Patricia A Sirois

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (29)79.24 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Long-term effects of in utero and neonatal antiretroviral (ARV) exposure on cognitive and academic development in HIV-exposed, uninfected school-age children are unknown.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 11/2014; 33(11):1128-33. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate prevalence, incidence, remission, and persistence of psychiatric and substance use disorders among HIV-infected mothers and identify biopsychosocial correlates. HIV-infected mothers (n = 1223) of HIV-exposed uninfected children enrolled in a prospective cohort study; HIV-uninfected mothers (n = 128) served as a comparison group. Mothers provided sociodemographic and health information and completed the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ). Prevalence of any psychiatric or substance use disorder at initial evaluation was compared between the 2 groups. Incident, remitting, and persisting disorders were identified for 689 mothers with HIV who completed follow-up CDQs. We used logistic regression to evaluate adjusted associations of biopsychosocial characteristics with presence, incidence, remission, and persistence of disorders. Thirty-five percent of mothers screened positive for any psychiatric or substance use disorder at initial evaluation, with no difference by maternal HIV status (P = 1.00). Among HIV-infected mothers, presence of any disorder was associated with younger age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.39; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.75], single parenthood (aOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.68), and functional limitations (aOR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.81 to 2.90). Incident disorders were associated with functional limitations (aOR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.10 to 3.30). Among HIV-infected mothers with a disorder at initial evaluation (n = 238), 61% had persistent disorders. Persistent disorders were associated with lower income (aOR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.33 to 4.76) and functional limitations (aOR: 3.19; 95% CI: 1.87 to 5.48). Receipt of treatment for any disorder was limited: 4.5% at study entry, 7% at follow-up, 5.5% at both entry and follow-up. Psychiatric and substance use disorders remain significant comorbid conditions among HIV-infected mothers and require accessible evidence-informed treatment.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 04/2014; 65(5):526-34. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Combination antiretroviral (cARV) regimens are recommended for pregnant women with HIV to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Safety is a concern for infants who were HIV-exposed but uninfected, particularly for neurodevelopmental problems, such as language delays. We studied late language emergence (LLE) in HIV-exposed but uninfected children enrolled in a US-based prospective cohort study. LLE was defined as a caregiver-reported score ≤10th percentile in any of 4 domains of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory for 1-year olds and as ≥1 standard deviation below age-specific norms for the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for 2-year olds. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of in utero cARV exposure with LLE, adjusting for infant, maternal and environmental characteristics. 1129 language assessments were conducted among 792 1- and 2-year-old children (50% male, 62% black and 37% Hispanic). Overall, 86% had in utero exposure to cARV and 83% to protease inhibitors. LLE was identified in 26% of 1-year olds and 23% of 2-year olds, with higher rates among boys. In adjusted models, LLE was not associated with maternal cARV or ARV drug classes in either age group. Among cARV-exposed 1-year olds, increased odds of LLE was observed for those exposed to atazanavir (adjusted odds ratio = 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-3.04), particularly after the first trimester (adjusted odds ratio = 3.56, P = 0.001), compared with atazanavir-unexposed infants. No associations of individual ARV drugs with LLE were observed among 2-year olds. In utero cARV exposure showed little association with LLE, except for a higher risk of language delay observed in 1-year-old infants with atazanavir exposure.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 10/2013; 32(10):e406-e413. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To apply a social ecological model to explore the psychosocial factors prospectively associated with longitudinal adherence to antiretroviral treatment in youth perinatally infected with HIV. METHODS: Randomly selected youth, age 8 to <19 years old, completed cognitive testing and psychosocial questionnaires at baseline as part of a multisite protocol (N = 138). A validated caregiver-report measure of adherence was completed at baseline and 24 and 48 weeks after baseline. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, youth awareness of HIV status, caregiver not fully responsible for medications, low caregiver well-being, adolescent perceptions of poor caregiver-youth relations, caregiver perceptions of low social support, and African American ethnicity were associated with nonadherence over 48 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions focusing on caregivers and their interactions with the individual youth and extrafamilial system should be prioritized for prevention and treatment efforts to address nonadherence during the transition into adolescents.
