proteins that harbour reactive thiolate groups that are targets of HNO.
The Journal of Physiology 05/2007; 580(Pt.3):951-60. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Generation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-) as a result of altered redox balance has been shown to affect cardiac function; however, inconsistencies in the data exist, particularly for myocardial contractility. The hypothesis that the cardiac impact of ONOO- formation depends on its site of generation, intravascular or intramyocardial, was examined. Cardiac contractility was assessed by pressure-volume analysis to delineate vascular versus cardiac changes on direct infusion of ONOO- into the right atria of conscious dogs both with normal cardiac function and in heart failure. Additionally, ONOO- was administered to isolated murine cardiomyocytes to mimic in situ cardiac generation. When infused in vivo, ONOO- had little impact on inotropy but led to systemic arterial dilation, likely as a result of rapid decomposition to NO2- and NO3-. In contrast, infused ONOO- was long lived enough to abolish beta-adrenergic (dobutamine)-stimulated contractility/relaxation, most likely through catecholamine oxidation to aminochrome. When administered to isolated murine cardiomyocytes, ONOO- induced a rapid reduction in sarcomere shortening and whole cell calcium transients, although neither decomposed ONOO- or NaNO2 had any effect. Thus, systemic generation of ONOO- is unlikely to have primary cardiac effects, but may modulate cardiac contractile reserve, via blunted beta-adrenergic stimulation, and vascular tone, as a result of generation of NO2- and NO3-. However, myocyte generation of ONOO- may impair contractile function by directly altering Ca2+ handling. These data demonstrate that the site of generation within the cardiovascular system largely dictates the ability of ONOO- to directly or indirectly modulate cardiac pump function.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 12/2006; 41(10):1606-18. · 5.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diazeniumdiolates, more commonly referred to as NONOates, have been extremely useful in the investigation of the biological effects of nitric oxide (NO) and related nitrogen oxides. The NONOate Angeli's salt (Na(2)N(2)O(3)) releases nitroxyl (HNO) under physiological conditions and exhibits unique cardiovascular features (i.e., positive inotropy/lusitropy) that may have relevance for pharmacological treatment of heart failure. In the search for new, organic-based compounds that release HNO, we examined isopropylamine NONOate (IPA/NO; Na[(CH(3))(2)CHNH(N(O)NO]), which is an adduct of NO and a primary amine. The chemical and pharmacological properties of IPA/NO were compared to those of Angeli's salt and a NO-producing NONOate, DEA/NO (Na[Et(2)NN(O)NO]), which is a secondary amine adduct. Under physiological conditions IPA/NO exhibited all the markers of HNO production (e.g., reductive nitrosylation, thiol reactivity, positive inotropy). These data suggest that primary amine NONOates may be useful as HNO donors in complement to the existing series of secondary amine NONOates, which are well-characterized NO donors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2006; 48(26):8220-8. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a nonadrenergic/noncholinergic (NANC) peptide with vasodilatative/inotropic action that may benefit the failing heart. However, precise mechanisms for its in vivo inotropic action remain unclear. To assess this, dogs with normal or failing (sustained tachypacing) hearts were instrumented for pressure-dimension analysis. In control hearts, CGRP (20 pmol/kg per minute) enhanced cardiac contractility (eg, +33+/-4.2% in end-systolic elastance) and lowered afterload (-14.2+/-2% in systemic resistance, both P<0.001). The inotropic response was markedly blunted by heart failure (+6.5+/-2%; P<0.001 versus control), whereas arterial dilation remained unaltered (-19.3+/-5%). CGRP-positive inotropy was not attributable to reflex activation because similar changes were observed in the presence of a ganglionic blocker. However, it was fully prevented by the beta-receptor antagonist (timolol), identifying a dominant role of sympatho-stimulatory signaling. In control hearts, myocardial interstitial norepinephrine assessed by microdialysis almost doubled in response to CGRP infusion, whereas systemic plasma levels were unchanged. In addition, CGRP receptors were not observed in ventricular myocardium but were prominent in coronary arteries and the stellate ganglia. Ventricular myocytes isolated from normal and failing hearts displayed no inotropic response to CGRP, further supporting indirect sympatho-stimulation as the primary in vivo mechanism. In contrast, the peripheral vasodilatative capacity of CGRP was similar in femoral vascular rings from normal and failing hearts in dogs. Thus, CGRP-mediated positive inotropy is load-independent but indirect and attributable to myocardial sympathetic activation rather than receptor-coupled stimulation in canine hearts. This mechanism is suppressed in heart failure, so that afterload reduction accounts for CGRP-enhanced function in this setting.
