[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Tumor recurrence is the most important predictive factor for the survival of patients following liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The management of recurrent HCC remains controversial. In this study, we presented the clinical outcomes of patients with recurrent HCC following living donor liver transplantation. Material and Methods: Of the 109 patients who underwent liver transplantation due to hepatocellular carcinoma, sixteen (14.7%) developed tumor recurrence and were included in the study. We analyzed the management of patients with recurrent tumors and their outcomes. Results: The mean age of patients included in the study was 55.2 ± 7.82 (28-65) years, and 13 patients (81%) were male. The mean follow up and time to recurrence were 25.8 ± 19.2 (5-78) months and 11 ± 9.4 (4-26) months, respectively. Four patients developed recurrence in the liver graft and 12 (75%) developed recurrence in extrahepatic organs. Of these patients, seven had surgical treatment, seven received chemotherapy, and two did not receive any treatment. All four surviving patients received surgical treatment. Conclusion: Recurrence of HCC following liver transplantation generally occurs in the first two years and in extrahepatic organs. The most effective treatment for patients with single and isolated recurrent tumors is surgery. However, the long term survival differed according to the type of recurrence, depending on which organs recurrence occurred in and whether recurrence was in single or multiple locations. Therefore, the treatment strategy should be individualized for longer survival. Keywords: The management of HCC, Recurrent HCC, Living donor liver transplantation.
gulf journal of oncology, The 01/2014; 1(15):12-18.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In right lobe (RL) living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), portal vein (PV) variations are of immense clinical significance. In this study, we describe in detail our PV reconstruction techniques in RL grafts with variant PV anatomy and evaluate the impact of accompanying biliary variations on the recipient outcomes. In a total of 386 RL LDLTs performed between July 2004 and July 2012, the clinical data on 52 (13%) transplants using RL grafts with variant PV anatomy were retrospectively analyzed. Portal vein anatomy was classified as type 2 in 20 patients, type 3 in 24 patients, and type 4 in eight patients. The PV reconstruction techniques utilized included back-wall plasty (n = 21), back-wall plasty with saphenous vein graft interposition (n = 6), saphenous vein graft interposition (n = 5), cryopreserved iliac vein Y-graft interposition (n = 6), and quiltplasty (n = 3). There was no donor mortality. In a median follow-up of 29 months, none of the recipients had vascular complications. Anomalous PV anatomy was associated with a high (54%) incidence of biliary variations; however, these variations did not result in increased biliary complication rate. Overall, the 1- and 3-year patient survival rates of recipients were 91% and 81%, respectively. Vascular and biliary variations in RL grafts render LDLT technically more challenging. By employing appropriate reconstruction techniques, it is possible to successfully use RL grafts with PV variations without endangering recipient and donor safety.
Transplant International 11/2013; 26(12):1191-1197. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incision-related morbidity for donors is a major concern in living-donor right hepatectomy (LDRH). Open approaches use midline, J-shaped, and Mercedes incisions for LDRH. We retrospectively studied 95 consecutive donors who underwent LDRH between January 2009 and November 2010. They underwent midline (n = 32), J-shaped (n = 28), or Mercedes (n = 35) incisions. We studied resection times, perioperative bleeding, postoperative hospital stay, and postoperative pain assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS) and by analgesic requirements as well as laboratory data and complications. Postoperative analgesic requirements and postoperative VAS scores were significantly lower in the midline group (P < .05) upon univariate but not multivariate analyses. The postoperative complications as well as other parameters were similar between the groups. In conclusion, compared with a J-type shaped or not for Mercedes incision, a donor hepatectomy can be satisfactorily performed via a midline incision by experienced surgeons without increased risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common fatal cancer and an important healthcare problem worldwide. There are many studies describing the prognostic and predictive effects of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (c-erb-B2) and epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR), transmembrane tyrosine kinases that influence cell growth and proliferation in many tumors.
The current study aimed to investigate the expression levels of c-erb-B2, EGFR, PTEN, mTOR, PI3K, p27, and ERCC1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and their correlation with other clinicopathologic features.
Fifty HCC cases were stained immunohistochemically with these markers. Correlations between the markers and clinicopathologic characteristics and survival rates were analyzed.