    Journal of Pediatric Psychology 04/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: This study evaluated effects of perinatal exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) medications on neurodevelopment of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. METHODS:: HIV-exposed, uninfected infants (age 9-15 months) enrolled in SMARTT, a multisite prospective surveillance study, completed the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III), assessing cognition, language, motor skills, social-emotional development, and adaptive behavior. Linear regression models were used to evaluate associations between Bayley-III outcomes in infants with and without perinatal and neonatal ARV exposure, by regimen (combination ARV [cARV] versus non-cARV), type of regimen (defined by drug class), and individual ARVs (for infants with cARV exposure), adjusting for maternal and infant health and demographic covariates. RESULTS:: As of May 2010, 374 infants had valid Bayley-III evaluations. Median age at testing was 12.7 months; 49% male, 79% black, 16% Hispanic. Seventy-nine percent were exposed to regimens containing protease inhibitors (PIs; 9% of PI-containing regimens also included non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTIs]), 5% to regimens containing NNRTIs (without PI), and 14% to regimens containing only nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Overall, 83% were exposed to cARV. No Bayley-III outcome was significantly associated with overall exposure to cARV, ARV regimen, or neonatal prophylaxis. For individual ARVs, following sensitivity analyses, the adjusted group mean on the Language domain was within age expectations but significantly lower for infants with perinatal exposure to atazanavir (p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS:: These results support the safety of perinatal ARV use. Continued monitoring for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in older children is warranted, and the safety of atazanavir merits further study.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 01/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of disease severity on cognitive and adaptive functioning in perinatally HIV-infected youth with (PHIV+/C) and without (PHIV+/NoC) a previous AIDS-defining illness (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Class C event), compared with perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected youth (PHEU) is not well understood. This was a cross-sectional analysis of cognitive and adaptive functioning in PHIV+/C (n = 88), PHIV+/NoC (n = 270) and PHEU (n = 200) youth aged 7-16 years, from a multisite prospective cohort study. Youth and caregivers completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System, Second Edition, respectively. We compared means and rates of impairment between groups, and examined associations with other psychosocial factors. Overall mean scores on measures of cognitive and adaptive functioning were in the low average range for all 3 groups. After adjustment for covariates, mean full-scale intelligence quotient scores were significantly lower for the PHIV+/C group than the PHIV+/NoC and PHEU groups (mean = 77.8 versus 83.4 and 83.3, respectively), whereas no significant differences were observed between the PHEU and PHIV+/NoC groups in any domain. Lower cognitive performance for the PHIV+/C group was primarily attributable to a prior diagnosis of encephalopathy. No significant differences between groups were observed in adaptive functioning. Conclusion: For long-term survivors, youth with HIV infection and a prior Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Class C event have higher risk for cognitive but not adaptive impairment regardless of current health status; this finding appears attributable to a previous diagnosis of encephalopathy. Early preventive therapy may be critical in reducing risk of later neurodevelopmental impairments.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 06/2012; 31(6):592-8. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about hearing loss in children with HIV infection (HIV+). We examined the prevalence of hearing loss in perinatally HIV+ and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children, compared these with the percentage with hearing loss in the general population and evaluated possible risk factors for hearing loss in HIV+ and HEU children. Audiometric examinations were completed in children who met any prespecified criteria for possible hearing loss. The hearing examination consisted of a tympanogram in each ear and pure-tone air-conduction threshold testing from 500 through 4000 Hz. Hearing loss was defined as the pure-tone average over these frequencies ≥ 20 dB hearing level. The associations of demographic variables, parent/caregiver, HIV disease and HIV treatment with hearing loss were evaluated with univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Hearing testing was completed in 231 children (145 HIV+ and 86 HEU). Hearing loss occurred in 20.0% of HIV+ children and 10.5% of HEU children. After adjusting for caregiver education level, HIV infection was associated with increased odds of hearing loss (adjusted odds ratio = 2.13, 95% confidence interval: 0.95-4.76, P = 0.07). Among HIV+ children, those with a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention class C diagnosis had over twice the odds of hearing loss (adjusted odds ratio = 2.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-5.87, P = 0.04). The prevalence of hearing loss was higher in both HIV+ and HEU children compared with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III children. Hearing loss was more common in both HIV+ and HEU children than in children from a US population sample. More advanced HIV illness increased the risk of hearing loss in HIV+ children.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 04/2012; 31(8):835-41. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy among children/youth with HIV often is associated with disease progression. This study examined the agreement between child and caregiver perceptions of barriers to adherence and factors associated with these barriers. Children/youth with perinatally acquired HIV and their parents/caregivers (n = 120 dyads) completed a questionnaire about 19 potential barriers to adherence to the child's antiretroviral therapy regimen. Agreement between the 2 reports was measured via the kappa statistic. Factors associated with the barriers were assessed by using multiple logistic regression. Of the 120 children, 55% were African American, 54% were boys, and the average age was 12.8 years. The most frequently reported barrier by either the caregiver or youth was "forgot." There were varying degrees of agreement between child and caregiver on the following barriers: "forgot," "taste," "child was away from home," "child refused," and "child felt good." Children who knew their HIV status were more likely to report logistical barriers, such as scheduling issues. Children with a biological parent as their caregiver were more likely to report regimen or fear of disclosure as a barrier. Lack of agreement was observed for more than half of the studied barriers, indicating discrepancies between children's and caregivers' perceptions of factors that influence medication-taking. The findings suggest a need for interventions that involve both child and caregiver in the tasks of remembering when to administer the child's medications, sustaining adherence, and appropriately transitioning medication responsibility to the youth.
