Aimilia Pelekanou

Athens State University, Athens, Alabama, United States

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Publications (27)84.39 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A previous randomized study showed that clarithromycin decreases the risk of death due to ventilator-associated pneumonia and shortens the time until infection resolution. The efficacy of clarithromycin was tested in a larger population with sepsis. Six hundred patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to acute pyelonephritis, acute intra-abdominal infections or primary Gram-negative bacteraemia were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, multicentre trial. Clarithromycin (1 g) was administered intravenously once daily for 4 days consecutively in 302 patients; another 298 patients were treated with placebo. Mortality was the primary outcome; resolution of infection and hospitalization costs were the secondary outcomes. The groups were well matched for demographics, disease severity, microbiology and appropriateness of the administered antimicrobials. Overall 28 day mortality was 17.1% (51 deaths) in the placebo arm and 18.5% (56 deaths) in the clarithromycin arm (P = 0.671). Nineteen out of 26 placebo-treated patients with septic shock and multiple organ dysfunctions died (73.1%) compared with 15 out of 28 clarithromycin-treated patients (53.6%, P = 0.020). The median time until resolution of infection was 5 days in both arms. In the subgroup with severe sepsis/shock, this was 10 days in the placebo arm and 6 days in the clarithromycin arm (P = 0.037). The cost of hospitalization was lower after treatment with clarithromycin (P = 0.044). Serious adverse events were observed in 1.3% and 0.7% of placebo- and clarithromycin-treated patients, respectively (P = 0.502). Intravenous clarithromycin did not affect overall mortality; however, administration shortened the time to resolution of infection and decreased the hospitalization costs.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 11/2013; · 5.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To investigate the effect of dexamethasone on triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1). Methods: Wild-type and tumor necrosis factor (TNF (-/-)) mice were pre-treated with saline, dexamethasone, or hydrocortisone and exposed to a lethal infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mortality and TREM-1 on neutrophil membranes was measured after sacrifice. U937 human monocytic cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or heat-killed P. aeruginosa without or with dexamethasone or hydrocortisone, and cell-surface TREM-1 and soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) were quantified. Expression of TREM-1 and sTREM-1 was also studied in LPS-stimulated U937 cells incubated in the absence or presence of TNFα or anti-TNFα antibody. Results: Pre-treatment with dexamethasone, but not hydrocortisone, prolonged animal survival. Mice pre-treated with dexamethasone showed decreased expression of TREM-1 on neutrophils. In U937 cells, LPS or heat-killed P. aeruginosa induced the expression of TREM-1 and the release of sTREM-1. U937 TREM-1 and sTREM-1 were decreased upon addition of dexamethasone but not hydrocortisone. The suppressive effect of dexamethasone was enhanced in the presence of exogenous TNFα and lost in the presence of anti-TNFα antibody. In TNF (-/-) mice, dexamethasone suppression of mortality and TREM-1 neutrophil expression was lost. Gene expression of TREM-1 in U937 monocytes was decreased after treatment with dexamethasone. Conclusion: TREM-1/sTREM-1 is a novel site of action of dexamethasone. This action is associated with down-regulation of gene expression and is mediated by TNFα.
