Stanley W Ashley

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (270)1051.41 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Organizational factors influencing failure-to-rescue (FTR)—or death after postoperative complications—are poorly understood. Case studies were conducted to generate hypotheses that could inform future FTR research and improvement strategies.Methods: Publicly reported 2009–2011 data were used to identify 144 outlier hospitals with statistically better or worse FTR performance than the national average. Of these 144 hospitals, 7 were selected for case studies in a purposive sample. Outliers enabled a focus on the organizational factors and processes at the extremes of performance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2013 with key informants at each hospital, and transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify emergent organizational behavioral themes.Results: The 7 hospitals—4 high- and 3 low-performing—yielded 106 interviews. Critical barriers to effective rescue were ineffective communication, lack of psychological safety, staffing discontinuity, imbalance of shared ownership and individual responsibility, lack of appropriate training and education, and difficulty using current metrics. Participants also identified strategies to overcome these barriers—rapid response teams, flattening the hierarchy, escalation strategies, health information technology, structured communication tools, constant team structures, standardized care pathways, and organizational learning.Conclusion: FTR is a complex process that is viewed, defined, and acted on differently across and within organizations. Early recognition of patients deviating from normal recovery was enhanced in high-performing hospitals through the use of standardized postoperative recovery pathways and automated escalation protocols. Current FTR measures may be less actionable for the purposes of quality improvement.
    Joint Commission journal on quality and patient safety / Joint Commission Resources 11/2014; 40(11).
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Studies suggest that improvements in type 2 diabetes (T2D) post-RYGB surgery are due to decreased intestinal glucose absorption capacity mediated by exclusion of sweet taste sensing pathways in isolated proximal bowel. We probed these pathways in rat models that had undergone RYGB with catheter placement in the biliopancreatic (BP) limb to permit post-RYGB exposure of isolated bowel to sweet taste stimulants. Methods: Lean Sprague Dawley (SD) (n=13) and obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats (n=15) underwent RYGB with BP catheter placement. On post-operative day 11 rats received catheter infusions of saccharin (sweet taste receptor (T1R2/3) agonist) or saline (control). Jejunum was analyzed for changes in glucose transporter/ sensor mRNA expression and functional SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake. Results: Saccharin infusion did not alter glucose uptake in the Roux limb of RYGB rats. Intestinal expression of glucose sensors (T1R2, SGLT3) and transporters (SGLT1, GLUT2) was similar in saccharin- vs. saline-infused rats of both strains. However, the abundance of SGLT3b mRNA, a putative glucose sensor, was higher in the common limb vs. BP/ Roux limb in both strains of bypassed rats and was significantly decreased in the Roux limb after saccharin infusion. Conclusions: Failure of BP limb exposure to saccharin to increase Roux limb glucose uptake suggests that isolation of T1R2/3 is unlikely to be involved in metabolic benefits of RYGB as re-stimulation failed to reverse changes in intestinal glucose absorption capacity. The altered expression pattern of SGLT3 after RYGB warrants further investigation of its potential involvement in resolution of T2D after RYGB.
    American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Critical care is often an integral part of rescue for patients with surgical complications. We sought to understand critical care characteristics predictive of failure-to-rescue (FTR) performance at the hospital level.
    Journal of critical care. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Failure to rescue (FTR), the mortality rate among surgical patients with complications, is an emerging quality indicator. Hospitals with a high safety-net burden, defined as the proportion of patients covered by Medicaid or uninsured, provide a disproportionate share of medical care to vulnerable populations. Given the financial strains on hospitals with a high safety-net burden, availability of clinical resources may have a role in outcome disparities. OBJECTIVES To assess the association between safety-net burden and FTR and to evaluate the effect of clinical resources on this relationship. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective cohort of 46 519 patients who underwent high-risk inpatient surgery between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, was assembled using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Hospitals were divided into the following 3 safety-net categories: high-burden hospitals (HBHs), moderate-burden hospitals (MBHs), and low-burden hospitals (LBHs). Bivariate and multivariate analyses controlling for patient, procedural, and hospital characteristics, as well as clinical resources, were used to evaluate the relationship between safety-net burden and FTR. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES FTR. RESULTS Patients in HBHs were younger (mean age, 65.2 vs 68.2 years; P = .001), more likely to be of black race (11.3% vs 4.2%, P < .001), and less likely to undergo an elective procedure (39.3% vs 48.6%, P = .002) compared with patients in LBHs. The HBHs were more likely to be large, major teaching facilities and to have high levels of technology (8.6% vs 4.0%, P = .02), sophisticated internal medicine (7.7% vs 4.3%, P = .10), and high ratios of respiratory therapists to beds (39.7% vs 21.1%, P < .001). However, HBHs had lower proportions of registered nurses (27.9% vs 38.8%, P = .02) and were less likely to have a positron emission tomographic scanner (15.4% vs 22.0%, P = .03) and a fully implemented electronic medical record (12.6% vs 17.8%, P = .03). Multivariate analyses showed that HBHs (adjusted odds ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.19-1.53; P < .001) and MBHs (adjusted odds ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.27; P = .005) were associated with higher odds of FTR compared with LBHs, even after adjustment for clinical resources. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Despite access to resources that can improve patient rescue rates, HBHs had higher odds of FTR, suggesting that availability of hospital clinical resources alone does not explain increased FTR rates.