    PEDIATRICS 04/2012; 129(5):e1244-51. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medication adherence is critical to the success of antiretroviral therapies for children and youth with perinatally acquired HIV. Factors that influence successful transition of medication responsibility from caregivers to youth are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of medication adherence with demographic, cognitive, academic, and behavioral characteristics. Randomly selected youth, N = 151, aged 8 to 18 years, completed cognitive and academic measures, and they and their caregivers completed questionnaires assessing behavior and emotional well-being. An announced pill count and questionnaires completed by youth and their caregivers were used to evaluate adherence. Of 151 participants, 100 completed all adherence measures. Adherence rates varied by assessment method. Nonadherence (<90%) by pill count was associated with older child age, greater youth responsibility for medications, and other demographic and medication regimen variables. Verbal impairment predicted better self-reported adherence and reading problems predicted better self- and caregiver-reported adherence. Youth-reported locus of control was associated with pill count nonadherence, and poor relationships with parents were associated with youth-reported nonadherence. Consideration of youth cognitive or academic status may be helpful in evaluating medication adherence in patients with perinatally acquired HIV infection, particularly when using self- or caregiver reports to assess adherence. Vigilance for adherence problems is indicated when youth are older, responsible for medications, report poor caregiver relationships, and/or sense a lack of control over their lives.
    Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP 02/2012; 33(4):298-308. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the risk for language impairment (LI) in children perinatally infected or exposed to HIV. We evaluated the prevalence of LI in 7- to 16-year-old children with perinatal HIV infection (HIV+) compared with HIV-exposed and uninfected children, using a comprehensive standardized language test (Clinical Evaluation of Language Functioning-Fourth Edition [CELF-4]). LI was classified as primary LI (Pri-LI) (monolingual English exposure and no cognitive or hearing impairment), concurrent LI (Con-LI) (cognitive or hearing impairment), or no LI. Associations of demographic, caregiver, HIV disease, and antiretroviral treatment factors with LI category were evaluated using univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Of the 468 children with language assessments, 184 (39%) had LI. No difference was observed by HIV infection status for overall LI or for Pri-LI or Con-LI; mean (SD) CELF-4 scores were 88.5 (18.4) for HIV+ versus 87.5 (17.9) for HIV-exposed and uninfected children. After adjustment, black children had higher odds of Pri-LI versus no LI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.43, p = .03). Children who were black, Hispanic, had a caregiver with low education or low intelligence quotient, or a nonbiological parent as caregiver had higher odds of Con-LI versus no LI. Among HIV+ children, viral load >400 copies/mL (aOR = 3.04, p < .001), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Class C (aOR = 2.19, p = .02), and antiretroviral treatment initiation <6 months of age (aOR = 2.12, p = .02) were associated with higher odds of Con-LI versus no LI. Children perinatally exposed to HIV are at high risk for LI, but such risk was not increased for youth with HIV. Risk factors differed for Pri-LI and Con-LI.
    Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP 12/2011; 33(2):112-23. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-infected children may be at risk for premature cardiovascular disease. We compared levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction in HIV-infected children (with and without hyperlipidaemia) with those in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children enrolled in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS), and determined factors associated with these biomarkers. A prospective cohort study was carried out. Biomarkers of inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1)], coagulant dysfunction (fibrinogen and P-selectin), endothelial dysfunction [soluble intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM) and E-selectin], and metabolic dysfunction (adiponectin) were measured in 226 HIV-infected and 140 HEU children. Anthropometry, body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin, HIV disease severity, and antiretroviral therapy were recorded. The median ages of the children were 12.3 years in the HIV-infected group and 10.1 years in the HEU group. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores, waist and hip circumferences, and percentage body fat were lower in the HIV-infected children. Total and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were higher in HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children also had higher MCP-1, fibrinogen, sICAM and sVCAM levels. In multivariable analyses in the HIV-infected children alone, BMI z-score was associated with higher CRP and fibrinogen, but lower MCP-1 and sVCAM. Unfavourable lipid profiles were positively associated with IL-6, MCP-1, fibrinogen, and P- and E-selectin, whereas increased HIV viral load was associated with markers of inflammation (MCP-1 and CRP) and endothelial dysfunction (sICAM and sVCAM). HIV-infected children have higher levels of biomarkers of vascular dysfunction than do HEU children. Risk factors associated with higher biomarkers include unfavourable lipid levels and active HIV replication.
    HIV Medicine 12/2011; 13(5):264-75. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of behavioral functioning on medication adherence in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection is not well-explored, but has important implications for intervention. This report addresses the relationship between behavioral functioning and child self-report or caregiver report of medication adherence among children and adolescents enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 219C (conducted 2000-2007). A total of 1134 participants, aged 3-17 years, received a behavioral evaluation and adherence assessment. Complete adherence was defined as taking 100% of prescribed antiretroviral medications during three days preceding the study visit. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between adherence and behavioral functioning, adjusting for potential confounders, including demographic, psychosocial, and health factors. Children demonstrated higher than expected rates of behavioral impairment (≈7% expected with T > 65) in the areas of conduct problems (14%, z = 7.0, p < 0.001), learning problems (22%, z = 12.2, p < 0.001), somatic complaints (22%, z = 12.6, p < 0.001), impulsivity-hyperactivity (20%, z = 11.1, p < 0.001), and hyperactivity (19%, z = 10.6, p < 0.001). Children with behavioral impairment in one or more areas had significantly increased odds of nonadherence [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.49, p = 0.04]. The odds of nonadherence were significantly higher for those with conduct problems and general hyperactivity (aOR = 2.03, p = 0.005 and aOR = 1.68, p = 0.02, respectively). Psychosocial and health factors, such as recent stressful life events and higher HIV RNA levels, were also associated with nonadherence. Knowledge of behavioral, health, and social influences affecting the child and family should guide the development of appropriate, evidence-based interventions for medication adherence.
    AIDS patient care and STDs 02/2011; 25(3):191-200. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Perinatally HIV-infected children, who are increasingly aging into adolescence and early adulthood, have significant rates of psychiatric co-morbidities, some of which are treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). SGAs have been associated with elevated total cholesterol (TC) in youth, but no studies have examined this association in perinatally HIV-infected youth. This study examined changes in TC levels of youth with perinatally acquired HIV infection and co-morbid psychiatric conditions treated with SGAs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Long-term changes in TC levels were examined using data from the US multisite prospective Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219C cohort study. The change in TC levels from baseline to 12 months after initiating SGA use was compared between 52 SGA-exposed and 148 matched SGA-unexposed perinatally HIV-infected youth, using generalized estimating equation models adjusting for other covariates. The prevalence and time to incident hypercholesterolemia were also compared between these 2 groups. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, 52 youth with prescriptions for SGAs had a larger increase in TC levels than 148 matched youth without antipsychotic prescriptions (mean difference = 9 mg/dL, z = 1.96, df = 1, P = 0.0496). Among youth with TC below 220 mg/dL at baseline, 27% of SGA-exposed youth developed hypercholesterolemia (defined as two consecutive TC measurements ≥220 mg/dL), compared with 13% of SGA-unexposed patients (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Caution should be used in prescribing SGAs to perinatally HIV-infected youth with psychiatric co-morbidities due to increased risk of hypercholesterolemia. Patients should be monitored, and alternative evidence-based treatments considered when available.
    Neurobehavioral HIV Medicine 08/2010; 2010(2):39-48.