No membranous c-erb-B2 staining was seen, whereas cytoplasmic positivity was present in 92% of HCC samples, membranous EGFR was observed in 40%, PI3K was found in all samples, and mTOR was seen in 30%, whereas reduced or absent PTEN expression was observed in 56% of samples and loss of p27 was seen in 92% of the cases. c-erb-B2 and mTOR overexpression, as well as reduced expression of p27, all correlated with multiple tumors (P = 0.041, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). P27 loss, and mTOR and EGFR positivity were significantly correlated with AFP (P = 0.047, P = 0.004, and P = 0.008, respectively). Angiolymphatic invasion was more commonly seen in EGFR- and ERCC1-positive cases (P = 0.003 and P = 0.005). EGFR was also correlated with histological grade (P = 0.039). No significant correlations were found among PTEN , PI3K, and the clinicopathological parameters. Disease-free or overall survival rates showed significant differences among therapy modalities, AFP levels, angiolymphatic or lymph node invasions, and ERCC1 and p27 expression levels (P < 0.05).
c-erb-B2, EGFR, mTOR, ERCC1 overexpression levels, and loss of p27 may play roles in hepatocarcinogenesis and may be significant predictors of aggressive tumor behavior. These markers were found to be correlated with certain clinicopathologic features, therapy modalities, and survival rates in the current study. These findings may help in planning new, targeted treatment strategies .
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key Words: Hepatorenal syndrome; Liver transplantation. SummaryHepatorenal syndrome is defined as renal failure caused by acute or chronic liver failure without any laboratory or histological reasons. The exact etiology of this syndrome is unknown. However, vasodilatation in the splanchnic area as a result of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, reflex systemic and splanchnic vasoconstriction are the basic pathophysiological reasons of this syndrome. The decrease of renal perfusion, decrease in glomerular filtration rate, sodium retention and deterioration of excretion of free water are the major renal problems and these remain progressive according to the stage of liver disease. The treatment of this syndrome is correction of the underlying problem. Here, we report a patient who was having hemodialysis due to renal failure as a consequence of liver cirrhosis for three months and returned back to his normal life without a need for dialysis after liver transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Living donor liver right lobe transplantation using donors with variation of the right sectorial portal vein is considered a challenging procedure in terms of the donor's safety and the complexity of reconstruction in the recipient. We describe an innovative technique to reconstruct double portal vein orifices via a deceased donor iliac vein graft. The postoperative course of the recipient was uneventful. Doppler ultrasound on the fourth postoperative month revealed equivalent flow in both portal vein branches. Reconstruction of double right portal vein branches using a cryopreserved iliac vein is a valuable technique for utilizing right lobe grafts with challenging portal vein anatomy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKROUND: Right lobe donations are known to expose the donors to more surgical risks than left lobe donations. In the present study, the effects of remnant volume on donor outcomes after right lobe living donor hepatectomies were investigated.
The data on 262 consecutive living liver donors who had undergone a right hepatectomy from January 2004 to June 2011 were retrospectively analysed. The influence of the remnant on the outcomes was investigated according to the two different definitions. These were: (i) the ratio of the remnant liver volume to total liver volume (RLV/TLV) and (ii) the remnant liver volume to donor body weight ratio (RLV/BWR). For RLV/TLV, the effects of having a percentage of 30% or below and for RLV/BWR, the effects of values lower than 0.6 on the results were investigated.
Complication and major complication rates were 44.7% and 13.2% for donors with RLV/TLV of ≤30%, and 35.9% and 9.4% for donors with RLV/BWR of < 0.6, respectively. In donors with RLV/TLV of ≤30%, RLV/BWR being below or above 0.6 did not influence the results in terms of liver function tests, complications and hospital stay. The main impact on the outcome was posed by RLV/TLV of ≤30%.
Remnant volume in a right lobe living donor hepatectomy has adverse effects on donor outcomes when RLV/TLV is ≤30% independent from the rate of RLV/BWR with a cut-off point of 0.6.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In liver transplantation or resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), patient selection depends on morphological features. In patients with HCC, we performed a clinicopathological analysis of risk factors that affected survival after liver transplantation.
In 389 liver transplantations performed from 2004 to 2010, 102 were for HCC patients. Data were collected retrospectively from the Organ Transplantation Center Database. Variables were as follows: age, gender, preoperative alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, Child-Pugh and MELD scores, prognostic staging criteria (Milan and UCSF), etiology, number of tumors, the largest tumor size, total tumor size, multifocality, intrahepatic portal vein tumor thrombosis, bilobarity, and histological differentiation.