    JAMA surgery. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about ghrelin's effects on intestinal epithelial cells even though it is known to be a mitogen for a variety of other cell types. Because ghrelin is released in close proximity to the proliferative compartment of the intestinal tract, we hypothesized that ghrelin may have potent pro-proliferative effect on intestinal epithelial cells as well. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the effects of ghrelin on FHs74Int and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell lines in vitro. We found that ghrelin has potent dose dependent proliferative effects in both cell lines through a yet to be characterized G protein coupled growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) subtype. Consistent with above findings, cell cycle flowcytometric analyses demonstrated that ghrelin shifts cells from the G1 to S phase and thereby promotes cell cycle progression. Further characterization of subcellular events, suggested that ghrelin mediates its pro-proliferative effect through Adenylate cyclase (AC)-independent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) trans-activation and PI3K-Akt phosphorylation. Both these pathways converge to stimulate MAPK, ERK 1/2 downstream. The role of ghrelin in states where intestinal mucosal injury and rapid mucosal repair occur warrants further investigation.
    Peptides 12/2013; · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Hina Y Bhutta, Stanley W Ashley
    Critical care medicine 08/2013; 41(8):2048-9. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE With duty hour debates, specialization, and sex distribution changes in the applicant pool, the relative competitiveness for general surgery residency (GSR) is undefined. OBJECTIVE To determine the modern attributes of top-ranked applicants to GSR. DESIGN Validation cohort, survey. SETTING National sample of university and community-based GSR programs. PARTICIPANTS Data were abstracted from Electronic Residency Application Service files of the top 20-ranked applicants to 22 GSR programs. We ranked program competitiveness and blinded review of personal statements. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Characteristics associated with applicant ranking by the GSR program (top 5 vs 6-20) and ranking by highly competitive programs were identified using t and χ2 tests and modified Poisson regression. RESULTS There were 333 unique applicants among the 440 Electronic Residency Application Service files. Most applicants had research experience (93.0%) and publications (76.8%), and 28.4% had Alpha Omega Alpha membership. Nearly half were women (45.2%), with wide variation by program (20.0%-75.0%) and a trend toward fewer women at programs in the South and West (38.0% and 37.5%, respectively). Men had higher United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores (238.0 vs 230.1; P < .001) but similar Step 2 scores (245.3 vs 244.5; P = .54). Using bivariate analysis, highly competitive programs were more likely to rank applicants with publications, research experience, Alpha Omega Alpha membership, higher Step 1 scores, and excellent personal statements and those who were male or Asian. However, the only significant predictors were Step 1 scores (relative risk [RR], 1.36 for every 10-U increase), publications (RR, 2.20), personal statements (RR, 1.62), and Asian race (RR, 1.70 vs white). Alpha Omega Alpha membership (RR, 1.62) and Step 1 scores (RR, 1.01) were the only variables predictive of ranking in the top 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This national sample shows GSR is a highly competitive, sex-neutral discipline in which academic performance is the most important factor for ranking, especially in the most competitive programs. This study will inform applicants and program directors about applicants to the GSR program.