  • Patricia A. Sirois, Suzanne D. Hill
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to examine (a) developmental change associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in hemophilic boys ages 6 to 16 years and (b) whether age at infection was a critical variable in developmental change for children with HIV disease. Of the 11 subjects, 5 were HIV‐seronegative (HIV‐), and 6 were HIV‐seropositive (HIV+). The HIV+ children were asymptomatic at entry, but by the end of the study, one child had received a diagnosis of AIDS. All subjects were medically well at each time of assessment Standardized measures of general intelligence, academic achievement, neurological development, and problem behaviors were administered to each child every 6 months for 2 years. Both the HIV‐ and HIV+ children performed within age expectations at each time of assessment, and their parents reported very few behavior problems, indicating that the children were adjusting well to chronic illness. Both groups obtained lower achievement test scores than expected for their level of general intellectual ability. Differences were found in the pattern of retest effects for the two groups. There were improvements in Wechsler intelligence test performance over time for the HIV‐ children, but the HIV+ children demonstrated subtle declines in performance on measures of verbal and perceptual abilities. The HIV+ children infected at a younger age (M = 3 years, 11 months) performed more poorly on measures of perceptually related skills and demonstrated more deficient retest effects generally on tasks requiring visual‐motor coordination and perceptual organization than those infected at an older age (M = 9 years, 4 months). In addition, they exhibited more frequent signs of neurological problems than those infected later in life. The findings are discussed in terms of percolation theory, and implications for the children's educational planning are considered.
    Developmental Neuropsychology 11/2009; 9(3):177-197. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the relationships between physical growth and medications prescribed for symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with HIV. Analysis of data from children with perinatally acquired HIV (N = 2251; age 3-19 years), with and without prescriptions for stimulant and nonstimulant medications used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, in a long-term observational study. Height and weight measurements were transformed to z scores and compared across medication groups. Changes in z scores during a 2-year interval were compared using multiple linear regression models adjusting for selected covariates. Participants with (n = 215) and without (n = 2036) prescriptions were shorter than expected based on US age and gender norms (p < .001). Children without prescriptions weighed less at baseline than children in the general population (p < .001) but gained height and weight at a faster rate (p < .001). Children prescribed stimulants were similar to population norms in baseline weight; their height and weight growth velocities were comparable with the general population and children without prescriptions (for weight, p = .511 and .100, respectively). Children prescribed nonstimulants had the lowest baseline height but were similar to population norms in baseline weight. Their height and weight growth velocities were comparable with the general population but significantly slower than children without prescriptions (p = .01 and .02, respectively). The use of stimulants to treat symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder does not significantly exacerbate the potential for growth delay in children with HIV and may afford opportunities for interventions that promote physical growth. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
    Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP 10/2009; 30(5):403-12. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly prescribed to treat psychiatric symptoms in pediatric patients infected with HIV. We examined the relationship between prescribed SGAs and physical growth in a cohort of youth with perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG), Protocol 219C (P219C), a multicenter, longitudinal observational study of children and adolescents perinatally exposed to HIV, was conducted from September 2000 until May 2007. The analysis included P219C participants who were perinatally HIV-infected, 3-18 years old, prescribed first SGA for at least 1 month, and had available baseline data prior to starting first SGA. Each participant prescribed an SGA was matched (based on gender, age, Tanner stage, baseline body mass index [BMI] z score) with 1-3 controls without antipsychotic prescriptions. The main outcomes were short-term (approximately 6 months) and long-term (approximately 2 years) changes in BMI z scores from baseline. There were 236 participants in the short-term and 198 in the long-term analysis. In linear regression models, youth with SGA prescriptions had increased BMI z scores relative to youth without antipsychotic prescriptions, for all SGAs (short-term increase = 0.192, p = 0.003; long-term increase = 0.350, p < 0.001), and for risperidone alone (short-term = 0.239, p = 0.002; long-term = 0.360, p = 0.001). Participants receiving both protease inhibitors (PIs) and SGAs showed especially large increases. These findings suggest that growth should be carefully monitored in youth with perinatally acquired HIV who are prescribed SGAs. Future research should investigate the interaction between PIs and SGAs in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection.
    AIDS patient care and STDs 10/2009; 23(11):939-47. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationship between cognitive functioning and medication adherence in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection. Children and adolescents, ages 3-18 (N = 1,429), received a cognitive evaluation and adherence assessment. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between adherence and cognitive status, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Children's average cognitive performance was within the low-average range; 16% of children were cognitively impaired (MDI/FSIQ <70). Cognitive status was not associated with adherence to full medication regimens; however, children with borderline/low average cognitive functioning (IQ 70-84) had increased odds of nonadherence to the protease inhibitor class of antiretroviral therapy. Recent stressful life events and child health characteristics, such as HIV RNA detectability, were significantly associated with nonadherence. Cognitive status plays a limited role in medication adherence. Child and caregiver psychosocial and health characteristics should inform interventions to support adherence.
