[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is one of the principal obstacles for the lung transplantation (LTx) success. Several strategies have been adopted to minimize the effects of IRI in lungs, including ex vivo conditioning of the grafts and the use of antioxidant drugs, such as methylene blue (MB). We hypothesized that MB could minimize the effects of IRI in a LTx rodent model.
Journal of Surgical Research 07/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Cardiac tumors are rare, mostly benign with high embolic potential. Objectives: To correlate the histological type of cardiac masses with their embolic potential, implantation site and long term follow up in patients undergoing surgery. Methods: Between January 1986 and December 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 185 consecutive patients who underwent excision of intracardiac mass (119 females, mean age 48±20 years). In 145 patients, the left atrium was the origin site. 72% were asymptomatic and prior embolization was often observed (19.8%). The diagnosis was established by echocardiography, magnetic resonance and histological examination. Results: Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. Myxoma was the most common (72.6%), followed by fibromas (6.9%), thrombi (6.4%) and sarcomas (6.4%). Ranging from 0.6cm to 15cm (mean 4.6 ± 2.5cm) 37 (19.8%) patients had prior embolization, stroke 10.2%, coronary 4.8%, peripheral 4.3% 5.4% of hospital death, with a predominance of malignant tumors (40% p < 0.0001). The histological type was a predictor of mortality (rhabdomyomas and sarcomas p = 0.002) and embolic event (sarcoma, lipoma and fibroelastoma p = 0.006), but not recurrence. Tumor size, atrial fibrillation, cavity and valve impairment were not associated with the embolic event. During follow-up (mean 80±63 months), there were 2 deaths (1.1%) and two recurrences 1 and 11 years after the operation, to the same cavity. Conclusion: Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. The histological type was predictor of death and preoperative embolic event, while the implantation site carries no relation with mortality or to embolic event.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The most widely used model for predicting mortality in cardiac surgery was recently remodeled, but the doubts regarding its methodology and development have been reported. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the EuroSCORE II to predict mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafts or valve surgery at our institution. Methods: One thousand consecutive patients operated on coronary artery bypass grafts or valve surgery, between October 2008 and July 2009, were analyzed. The outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality. Calibration was performed by correlation between observed and expected mortality by Hosmer Lemeshow. Discrimination was calculated by the area under the ROC curve. The performance of the EuroSCORE II was compared with the EuroSCORE and InsCor (local model). Results: In calibration, the Hosmer Lemeshow test was inappropriate for the EuroSCORE II (P=0.0003) and good for the EuroSCORE (P=0.593) and InsCor (P=0.184). However, the discrimination, the area under the ROC curve for EuroSCORE II was 0.81 [95% CI (0.76 to 0.85), P<0.001], for the EuroSCORE was 0.81 [95% CI (0.77 to 0.86), P<0.001] and for InsCor was 0.79 [95% CI (0.74-0.83), P<0.001] showing up properly for all. Conclusion: The EuroSCORE II became more complex and resemblance to the international literature poorly calibrated to predict mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafts or valve surgery at our institution. These data emphasize the importance of the local model.
Revista brasileira de cirurgia cardiovascular : orgao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular. 03/2014; 29(1):1-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung preservation remains a challenging issue for lung transplantation groups. Along with the development of ex vivo lung perfusion, a new preservation method known as topical-ECMO (extracorporal membrane oxygenation) has been proposed. The present study compared topical-ECMO with cold ischemia (CI) for lung preservation in an ex vivo experimental model.
Randomized experimental study, conducted at a public medical school.
Fourteen human lungs were retrieved from seven brain-dead donors that were considered unsuitable for transplantation. The lung bloc was divided and each lung was randomized to be preserved by means of topical-ECMO or CI (4-7 °C) for eight hours. These lungs were then reconnected to an ex vivo perfusion system for functional evaluation. Lung biopsies were obtained at three times. The functional variables assessed were oxygenation capacity (OC) and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP); and the histological variables were lung injury score (LIS) and apoptotic cell count (ACC).
The mean OC was 468 mmHg (± 81.6) in the topical-ECMO group and 455.8 (± 54) for CI (P = 0.758). The median PAP was 140 mmHg (120-160) in the topical-ECMO group and 140 mmHg (140-150) for CI (P = 0.285). The mean LIS was 35.57 (± 4.5) in the topical-ECMO group and 33.86 (± 6.1) for CI (P = 0.367). The ACC was 25.00 (± 9.34) in the topical-ECMO group and 24.86 (± 10.374) for CI (P = 0.803).
The present study showed that topical-ECMO was not superior to cold ischemia for up to eight hours of lung preservation.