    JAMA surgery. 05/2013; 148(5):413-7.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Intestinal absorptive capacity shows a circadian rhythm synchronized with eating patterns. Disrupting these coordinated rhythms, e.g., with shift work, may contribute to metabolic disease. Circadian expression of nutrient transporters has not been studied in metabolic disease. We studied the circadian rhythm of intestinal transporter sodium glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1) in an obese diabetic rat. METHODS: We compared obese Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats to lean ZDF littermates. Temporal feeding patterns were assessed, then rats were harvested at Zeitgeber (ZT, ZT0 = 7:00 a.m.) 3, 9, or 15 to measure insulin resistance, SGLT1 expression and intestinal glucose absorption capacity. Regulators of SGLT1 (sweet taste receptor T1R2/3; clock genes) were measured to elucidate underlying mechanisms. RESULTS: Both groups exhibited altered circadian food intake. Obese ZDF rats lost circadian rhythmicity of SGLT1 mRNA expression and functional activity. Lean ZDF rats maintained rhythmicity of SGLT1 mRNA expression but that of functional glucose absorption was blunted. Circadian rhythms of intestinal clock genes were maintained in both groups. Neither group had discernible rhythms of intestinal GLUT2 (glucose transporter) or T1R2 (sweet taste receptor component) mRNA expression. In summary, lean and obese ZDF rats exhibited similar disruptions in circadian feeding. Glucose intolerance was evident in lean rats, but only obese rats further developed diabetes and exhibited disrupted circadian rhythmicity of both SGLT1 mRNA expression and function. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that disrupted circadian feeding rhythms contribute to glucose intolerance, but additional factors (genetics, changes in nutrient sensing/transport) are needed to lead to full diabetes.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 04/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Surgical Education 11/2012; 69(6):687-92. · 1.07 Impact Factor
  • Hina Y Bhutta, Stanley W Ashley
    Journal of Surgical Research 08/2012; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Practicing within the Halstedian model of surgical education, academic surgeons serve dual roles as physicians to their patients and educators of their trainees. Despite this significant responsibility, few surgeons receive formal training in educational theory to inform their practice. The goal of this work was to gain an understanding of how master surgeons approach teaching uncommon and highly complex operations and to determine the educational constructs that frame their teaching philosophies and approaches. Individuals included in the study were queried using electronically distributed open-ended, structured surveys. Responses to the surveys were analyzed and grouped using grounded theory and were examined for parallels to concepts of learning theory. Academic teaching hospital. Twenty-two individuals identified as master surgeons. Twenty-one (95.5%) individuals responded to the survey. Two primary thematic clusters were identified: global approach to teaching (90.5% of respondents) and approach to intraoperative teaching (76.2%). Many of the emergent themes paralleled principles of transfer learning theory outlined in the psychology and education literature. Key elements included: conferring graduated responsibility (57.1%), encouraging development of a mental set (47.6%), fostering or expecting deliberate practice (42.9%), deconstructing complex tasks (38.1%), vertical transfer of information (33.3%), and identifying general principles to structure knowledge (9.5%). Master surgeons employ many of the principles of learning theory when teaching uncommon and highly complex operations. The findings may hold significant implications for faculty development in surgical education.
    Journal of Surgical Education 07/2012; 69(4):493-8. · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is used to detect non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and has been associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric procedures result in significant weight loss and a rapid resolution of T2DM. We aimed to study the impact of bariatric interventions on ALT levels in patients with or without T2DM and compare this effect between different types of weight-loss procedures. We reviewed 756 patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Demographics, co-morbidities, baseline and post-operative ALT and HbA1C levels, weight-loss data, and diabetes status were recorded. ALT levels were compared between different procedures and between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Chi-square test, ANOVA, and t test were used to evaluate outcomes. Males and diabetics had significantly higher ALT at baseline. Both Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) resulted in significant reduction in ALT levels beginning at the third post-operative month (20 and 17 %, respectively, compared to baseline, p < 0.001). ALT remained at the new low level up to year 3 after surgery. The degree of reduction was similar for both procedures and was independent of the degree of weight loss. In diabetics, ALT reduction was associated with improvement in disease; but in T2DM patients who remained on insulin, ALT remained elevated. RYGB and LAGB decrease ALT levels to the same degree and independent of weight loss. Our data confirm higher ALT in diabetics and demonstrate a rapid normalization after bariatric surgery with a simultaneous decrease in HbA1C. These results suggest that ALT may be used as a marker of metabolic improvement after bariatric surgery.