    Journal of Pediatric Psychology 03/2009; 34(2):164-75. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parent/caregiver or child/youth self-report and pill counts are commonly used methods for assessing adherence to antiretroviral therapy among children and youth with HIV. The purpose of this study was to compare these different methods with one another and with viral load. Randomly selected parent/caregiver and child/youth dyads were interviewed using several adherence self-report measures and an announced pill count was performed. Adherence assessment methods were compared with one another and their relative validity was assessed by comparison with the child's viral load close to the time of the interview or pill count, adjusting for primary caregiver, child age, and child disclosure of the diagnosis. There were 151 evaluable participants. Adherence rate by pill count was >or=90% in 52% of participants, was significantly associated with log(RNA) viral load (p = .032), and had significant agreement with viral load <400 copies/mL. However, pill count data were incomplete for 26% of participants. With similar proportions considered adherent, a variety of self-report adherence assessment methods also were associated with log(RNA) viral load including: "no dose missed within the past 1 month" (p = .054 child/youth interview, p = .004 parent/caregiver interview), and no barrier to adherence identified (p = .085 child/youth interview, p = .015 parent/caregiver interview). Within-rater and inter-rater agreement was high among self-report methods. Three day recall of missed doses was not associated with viral load. Findings demonstrate the validity of adherence assessment strategies that allow the parent/caregiver or child/youth to report on adherence over a longer period of time and to identify adherence barriers. Adherence assessed by announced pill count was robustly associated with viral load, but there was incomplete data for many participants.
    Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP 09/2008; 29(5):377-84. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study is to describe allocation of responsibility for illness management in families of children and adolescents perinatally infected with HIV. A total of 123 youth (ages 8-18) and caregivers completed family responsibility and medication adherence questionnaires as part of a substudy of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 219c. Approximately one-fourth of the youth reported being fully responsible for taking medications. A smaller percentage of caregivers reported full youth responsibility. Older youth and caregivers of older youth reported higher degree of youth responsibility for medication-related tasks, though age was unrelated to adherence. Caregiver report of greater responsibility for medications was associated with better adherence. Caregivers are likely to transition responsibility for HIV care to older youth but this transition was not always successful as evidenced by poor medication adherence. Interventions supporting successful transition may improve adherence and subsequently health outcomes in pediatric HIV.
    Journal of Pediatric Psychology 07/2008; 34(2):187-94. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most evaluations of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV infection have focused on validation of adherence measures via their association with virological outcomes. However, few studies have fully explored associations with other factors to guide development of adherence interventions. In this study, we examined the relationship of self-reported medication adherence to health, demographic, and psychosocial characteristics of children and their caregivers, using data from an ongoing multicenter prospective observational study of long-term outcomes of HIV infection conducted by the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Child and caregiver characteristics were evaluated for association with adherence via univariate and multiple logistic regression models. Of the 2088 children and adolescents, 84% reported complete adherence to antiretroviral therapy medications over the past 3 days. The median viral load was approximately 10 times higher among nonadherent than adherent children, and the strength of this association increased with age. Factors associated with at least marginally significant increases in nonadherence in a multiple logistic regression model included increasing age in years, female gender, detectable HIV viral load, occurrence of recent stressful life events, repeating a grade in school, self-assessment of adherence by the subject, and diagnosis of depression or anxiety. Having an adult other than the biological parent as the primary caregiver, using a buddy system to remember to take antiretroviral therapy medications, higher caregiver education level, previous adherence assessments, and taking antipsychotic medications were each associated with improved adherence. After controlling for these characteristics, there was no significant association of adherence with race, knowledge of HIV status, medication burden, CD4 percentage, or current antiretroviral therapy. Rates of self-reported adherence were relatively high and were influenced by multiple child and family characteristics. These findings identify targets for adherence interventions and highlight the importance of evaluating and supporting the family environment to optimize adherence.
    PEDIATRICS 01/2007; 118(6):e1745-57. · 4.47 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

356 Citations
79.24 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • San Diego State University
      • School of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 1998–2012
    • Tulane University
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Section of Hematology and Medical Oncology
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Kansas
      Lawrence, Kansas, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2002–2007
    • Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center New Orleans
      • Department of Pediatrics
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States