São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina 01/2014; 132(1):28-35. · 0.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidemiological characteristics of thoracic aortic diseases (TAD) in the State of São Paulo and in Brazil, as well as their impact on the survival of these patients have yet to be analyzed.
To evaluate the mortality impact of TAD and characterize it epidemiologically.
Retrospective analysis of data from the public health system for the TAD registry codes of hospitalizations, procedures and deaths, from the International Code of Diseases (ICD-10), registered at the Ministry of Health of São Paulo State from January 1998 to December 2007.
They were 9.465 TAD deaths, 5.500 men (58.1%) and 3.965 women (41.9%); 6.721 dissections (71%) and 2.744. aneurysms. In 86.3% of cases the diagnosis was attained during autopsy. There were 6.109 hospitalizations, of which 67.9% were males; 21.2% of them died (69% men), with similar proportions of dissection and aneurysm between sexes, respectively 54% and 46%, but with different mortality. Men with TAD die more often than women (OR = 1.5). The age distribution for deaths and hospitalizations was similar with predominance in the 6th decade. They were 3.572 surgeries (58% of hospitalizations) with 20.3% mortality (patients kept in clinical treatment showed 22.6% mortality; p = 0.047). The number of hospitalizations, surgeries, deaths of in-patients and general deaths by TAD were progressively greater than the increase in population over time.
Specific actions for the early identification of these patients, as well as the viability of their care should be implemented to reduce the apparent progressive mortality from TAD seen among our population.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 10/2013; · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities.
Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent).
Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11-40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old.
In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent.
Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 09/2013; 68(9):1215-9. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery is an option for coronary artery bypass grafting.
To evaluate the early patency and adaptation of lumen diameter using multidetector computed angiotomography.
Thirty-two patients were selected to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting using the descending branch of the lateral circumflex artery, the internal thoracic artery, and other grafts. Evaluations were carried out through high resolution computed tomography performed on the 7th and 90th postoperative day. Diameters of the descending branch of the lateral circumflex artery and the left internal thoracic artery were measured 3 cm before the distal anastomosis, in the middle portion, and 3 cm after the proximal anastomosis. Diameters were compared using paired t-test (P<0.05).
Descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery wDescending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery was used in 26 patients, as its use was not viable in six patients (18%). It was used as composite graft in all cases. The anterior descending branch was revascularized by the left internal thoracic artery in all cases. Patency rates of the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery were 96% and 92%, respectively. No occlusions were observed in the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) and no ischemic events were observed in the descending branch of the lateral circumflex. Descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery increased the lumen diameter in the middle (P=0.001) and distal portions (P=0.006); the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) increased in the middle portion (P=0.001).
Similar to the left internal thoracic artery, the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery showed high patency rate and positive luminal adaptation. This early evaluation confirms the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery as a potential alternative for grafting. Due to anatomical variations, preoperative femoral angiographic evaluation appears to be mandatory.
Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 09/2013; 28(3):317-24.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimal post-transplantation immunosuppression is critical to the survival of the graft and the patient after lung transplantation. Immunosuppressant agents target various aspects of the immune system to maximize graft tolerance while minimizing medication toxicities and side effects. The vast majority of patients receive maintenance immunosuppressive therapy consisting of a triple-drug regimen including a calcineurin inhibitor, a cell cycle inhibitor and a corticosteroid. Although these immunosuppressant drugs are frequently used after transplantation and to control inflammatory processes, limited data are available with regard to their effects on cells other than those from the immunological system. Notably, the airway epithelial cell is of interest because it may contribute to development of bronchiolitis obliterans through production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This review focuses the current armamentarium of immunosuppressant drugs used after lung transplantation and their main side effects upon airway epithelial cells and mucociliary clearance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tacrolimus and mycophenolate have now become the most widely used combination for maintenance immunosuppressive regimens after lung transplantation in comparison with cyclosporine and azathioprine. However, limited information is available with respect to their effects on cells, other than those from the immunologic compartment. We hypothesized that different triple therapies could have different effects on airway mucociliary clearance, playing an important role in respiratory infections observed after lung transplantation.
Ninety rats were assigned to three groups (n = 30 each): control = vehicle, therapy 1 = tacrolimus + mycophenolate + prednisone, and therapy 2 = cyclosporine + azathioprine + prednisone. After 7, 15, or 30 days of treatment by gavage, the animals were killed and the following parameters were studied: mucus transportability, ciliary beating frequency, mucociliary transport velocity, and neutral and acid mucus production.