    Obesity Surgery 05/2012; 22(10):1540-7. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The intestine demonstrates profound circadian rhythmicity in glucose absorption in rodents, mediated entirely by rhythmicity in the transcription, translation, and function of the sodium glucose co-transporter SGLT1 (Slc5a1). Clock genes are rhythmic in the intestine and have been implicated in the regulation of rhythmicity of other intestinal genes; however, their role in the regulation of SGLT1 is unknown. We investigated the effects of one clock gene, PER1, on SGLT1 transcription in vitro. Caco-2 cells were stably transfected with knockdown vectors for PER1 and mRNA expression of clock genes and SGLT1 determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were transiently cotransfected with combinations of the PER1 expression vectors and the wild-type SGLT1-luciferase promoter construct or the promoter with mutated E-box sequences. Knockdown of PER1 increased native SGLT1 expression in Caco-2 enterocytes, while promoter studies confirmed that the inhibitory activity of PER1 on SGLT1 occurs via the proximal 1 kb of the SGLT1 promoter. E-box sites exerted a suppressive effect on the SGLT1 promoter; however, mutation of E-boxes had little effect on the inhibitory activity of PER1 on the SGLT1 promoter suggesting that the actions of PER1 on SGLT1 are independent of E-boxes. Our findings suggest that PER1 exerts an indirect suppressive effect on SGLT1, possibly acting via other clock-controlled genes binding to non-E-box sites on the SGLT1 promoter. Understanding the regulation of rhythmicity of SGLT1 may lead to new treatments for the modulation of SGLT1 expression in conditions such as malabsorption, diabetes, and obesity.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 04/2012; 57(6):1525-36. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard procedure for gallbladder removal. Conversion to an open procedure is sometimes deemed necessary, especially in complex cases in which a prolonged laparoscopic operative time is anticipated. A prolonged LC case is thought to be associated with increased complications and cost and therefore generally discouraged. The purpose of this study was to test this assumption, and compare outcomes and cost of converted and prolonged LC cases. By using institutional National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and financial databases, we retrospectively reviewed and compared prolonged laparoscopic cases (Long-LC) with converted (CONV) procedures. Surgical times, length of stay (LOS), 30-day complications, operative room, and total hospital charges were compared between the 2 groups. A total of 101 Long-LC and 66 CONV cases met our inclusion criteria. Long-LC cases were 19 minutes longer than CONV cases (123 vs 104 min; P < .01). No differences in postoperative complications were found between the 2 groups (P > .05). When Poisson regression was used, we found that LOS was significantly shorter in the Long-LC compared with CONV group (1 day vs 4 days; P < .01). Long-LC cases had greater operative charges ($15,278 vs $13,128; P < .01). However, hospital charges for Long-LC cases were 26% less than for CONV cases ($23,946 vs $32,446; P < .01). Conversion is associated with a 3-day increase in LOS. Long-LC cases have greater operative room charges, but overall hospital charges were 26% less than CONV cases. Our data suggest that decision making regarding conversion should focus on safety and not time considerations.
    Surgery 04/2012; 152(2):173-8. · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Luke M Funk, Stanley W Ashley
    Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) 04/2012; 147(4):365. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Short bowel syndrome remains a condition of high morbidity and mortality, and current therapeutic options carry significant side effects. To identify new treatments we focused on postresection changes in microRNAs--short noncoding RNAs, which suppress target genes--and suggest a previously undiscovered role for microRNA-125a (mir-125a) in intestinal adaptation. Rats underwent either 80% massive small bowel resection or transection and were harvested after 48 hours. Jejunum was harvested for microRNA microarrays, laser capture microdissection, and RNA and protein analysis. Mir-125a was overexpressed in intestinal epithelium-6 (crypt-derived) cells (IEC-6) and effects on proliferation and apoptosis determined using MTS and flow cytometry. Expression of potential targets of mir-125a in rat jejunum and IEC-6 cells was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RNA) and Western blotting (protein). Resection upregulated mir-125a and mir-214 by 2.4-folds and 3.2-folds, respectively. Highest levels of expression were noted in the crypt fraction. Mir-125a overexpression induced apoptosis and resultant growth arrest in IEC-6 cells. The expression of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1 was downregulated in both mir-125a-overexpressing IEC-6 cells and in jejunum of resected rats, confirming Mcl-1 as a previously undiscovered target of mir-125a. Upregulation of mir-125a suppresses the prosurvival protein Mcl1, producing the increase in apoptosis known to accompany the proliferative changes characteristic of intestinal adaptation. Our data highlight a potential role for microRNAs as mediators of the adaptive process and may facilitate the development of new therapeutic options for short bowel syndrome.