    Frontiers in Public Health 01/2013; 1:50.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study focused on the impact of methicillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus on cytokine production by monocytes. Cytokine stimulation was studied by 20 heat-killed isolates, 10 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and 10 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Bacterial endocarditis was induced in 27 male rabbits by challenge with 1 MSSA isolate and 1 MRSA isolate. Blood was sampled for estimation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and stimulation of monocytes. MSSA induced greater stimulation of TNF-α than MRSA, as shown after addition of a Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) antagonist. Survival of rabbits challenged by MRSA was prolonged compared to those challenged by MSSA. Serum MDA was greater after MSSA stimulation. Serum of animals challenged by MRSA stimulated greater release of interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 compared with MSSA: the opposite was observed for TNF-α. It is concluded that MSSA and MRSA induce a different pattern of TNF-α stimulation through a TLR4-independent mechanism, leading to shorter survival in experimental endocarditis.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 10/2012; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Levels of circulating angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) increase in sepsis, raising the possibility that Ang-2 acts as a modulator in the sepsis cascade. To investigate this, experimental sepsis was induced in male C57BL6 mice by a multidrug-resistant isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; survival was determined along with neutrophil tissue infiltration and release of proinflammatory cytokines. Survival was significantly increased either by pretreatment with recombinant Ang-2 2 h before or treatment with recombinant Ang-2 30 min after bacterial challenge. Likewise, Ang-2 pretreatment protected against sepsis-related death elicited by Escherichia coli; however, Ang-2 failed to provide protection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged mice. The survival advantage of Ang-2 in response to P. aeruginosa challenge was lost in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-deficient mice or neutropenic mice. Infiltration of the liver by neutrophils was elevated in the Ang-2 group compared with saline-treated animals. Serum TNF-α levels were reduced by Ang-2, whereas those of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 remained unchanged. This was accompanied by lower release of TNF-α by stimulated splenocytes. When applied to U937 cells in vitro, heat-killed P. aeruginosa induced the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α; low levels of exogenous TNF-α synergized with P. aeruginosa. This synergistic effect was abolished after the addition of Ang-2. These results put in evidence a striking protective role of Ang-2 in experimental sepsis evoked by a multidrug-resistant isolate of P. aeruginosa attributed to modulation of TNF-α production and changes in neutrophil migration. The protective role of Ang-2 is shown when whole microorganisms are used and not LPS, suggesting complex interactions with the host immune response.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 08/2012; 343(2):278-87. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One recent, double-blind, randomized clinical trial with 200 patients showed that clarithromycin administered intravenously for 3 days in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) accelerated the resolution of pneumonia and decreased the risk of death from septic shock and multiple organ dysfunctions (MODS). The present study focused on the effect of clarithromycin on markers of inflammation in these patients. Blood was drawn immediately before the administration of the allocated treatment and on six consecutive days after the start of treatment. The concentrations of circulating markers were measured. Monocytes and neutrophils were isolated for immunophenotyping analysis and for cytokine stimulation. The ratio of serum interleukin-10 (IL-10) to serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was decreased in the clarithromycin group compared with the results in the placebo group. Apoptosis of monocytes was significantly increased on day 4 in the clarithromycin group compared with the rate of apoptosis in the placebo group. On the same day, the expression of CD86 was increased and the ratio of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) to CD86 in serum was unchanged. The release of TNF-α, IL-6, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) by circulating monocytes after stimulation was greater in the clarithromycin group than in the placebo group. The expression of TREM-1 on monocytes was also increased in the former group. These effects were pronounced in patients with septic shock and MODS. These results suggest that the administration of clarithromycin restored the balance between proinflammatory versus anti-inflammatory mediators in patients with sepsis; this was accompanied by more efficient antigen presentation and increased apoptosis. These effects render new perspectives for the immunotherapy of sepsis.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2012; 56(7):3819-25. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To define early kinetics of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) and of TREM-1 monocyte gene expression in critically ill patients with sepsis. Blood was sampled at regular time intervals from 105 patients with sepsis. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-10 and IL-12p70 and sTREM-1 were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. Blood mononuclear cells were isolated on day 0 from 20 patients and 10 healthy volunteers; RNA was extracted and gene expression of TREM-1 and TNFα were assessed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Early serum concentrations of sTREM-1 were greater among patients with severe sepsis/shock than among patients with sepsis; those of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were pronounced among patients with septic shock. Gene transcripts of TNFα were lower among patients with severe sepsis/shock than among patients with sepsis; that was not the case for TREM-1. Early serum levels of sTREM-1 greater than 180 pg/mL were predictors of shorter duration of mechanical ventilation. Although serum levels of sTREM-1 are increased early upon advent of severe sepsis/shock, gene expression of TREM-1 on monocytes in severe sepsis/shock is not increased. These findings add considerably to our knowledge on the pathophysiology of sepsis.