There was a significant decrease in ciliary beating frequency, mucociliary transport velocity, and neutral mucus production in all immunosuppressed animals; indeed, both therapies, mainly therapy 1, caused an increase in acid mucus production for as long as 15 days of treatment.
Both triple therapies impaired airway mucociliary clearance of rats, but therapy 1 had a more deleterious effect. These data suggest that these undesirable effects can contribute to the high incidence of respiratory infections observed in patients undergoing lung transplantation.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 06/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute pulmonary edema is a serious event. Its occurrence in association with interrupted aortic arch and coronary heart disease is rare. Recently, an old patient developed cardiogenic shock and acute pulmonary edema due to acute coronary insufficiency, associated with interrupted aortic arch. The coronary angiography revealed occlusion of the right coronary artery and 95% obstruction in the left main coronary artery, associated with interruption of the descending aorta. Coronary artery bypass graft was performed, without extracorporeal circulation, to the anterior descending coronary artery. We discuss the initial management, given the seriousness of the case.
Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 06/2013; 28(2):290-1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular diseases represent the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality for the health system and cardiac surgery has an important impact on their resolutivity. The association and correlation of patients' demographic and clinical relevant information with the resources required for each stratum represent the possibility to adapt, improve and innovate into the healthcare programs. This project aims to remodel the "InsCor" risk score for the formulation of the SP-SCORE (Sao Paulo System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation) in order to better reflects the complexity of cardiac surgical care. The participating hospitals include the Health Technology Assessment Centers in of the Health Secretariat' HTA Network of São Paulo State (HTA-NATSs / SES-SP). The SP-SCORE will use 10 variables of the InsCor model and others 8 variables with presumed influence in Brazil. The primary endpoints are morbidity and mortality. Bootstrap technique besides automated selection of variables (stepwise) will be used to develop a parsimonious model by multiple logistic regression. This project will contribute for the SUS-SP regionalized health-care (RRAS) sustainability and financing of the CABG and/or heart valve surgery programs promoting equitable allocation, increasing access and effectiveness, as well as characterizing the magnitude of available resources and its impact.
Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 06/2013; 28(2):263-269.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advances in graft reepithelialization and revascularization have renewed interest in airway transplantation. This study aims to determine whether topically applied preservation solutions can ameliorate ischemic injury to tracheal grafts. We analyzed 1) the effects of cold ischemia on the mucociliary clearance of tracheal grafts and 2) the impact of topically applied preservation solutions on the effects of cold ischemia on mucociliary clearance.
Tracheal segments (n=217) from 109 male Wistar rats were harvested, submerged in low-potassium-dextran-glucose, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate, or saline solution (saline group), and stored at 4°C for 6, 10, 16, or 24 hours. A control group (not submerged) was analyzed immediately after harvesting. In situ mucociliary transport and ciliary beating frequency were measured using a stroboscope. Epithelial integrity, cellular infiltration, and mucus storage were quantified by light microscopy and image analysis software, along with transmission electron microscopy.
1) The effects of cold ischemia: in situ mucociliary transport and ciliary beating frequency were greater in the control group than after cold ischemia. Microscopic analysis results were similar between groups. 2) The effects of preservation solutions: there was no difference between the low-potassium-dextran-glucose, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate, and saline groups in functional or light microscopy analysis. The saline group presented stronger signs of ischemic injury with transmission electron microscopy.
Cold ischemia diminished the mucociliary clearance of the tracheal respiratory epithelium. Topically applied preservation solutions did not ameliorate the injury caused by cold ischemia to the tracheal respiratory epithelium.
Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 05/2013; 68(5). · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, affects many organs. The great majority of deaths occur due to respiratory failure after many years of chronic pulmonary infection. Despite recent progress in early detection by studies of genetic mutations and better understanding to treat nutritional and infectious states, lung transplantation is the CF treatment for most advanced cases. According to the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) data, CF is the third most common reason for lung transplantation (16.8%) showing the best survival rate (60% at 5 years). We have described our experience in lung transplantation of CF patients between January 2000 and December 2011, reviewing medical charts of these patients were for gender, age, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, disease duration, previous sputum gram stain, ischemic time, incidence of severe primary graft dysfunction (PGD Grade 3), intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and Kaplan-Meier survival. Among 150 lung transplantation, the 30 CF patients (20%) represented the second most common cause. The average age was 27.4 ± 9.2 years, with a slight predominance of males (n = 16; 53.3%). The average BMI was 18.9 ± 2.6. Most patients (60%) had pancreatic exocrine dysfunction. Also, 83.3% of patients showed a positive sputum culture for Pseudomonas, while Burkholderia cepacia was identified in only 4 patients (13.3%). The average time of the disease was 20.8 ± 9.7 years. All transplantation were bilateral with an average ischemic time of 472 ± 98.3 minutes and ICU length of stay of 9.9 ± 6.3 days. The survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 92% and 77%, respectively, corresponding to the best outcomes among underlying diseases, comparable with other worldwide series and better than the ISHLT reports. CF, the second most common cause for lung transplantation among our cases, showed the best survival rate among all causes. Our survival rate was comparable with other reports.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has played a key role in the diagnosis of mediastinal, paratracheal, and peribronchial lesions, as well as in lymph node staging for lung cancer. Despite its minimally invasive character, EBUS-TBNA has demonstrated a diagnostic yield comparable with that of established surgical methods. It has therefore gained credibility and has become a routine procedure at various referral centers. A successful EBUS-TBNA procedure requires careful planning, which includes a thorough review of the radiological imaging and special care during specimen collection and preparation, as well as technical expertise, experience with the procedure itself, and knowledge of the potential complications inherent to the procedure. The most common indications for EBUS-TBNA include lymph node staging for lung cancer and the diagnostic investigation of mediastinal/hilar masses and lymph node enlargement. Recently, tumor biomarkers in malignant samples collected during the EBUS-TBNA procedure have begun to be identified, and this molecular analysis has proven to be absolutely feasible. The EBUS-TBNA procedure has yet to be included on the Brazilian Medical Association list of medical procedures approved for reimbursement. The EBUS-TBNA procedure has shown to be a safe and accurate tool for lung cancer staging/restaging, as well as for the diagnosis of mediastinal, paratracheal, and peribronchial lesions/lymph node enlargement.
Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia 04/2013; 39(2):226-237.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Risk scores show difficulties to attain the same performance in different populations. OBJECTIVE: To create a simple and accurate risk assessment model for patients submitted to surgery due to coronary and/or valvular disease at Instituto do Coração da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor-HCFMUSP). METHODS: Between 2007 and 2009, 3,000 patients were submitted to surgical procedure due to coronary artery and/or valvular disease at InCor-HCFMUSP. From this record, data of 2/3 of the patients were used for model development (bootstrap technique), and 1/3 for internal validation of the model. The performance of the model (InsCor) was compared to the 2000 Bernstein-Parsonnet (2000BP) and EuroSCORE (ES) complexes. RESULTS: Only 10 variables were selected: age > 70 years, female sex; coronary revascularization + valve, myocardial infarction < 90 days; reoperation; surgical treatment of aortic valve; surgical treatment of tricuspid valve; creatinine < 2mg/dL; ejection fraction < 30%, and events. The Hosmer Lemeshow test for the InsCor was 0.184, indicating excellent calibration. The area under the ROC curve was 0.79 for the InsCor, 0.81 for the ES and 0.82 for 2000BP, confirming that the models are good and have similar discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: The InsCor and ES performed better than 2000BP at all stages of validation, but the new model, in addition to showing identification with the local risk factors, is simpler and more objective for mortality prediction in patients undergoing surgery due to coronary and/or valvular disease at InCor-HCFMUSP.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 03/2013; 100(3):246-254. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The failure to wean from mechanical ventilation is related to worse outcomes after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the serum level of B-type natriuretic peptide is a predictor of weaning failure from mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery.
We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of 101 patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. B-type natriuretic peptide was measured postoperatively after intensive care unit admission and at the end of a 60-min spontaneous breathing test. The demographic data, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, fluid balance, need for vasopressor or inotropic support, and length of the intensive care unit and hospital stays were recorded. Weaning failure was considered as either the inability to sustain spontaneous breathing after 60 min or the need for reintubation within 48 h.
Of the 101 patients studied, 12 patients failed the weaning trial. There were no differences between the groups in the baseline or intraoperative characteristics, including left ventricular function, EuroSCORE and lengths of the cardiac procedure and cardiopulmonary bypass. The B-type natriuretic peptide levels were significantly higher at intensive care unit admission and at the end of the breathing test in the patients with weaning failure compared with the patients who were successfully weaned. In a multivariate model, a high B-type natriuretic peptide level at the end of a spontaneous breathing trial was the only independent predictor of weaning failure from mechanical ventilation.
A high B-type natriuretic peptide level is a predictive factor for the failure to wean from mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery. These findings suggest that optimizing ventricular function should be a goal during the perioperative period.
Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil) 01/2013; 68(1):33-8. · 1.59 Impact Factor