Circulation Research 02/2005; 96(2):234-43. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent determination that Angeli's salt may have clinical application as a nitrogen oxide donor for treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure has led to renewed interest in the mechanism and products of thermal decomposition of Angeli's salt under physiological conditions. In this report, several mechanisms are evaluated experimentally and by quantum mechanical calculations to determine whether HNO is in fact released from Angeli's salt in neutral, aerobic solution. The mechanism of product autoxidation is also considered.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2005; 127(2):722-31. · 10.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide has emerged as one of the most important and diverse players in physiology. This small diatomic radical stunned researchers because of its existence and unique biological properties in human physiology. Over the last two decades it was found that NO often has fickle behavior in pathophysiological mechanisms. Where benefiting the host in one case yet inducing and augmenting injury in another. This has lead to confusion in is NO good or bad? Much of the answers to this dichotomy lies in the chemistry of NO and its related nitrogen oxide species. To help understand the complex chemistry with perspective to biology, a discussion on the chemical biology of NO is useful. The chemical biology defines the relevant chemical reaction of NO and nitrogen monoxide in the context of the biological conditions. We discuss in this article the chemistry of nitrogen oxide with different types of biological motifs. Reaction of NO with metal complexes and radicals require low concentration, where formation of reactive nitrogen oxide species require considerably higher amounts and generally are isolated to specific microenvironments in vivo. Though many reactive nitrogen oxide species are formed from chemical reactions with NO, there are several which appear to not require NO to be present, HNO and NO(2). These two species have unique physiological effects and represent additional complexity to this biological picture. From this discussion, a picture can be formed concerning the possible chemical dynamics, which can be plausible in different biological mechanisms.
Current Molecular Medicine 12/2004; 4(7):723-40. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endogenous formation of nitric oxide (NO) and related nitrogen oxides in the vascular system is critical to regulation of multiple physiological functions. An imbalance in the production or availability of these species can result in progression of disease. Nitrogen oxide research in the cardiovascular system has primarily focused on the effects of NO and higher oxidation products. However, nitroxyl (HNO), the one-electron-reduction product of NO, has recently been shown to have unique and potentially beneficial pharmacological properties. HNO and NO often induce discrete biological responses, providing an interesting redox system. This article discusses the emerging aspects of HNO chemistry and attempts to provide a framework for the distinct effects of NO and HNO in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The redox siblings nitroxyl (HNO) and nitric oxide (NO) have often been assumed to undergo casual redox reactions in biological systems. However, several recent studies have demonstrated distinct pharmacological effects for donors of these two species. Here, infusion of the HNO donor Angeli's salt into normal dogs resulted in elevated plasma levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide, whereas neither the NO donor diethylamine/NONOate nor the nitrovasodilator nitroglycerin had an appreciable effect on basal levels. Conversely, plasma cGMP was increased by infusion of diethylamine/NONOate or nitroglycerin but was unaffected by Angeli's salt. These results suggest the existence of two mutually exclusive response pathways that involve stimulated release of discrete signaling agents from HNO and NO. In light of both the observed dichotomy of HNO and NO and the recent determination that, in contrast to the O2/O2- couple, HNO is a weak reductant, the relative reactivity of HNO with common biomolecules was determined. This analysis suggests that under biological conditions, the lifetime of HNO with respect to oxidation to NO, dimerization, or reaction with O2 is much longer than previously assumed. Rather, HNO is predicted to principally undergo addition reactions with thiols and ferric proteins. Calcitonin gene-related peptide release is suggested to occur via altered calcium channel function through binding of HNO to a ferric or thiol site. The orthogonality of HNO and NO may be due to differential reactivity toward metals and thiols and in the cardiovascular system, may ultimately be driven by respective alteration of cAMP and cGMP levels.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2003; 100(16):9196-201. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitroxyl anion (HNONO(-)), the one-electron reduced form of nitric oxide (NO), induces positive cardiac inotropy and selective venodilation in the normal in vivo circulation. Here we tested whether HNO/NO(-) augments systolic and diastolic function of failing hearts, and whether contrary to NO/nitrates such modulation enhances rather than blunts beta-adrenergic stimulation and is accompanied by increased plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). HNO/NO(-) generated by Angelis' salt (AS) was infused (10 microg/kg per min, i.v.) to conscious dogs with cardiac failure induced by chronic tachycardia pacing. AS nearly doubled contractility, enhanced relaxation, and lowered cardiac preload and afterload (all P < 0.001) without altering plasma cGMP. This contrasted to modest systolic depression induced by an NO donor diethylamine(DEA)NO or nitroglycerin (NTG). Cardiotropic changes from AS were similar in failing hearts as in controls despite depressed beta-adrenergic and calcium signaling in the former. Inotropic effects of AS were additive to dobutamine, whereas DEA/NO blunted beta-stimulation and NTG was neutral. Administration of propranolol to nonfailing hearts fully blocked isoproterenol stimulation but had minimal effect on AS inotropy and enhanced lusitropy. Arterial plasma CGRP rose 3-fold with AS but was unaltered by DEA/NO or NTG, supporting a proposed role of this peptide to HNO/NO(-) cardiotropic action. Thus, HNO/NO(-) has positive inotropic and lusitropic action, which unlike NO/nitrates is independent and additive to beta-adrenergic stimulation and stimulates CGRP release. This suggests potential of HNO/NO(-) donors for the treatment of heart failure.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2003; 100(9):5537-42. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elucidation of the physiological effects of nitric oxide (NO) has been of significant interest since the discovery in the 1980s that NO is an endogenous mediator of cardiovascular tone. Biomedical research of nitrogen oxides has nearly exclusively involved NO and its oxidative metabolites while reduced species, such as nitroxyl (HNO) and hydroxylamine (NH2OH), were largely ignored in mammalian systems. Recently, however, HNO has been shown to have considerable promise as a treatment of heart failure, thus renewing interest in both the chemistry and pharmacology of HNO. Here, the biological effects of NO and HNO are compared, and the resulting dissimilarities are related to the distinct reactivity of these redox siblings toward biomolecules.