    Journal of critical care 08/2011; 27(3):294-300. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inflammatory influence of prolonged mechanical ventilation in uninjured lungs remains a matter of controversy and largely unexplored in humans. The authors investigated pulmonary inflammation by using exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in mechanically ventilated, brain-injured patients in the absence of acute lung injury or sepsis and explored the potential influence of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Inflammatory EBC markers were assessed in 27 mechanically ventilated, brain-injured patients with neither acute lung injury nor sepsis and in 12 healthy and 8 brain-injured control subjects. Patients were ventilated with 8 ml/kg during zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP group, n = 12) or 8 cm H(2)O PEEP (PEEP group, n = 15). EBC was collected on days 1, 3, and 5 of mechanical ventilation to measure pH; interleukins (IL)-10, 1β, 6, 8, and 12p70; and tumor necrosis factor-α. EBC pH was lower, whereas IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α were greater in both patient groups compared with either control group; IL-6 was higher, whereas IL-10 and IL-12p70 were sporadically higher than in healthy control subjects; no differences were noted between the two patient groups, except for IL-10, which decreased by day 5 during PEEP. Leukocytes, soluble IL-6, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in blood were constantly higher during zero end-expiratory pressure; EBC cytokines appeared mostly related to soluble IL-8 and inversely related to soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1. In brain-injured, mechanically ventilated patients with neither acute lung injury nor sepsis, EBC markers appear to indicate the presence of subtle pulmonary inflammation that is mostly unaffected by PEEP. There is evidence for a systemic inflammatory response, especially in patients during zero end-expiratory pressure.
    Anesthesiology 05/2011; 114(5):1118-29. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated whether hypoxemic resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock prevents lung injury and explored the mechanisms involved. We subjected rabbits to hemorrhagic shock for 60 min by exsanguination to a mean arterial pressure of 40 mm Hg. By modifying the fraction of the inspired oxygen, we performed resuscitation under normoxemia (group NormoxRes, P(a)O(2)=95-105 mm Hg) or hypoxemia (group HypoxRes, P(a)O(2)=35-40 mm Hg). Animals not subjected to shock constituted the sham group (P(a)O(2)=95-105 mm Hg). We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, and morphological studies. U937 monocyte-like cells were incubated with BAL fluid from each group. Cell peroxides, malondialdehyde, proteins, and cytokines in the BAL fluid were lower in sham than in shocked animals and in HypoxRes than in NormoxRes animals. The inverse was true for ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione. Lung edema, lung neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase, and interleukin (IL)-8 gene expression were reduced in lungs of HypoxRes compared with NormoxRes animals. A colocalized higher expression of IL-8 and nitrotyrosine was found in lungs of NormoxRes animals compared to HypoxRes animals. The BAL fluid of NormoxRes animals compared with HypoxRes animals exerted a greater stimulation of U937 monocyte-like cells for proinflammatory cytokine release, particularly for IL-8. In the presence of p38-MAPK and Syk inhibitors and monosodium urate crystals, IL-8 release was reduced. We conclude that hypoxemic resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock ameliorates lung injury and reduces oxygen radical generation and lung IL-8 expression.
    Free Radical Biology & Medicine 11/2010; 50(2):245-53. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Ultrasonographic (US) evaluation was performed in 19 patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) by a high-resolution 7-12 MHz linear transducer in a HDI 3500, ATL echo Doppler unit. Thickness of the epidermis and of the dermis of the affected skin sites were significantly greater compared with those of the adjacent normal skin. The echo score was significantly greater among patients with Hurley III stage of HS compared with those of Hurley I and Hurley II stages. A score greater than 8.5 had sensitivity 84.2% and specificity 94.7% to diagnose HS. The presented US findings may be a considerable clinical aid for the diagnosis and severity assessment of HS.