    Annals of surgery 04/2012; 255(4):747-53. · 7.90 Impact Factor
  • Zain Khalpey, Taufiek Konrad Rajab, Stanley W Ashley
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    ABSTRACT: CASE REPORT: An asymptomatic 70-year-old man was found to have elevated liver function tests on a routine screening evaluation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a pancreatic head mass. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography confirmed a heterogeneously enhancing pancreatic mass that was suspicious for malignancy due to obstruction of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct. Consequently a pylorus-sparing pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histology revealed a serous cystadenoma with scattered foci of PanIN III. DISCUSSION: Serous cystadenomas are benign tumors without significant malignant potential. Unlike pancreatic adenocarcinomas, these tumors tend to be slow growing, well-demarcated, and rarely, as in this case, produce a mass effect.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 01/2012; 16(6):1282-3. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The surgical learning curve persists for years after training, yet existing continuing medical education activities targeting this are limited. We describe a pilot study of a scalable video-based intervention, providing individualized feedback on intraoperative performance. Four complex operations performed by surgeons of varying experience--a chief resident accompanied by the operating senior surgeon, a surgeon with less than 10 years in practice, another with 20 to 30 years in practice, and a surgeon with more than 30 years of experience--were video recorded. Video playback formed the basis of 1-hour coaching sessions with a peer-judged surgical expert. These sessions were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically coded. The sessions focused on operative technique--both technical aspects and decision-making. With increasing seniority, more discussion was devoted to the optimization of teaching and facilitation of the resident's technical performance. Coaching sessions with senior surgeons were peer-to-peer interactions, with each discussing his preferred approach. The coach alternated between directing the session (asking probing questions) and responding to specific questions brought by the surgeons, depending on learning style. At all experience levels, video review proved valuable in identifying episodes of failure to progress and troubleshooting alternative approaches. All agreed this tool is a powerful one. Inclusion of trainees seems most appropriate when coaching senior surgeons; it may restrict the dialogue of more junior attendings. Video-based coaching is an educational modality that targets intraoperative judgment, technique, and teaching. Surgeons of all levels found it highly instructive. This may provide a practical, much needed approach for continuous professional development.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 01/2012; 214(1):115-24. · 4.50 Impact Factor
  • Shilpa Grover, Stanley W Ashley, Chandrajit P Raut
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    ABSTRACT: To review the contemporary management of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), including endoscopy, surgery, and systemic therapy, highlighting the aspects unique to small intestinal tumors. Tumor size, mitotic count, and site of origin are the three key prognostic factors, with mitotic count being the single strongest predictor of recurrence. Tumors arising in the small bowel have worse prognosis than those of comparable size and mitotic count arising in other organs. Endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound-guided, fine-needle aspiration are key components in the diagnosis of GIST. The role of endoscopy in surveillance and resection remain investigational. Surgery, either open or laparoscopic, remains the only curative option, but recurrence rates are high. Adjuvant therapy with imatinib mesylate improves recurrence-free survival rates and may improve overall survival (OS) with longer duration of treatment. Neoadjuvant imatinib may play an important role in the management of patients with locally advanced disease. For patients with advanced disease, first-line imatinib and second-line sunitinib malate have improved progression-free and OS rates. Systemic treatment should be continued life-long or until treatment failure. Advances in the last decade have dramatically changed the management and prognosis of patients with primary and advanced GIST.
    Current opinion in gastroenterology 12/2011; 28(2):113-23. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated vagal neural pathways, specifically subdiaphragmatic afferent fibers, regulate expression of the intestinal sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT1, the intestinal transporter responsible for absorption of dietary glucose. We hypothesized targeting this pathway could be a novel therapy for obesity. We therefore tested the impact of disrupting vagal signaling by total vagotomy or selective vagal de-afferentation on weight gain and fat content in diet-induced obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5-8) underwent truncal vagotomy, selective vagal de-afferentation with capsaicin, or sham procedure. Animals were maintained for 11 months on a high-caloric Western diet. Abdominal visceral fat content was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging together with weight of fat pads at harvest. Glucose homeostasis was assessed by fasting blood glucose and HbA1C. Jejunal SGLT1 gene expression was assessed by qPCR and immunoblotting and function by glucose uptake in everted jejunal sleeves. At 11-months, vagotomized rats weighed 19% less (P = 0.003) and de-afferented rats 7% less (P = 0.19) than shams. Vagotomized and de-afferented animals had 52% (P < 0.0001) and 18% reduction (P = 0.039) in visceral abdominal fat, respectively. There were no changes in blood glucose or glycemic indexes. SGLT1 mRNA, protein and function were unchanged across all cohorts at 11-months postoperatively. Truncal vagotomy led to significant reductions in both diet-induced weight gain and visceral abdominal fat deposition. Vagal de-afferentation led to a more modest, but clinically and statistically significant, reduction in visceral abdominal fat. As increased visceral abdominal fat is associated with excess morbidity and mortality, vagal de-afferentation may be a useful adjunct in bariatric surgery.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 12/2011; 57(5):1281-90. · 2.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
1,051.41 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2014
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2000–2012
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Surgery
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2009
    • Beverly Hospital, Boston MA
      Beverly, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008
    • Partners HealthCare
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1996–2001
    • Harbor-UCLA Medical Center
      Torrance, California, United States
  • 1994–2000
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Surgery
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 1996–1997
    • Children's Hospital Los Angeles
      • Department of Surgery
      Los Angeles, California, United States