    British Journal of Dermatology 02/2010; 162(6):1400-2. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although major changes of the immune system have been described in sepsis, it has never been studied whether these may differ in relation to the type of underlying infection or not. This was studied for the first time. The statuses of the innate and adaptive immune systems were prospectively compared in 505 patients. Whole blood was sampled within less than 24 hours of advent of sepsis; white blood cells were stained with monoclonal antibodies and analyzed though a flow cytometer. Expression of HLA-DR was significantly decreased among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to acute pyelonephritis and intraabdominal infections compared with sepsis. The rate of apoptosis of natural killer (NK) cells differed significantly among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) compared with sepsis. The rate of apoptosis of NKT cells differed significantly among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to acute pyelonephritis, primary bacteremia and VAP/HAP compared with sepsis. Regarding adaptive immunity, absolute counts of CD4-lymphocytes were significantly decreased among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and intraabdominal infections compared with sepsis. Absolute counts of B-lymphocytes were significantly decreased among patients with severe sepsis/shock due to CAP compared with sepsis. Major differences of the early statuses of the innate and adaptive immune systems exist between sepsis and severe sepsis/shock in relation to the underlying type of infection. These results may have a major impact on therapeutics.
    Critical care (London, England) 01/2010; 14(3):R96. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate changes of the immune response between sepsis due to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and sepsis due to other types of infections. Peripheral venous blood was sampled from 68 patients with sepsis within 24 hours of diagnosis; 36 suffered from VAP; 32 from other nosocomial infections, all well-matched for severity, age and sex. Blood monocytes were isolated and cultured with/without purified endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)). Estimation of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in cultures' supernatants was done by an enzyme immunoassay. Flow cytometry was used to determine subpopulations of mononuclear cells and apoptosis. To mimic pathogenesis of VAP, mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers were progressively stimulated with increased inocula of pathogens; apoptosis was determined. In patients with VAP, the absolute number of CD3(+)/CD4(+) lymphocytes was significantly lower (P = 0.034) and apoptosis of isolated monocytes was increased (P = 0.007) compared to other infections. TNFalpha and IL-6 production from LPS-stimulated monocytes was lower in patients with VAP-related sepsis than with sepsis due to other infections. Apoptosis of monocytes was induced after in vitro stimulation of mononuclear cells by a mechanism mimicking VAP. Decrease of CD4-lymphocytes and immunoparalysis of monocytes are characteristic alterations of sepsis arising in the field of VAP.
    Critical care (London, England) 11/2009; 13(6):R172. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the long-term efficacy of etanercept for the management of hidradenitis suppurativa. Analysis was based on the long-term follow-up (weeks 24-144) of 10 patients enrolled in a prospective open-label phase II study; etanercept was initially administered subcutaneously 50 mg once weekly for 12 weeks in 10 patients. Disease recurrence and the need to restart etanercept were recorded. Three patients did not report any disease recurrence. A second course of treatment with etanercept was needed in seven patients. Favourable responses were found in five; two patients failed treatment. The first treatment course achieved long-term disease remission in almost one-third of patients. The remaining needed a second treatment course but even in that case, their disease severity at restart was significantly lower compared with baseline.
    Experimental Dermatology 09/2009; 19(6):538-40. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Controversial findings of former clinical trials on the effect of low dose hydrocortisone in patients with septic shock led to investigate the effect of corticosteroids on the production of cytokines from endotoxin (LPS)-stimulated whole blood. Whole blood from 33 septic patients was sampled within 24h alter diagnosis. Hydrocortisone was not administered during follow-up. Whole blood was stimulated with 30 ng/ml of LPS in the presence of 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 microM of dexamethasone. Concentrations of cytokines and of sTREM-1 were estimated in supernatants after six hours of incubation. Dexamethasone inhibited LPS-stimulated release of TauNuFalpha, of IL-6, of IL-8 and of IL-10 in dose-dependent manner. A dual effect on the kinetics of release of IL-1beta and of sTREM-1 was shown. Release of IL-1beta was either decreased, what was connected with unfavorable outcome, or it was unaffected what was connected with a favorable outcome. Release of sTREM-1 was either increased, what was connected with unfavorable outcome, or it was decreased what was connected with a favorable outcome. Part of the beneficiary effect of corticosteroids in sepsis may be due to an effect on the release of IL-1beta and of sTREM-1. This effect does not seem to be homogeneous for all septic patients.
    Cytokine 09/2009; 49(1):89-94. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical ventilation and administration of a high oxygen concentration are simultaneously used in the management of respiratory failure. We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of a high inspired oxygen concentration on ventilator-induced lung injury. Forty sets of isolated/perfused rabbit lungs were randomized for 60 min of pressure-control ventilation at a plateau inspiratory pressure of 25 or 15 cm H(2)O and positive end-expiratory pressure of 3 cm H(2)O while receiving 100% or 21% O(2). The temperature, pH, and partial pressure of CO(2) in the perfusate were maintained the same in all groups (n = 10 for each group). The outcome measures used to assess lung injury included: the change in weight gain and ultrafiltration coefficient, the frequency of vascular failure, the histological lesions and the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and malondialdehyde in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The two groups ventilated at the higher inspiratory pressure/tidal volume experienced greater weight gain and increases in the ultrafiltration coefficient, more frequently suffered vascular failure, and presented higher composite scores of histological damage than the two groups ventilated at the lower inspiratory pressure/tidal volume. Hyperoxia was not found to further increase any of the monitored markers of lung injury. No difference was noticed among the four experimental groups in the alveolar lavage fluid levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha or malondialdehyde. These findings suggest that short-term administration of a high oxygen concentration is not a major determinant of ventilator-induced lung injury in this experimental model.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 03/2009; 108(2):556-64. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder primarily affecting intertriginous body areas. It is characterized by onset after puberty and a physical course with exacerbations and remissions. Available evidence points toward the existence of various factors contributing to the disease. Disorders of the follicular epithelium, derangements of immune response, genetic predisposition, cigarette smoking and obesity create a favorable background for disease development. Several case studies demonstrate moderate efficacy of TNF-α blockade therapies. Two open-label prospective studies showed favorable results. In the first, ten patients were treated with three infusions of infliximab; in the second, ten patients were administered etanercept 50 mg subcutaneously each week for 12 weeks.
    Expert Review of Dermatology 01/2009; 4(1):47-54.
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the concentrations of sTREM-1 in patients with sepsis and to explore the effects of their serum on the expression of TREM-1 on U937 monocytes. Blood was sampled at regular time intervals in 56 patients with sepsis. Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1alpha), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12p70 and sTREM-1 were measured. U937 monocytes were incubated in the presence of serum at sepsis onset. Median sTREM-1 concentration on day 1 for patients with septic shock was 915 pg/ml and 228.5 pg/ml for those without shock (p = 0.002). TNFalpha, IL-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 did not differ between them. A positive correlation was found between changes of sTREM-1 and SOFA scores from day 1 to 7. Sera of patients with septic shock evoked a significant increase of the expression of TREM-1. The concentrations of TNFalpha and IL-8 in supernatants increased only after stimulating with sera of patients without shock, but not after stimulating with sera of patients with shock. Levels of sTREM-1 correlated with sepsis severity. sTREM-1 is considerably higher in patients with shock compared to patients without shock. The serum of shocked patients could stimulate the expression of TREM-1 on U937 monocytes.
    Agents and Actions 01/2009; 58(3):127-32. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    Critical Care 01/2009; · 4.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on the implication of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM-1) in the septic cascade, it was investigated whether it participates or not in posttraumatic systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Blood was sampled on days 1, 4, 7, and 15 from 69 patients with SIRS after multiple injuries and upon presentation of a septic complication. Concentrations of sTREM-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and interferon-gamma were determined by an enzyme immunoassay. Samples drawn on day 1 from 10 trauma patients without SIRS served as controls. In 26 patients with SIRS without septic complication, sTREM-1, TNFalpha, and IL-8 remained stable over follow-up; IL-6 decreased and interferon-gamma increased on days 4 and 7 compared with day 1. TNFalpha was the only variable being higher upon advent of septic shock compared with patients without SIRS and upon presentation of SIRS, sepsis, and severe sepsis (p of comparisons with all subgroups <0.0001). Mortality of patients with sTREM-1 greater than 180 pg/mL was 5.3% compared with 28.0% of those with sTREM-1 lower than 180 pg/mL (p 0.035). sTREM-1 higher than 40 pg/mL had sensitivity 56.5% and specificity 91.7% for the differential diagnosis between SIRS and sepsis after multiple injuries. This is the first study providing evidence about the participation of sTREM-1 in posttraumatic SIRS. Its levels are increased and remain constant over time in patients who did not develop any complications whereas it seems to behave as an anti-inflammatory mediator.
    The Journal of trauma 12/2008; 65(6):1385-90. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is considered a proinflammatory mediator promoting vascular leakage. Its participation in the inflammatory process following multiple injuries was investigated. Blood was sampled on consecutive days from 54 patients with multiple injuries and six healthy volunteers. Ang-2 was estimated in serum by an enzyme immunoassay. From the enrolled patients, 10 did not develop any complication; 17 developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS); 16 developed sepsis and 11 severe sepsis. Among those who did not develop any complication, all survived. Ang-2 was increased on days 4 and 7 of follow-up in patients with SIRS. Ang-2 was highly increased upon advent of sepsis and of severe sepsis. Patients with serum levels below 15,200 pg/ml survived longer compared to those with levels above 15,200 pg/ml (p=0.015). OR for death with serum Ang-2 above 15,200 pg/ml was 4.00 (p=0.037). Serum levels of Ang-2 in multi-trauma patients are increased upon advent of septic complications and they are connected with bad prognosis. Its exact role in the process of multiple trauma remains to be defined.
    Cytokine 11/2008; 44(2):310-3. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of oral linezolid, with or without rifampicin, on valve vegetations and secondary foci of infection compared with vancomycin, in the absence or presence of rifampicin, in experimental endocarditis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment groups were controls (n = 16), linezolid (n = 15), vancomycin (n = 15), linezolid and rifampicin (n = 15), vancomycin and rifampicin (n = 13), linezolid relapse (n = 11) and vancomycin relapse (n = 9). Therapy lasted 5 days in all groups, with survival of animals in the linezolid relapse and vancomycin relapse groups being recorded for an additional 5 days. Blood was drawn to determine the linezolid concentration, and valve vegetations, and kidney, liver, lung and spleen segments were collected for culture. Survival in each individual group was higher than that in the control group; bacterial load in valve vegetations was reduced by all treatment regimens, with linezolid exhibiting bactericidal effects. Bactericidal activity of linezolid was noted in all secondary foci of infection except the lung, where only the combination of rifampicin with linezolid was bactericidal. Orally administered linezolid is effective in limiting bacterial growth in the secondary foci of endocarditis. Co-administration of rifampicin favoured the suppression of bacterial growth in the lung.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 09/2008; 62(2):381-3. · 5.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

206 Citations
84.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2012
    • Athens State University
      Athens, Alabama, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Patras
      • School of Medicine
      Patrís, Kentriki Makedonia, Greece
  • 2009–2010
    • Attikon University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine IV
      Athens, Attiki, Greece
  • 2008
    • National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
      • Division of Intensive Care I
      Athens, Attiki, Greece