One hundred and two patients were evaluated. The 5-year overall survival rate was 56.5%. According to the UCSF criteria, 63% of the patients were within and 37% were beyond UCSF (P=0.03). Ten patients were excluded (one with fibrolamellary HCC and 9 because of early postoperative death without HCC recurrence), and 92 patients were assessed. The mean age of the patients was 56.5+/-6.9 years. Sixty-two patients underwent living donor liver transplantations. The mean follow-up time was 29.4+/-22.6 months. Fifteen patients (16.3%) died in the follow-up period due to HCC recurrence. Univariate analysis showed that AFP level, intrahepatic portal vein tumor thrombosis, histologic differentiation and UCSF criteria were significant factors related to survival and tumor recurrence.The 5-year estimated overall survival rate was 62.2% in all patients. According to the UCSF criteria, and the 5-year overall survival rate was 66.7% within and 52.7% beyond the criteria (P=0.04). Multivariate analysis showed that AFP level and poor differentiation were independent factors.
For proper patient selection in liver transplantation for HCC, prognostic criteria related to tumor biology (especially AFP level and histological differentiation) should be considered. Poor differentiation and higher AFP levels are indicators of poor prognosis after liver transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the spectrum of liver transplantation-related vascular complications that occurred in a single center over the past 14 years.
Vascular complications and their clinical outcomes were reviewed among 744 liver transplant recipients. All patients underwent Doppler ultrasound with findings correlated with conventional or computed tomography angiography (CTA) in 111 patients.
Among 70 recipients with vascular complications (%0.9), 14/26 patients with hepatic artery thrombosis underwent thrombectomy and arterial reanastomosis; six were retransplanted and six died. Among hepatic artery stenoses, three of nine were treated with balloon angioplasty and six underwent reanastomosis. Among 20 portal vein thromboses, 16 underwent thrombectomy, two patients retransplantation and two died. Seven patients with portal vein stenosis were followed. Two of six hepatic vein stenosis were restored with balloon angioplasty and three patients with metallic stent placement; the one other died. One patient with hepatic vein thrombosis died while the other patient was retransplanted.
Transplantation related hepatic vascular complications diagnosed and managed in timely fashion showed a low mortality rate in our series.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Donor safety is one of the most important aspects of living-donor liver transplant. The preoperative evaluation of candidates for such transplants essentially starts with serologic and biochemical analyses. However, some potential liver donors with normal liver function test results may have isolated mild hyperbilirubinemia (serum indirect bilirubin level > 20.5 μmol/L [1.2 mg/dL]). Gilbert syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition that is a common cause of nonhemolytic unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, and its prevalence is 3% to 10% in the healthy US population. Mild hyperbilirubinemia episodes are expected in people with Gilbert syndrome when they are exposed to physical stress, such as operative intervention or low energy intake. The liver morphologic findings of these individuals are normal; however, there is a debate on the use of people with Gilbert syndrome as living-liver donors. The purpose of this study was to assess the results of right-lobe living-donor hepatectomy of liver donors with Gilbert syndrome.
Between 2004 and 2010, two hundred twenty-five living-donor liver transplants using right-lobe grafts were performed in our hospital. Donors with Gilbert syndrome were defined as those whose serum bilirubin level was greater than 20.5 μmol/L (1.2 mg/dL). Six of 225 right-lobe living-donor liver transplants were performed using donors with Gilbert syndrome.
The median follow-up after transplant was 34 months (range, 18 to 51 mo). One week after the operation, the median bilirubin level for right-lobe liver donors was 34.5 μmol/L (2.02 mg/dL) (range, 17.1 to 51.3 μmol/L [1 to 3 mg/dL]), and the median prothrombin time (international normalized ratio) was 1.36 (range, 1.1 to 1.7). The median bilirubin level of the donors after 6 months was 29 μmol/L (1.7 mg/dL) (range, 20.5 to 41 μmol/L [1.2 to 2.4 mg/dL]).
Living-donor liver transplant from Gilbert syndrome donors can be safely performed.
Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. 02/2012; 10(1):39-42.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare but life-threatening disorder characterized by obstruction of the hepatic venous outflow. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, the location, and extent of the obstruction, and the functional capacity of the liver. A stepwise therapeutic approach is commonly accepted. When all other therapy options are unsuccessful, or in case of end-stage liver disease, transplant should be considered. We present case reports of 3 patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome who underwent living-donor liver transplant. Characteristic features of Budd-Chiari syndrome, diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, complications, and overall outcomes are discussed. We believe that when a deceased donor graft is unavailable, a living-donor liver transplant can be a safe option for patients with end-stage liver disease associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome.
Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. 01/2012; 10(2):172-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biliary complications that developed after right lobe liver transplantation from living donors were studied in a single centre.
From 2004 to 2010, 200 consecutive living donor right lobe liver transplantations were performed. The database was evaluated retrospectively. Biliary complications were diagnosed according to clinical, biochemical and radiological tests. The number of biliary ducts in the transplanted graft, the surgical techniques used for anastomosis, biliary strictures and bile leakage rates were analysed.
Of a total of 200 grafts, 117 invloved a single bile duct, 77 had two bile ducts and in six grafts there were three bile ducts. In 166 transplants, the anastomosis was performed as a single duct to duct, in 21 transplants double duct to ducts, in one transplant, three duct to ducts and in 12 transplants as a Roux-en-Y reconstruction. In all, 40 bile leakages (20%) and 17 biliary strictures (8.5%) were observed in 49 patients resulting in a total of 57 biliary complications (28.5%). Seventeen patients were re-operated (12 as a result of bile leakages and five owing to biliary strictures).
Identification of more than one biliary orifice in the graft resulted in an increase in the complication rates. In grafts containing multiple orifices, performing multiple duct-to-duct (DD) or Roux-en-Y anastomoses led to a lower number of complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scientific publications are valuable markers of scientific activity for countries. We performed a bibliometric study to evaluate the number of publications written by Turkish authors. The aim of this study is to evaluate Turkey's contribution in terms of number of publications included in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E) in the scientific field of liver transplantation compared with other countries. To our knowledge, this is the first bibliometric study in liver transplantation research of Turkey.
ISI Web of Knowledge-Science was used for the analysis. All scientific works published included in SCI-E in English from 1980 to August 10, 2011, were analyzed. A retrospective search was performed using key words "liver transplantation," "hepatic transplantation," "liver transplant," and "hepatic transplant." We further analyzed these results by the "analyze" function of the software in terms of number of papers for each country, type of documentation, number of publications per year, journal, institute, and author. The number of citations to published works was calculated by using the citation function of the same software. We also used the same function of the software to analyze publications from Turkey in the last three decades between 1980 and 1989, 1990 and 1999, and 2000 and 2009 for statistical evaluation. Collected data from the comparison periods were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test.
In all, 48,418 publications related to liver transplantation were included in SCI-E in English between 1980 and August 2011. Overall, 675 of those publications were from Turkey (2.05%). There was no publication from Turkey between 1980 and 1989; 37 between 1990 and 1999; and 511 between 2000 and 2009. The rank of Turkey among other countries according to the number of publications was 25th between 1990 and 1999 and improved to 14th between 2000 and 2009. The number of scientific publications in the field of liver transplantation from Turkey among other countries increased during the last three decades.
Turkey showed a significant positive trend in publications in the scientific field of liver transplantation in the last 30 years, and the rank of Turkey among other countries improved in recent decades. Currently, Turkey is one of the top 17 countries in terms of number of scientific publications listed in SCI-E. This can be considered as another indicator for Turkey's progress in the field of liver transplantation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombosis of recipient hepatic artery is a life threatening complication for liver transplantation. The etiology of hepatic arterial thrombosis is multi-factorial and can be caused by intimal dissection, poor surgical technique and coagulopathies. The patency of hepatic arterial flow is very important for both graft survival and patient survival. Intraoperative diagnosis of inadequate hepatic arterial flow found with Doppler ultrasonography is essential in order to achieve good results after liver transplantation. Urgent re-anastomosis is necessary when the arterial blood flow is insufficient. We performed 317 living donor liver transplantations from July 2004 to July 2011. We used recipient splenic artery for hepatic artery reconstruction in six patients. These six patients were included in this study. Using the recipient splenic artery is a simple, safe and practical alternative for hepatic artery re-anastomosis in living donor liver transplantations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Varied vascular and biliary anatomies are common in the liver. Living donor hepatectomy requires precise recognition of the hilar anatomy. This study was undertaken to study donor vascular and biliary tract variations, surgical approaches and implications in living liver transplant patients.
Two hundred living donor liver transplantations were performed at our institution between 2004 and 2009. All donors were evaluated by volumetric computerized tomography (CT), CT angiography and magnetic resonance cholangiography in the preoperative period. Intraoperative ultrasonography and cholangiography were carried out. Arterial, portal and biliary anatomies were classified according to the Michels, Cheng and Huang criteria.
Classical hepatic arterial anatomy was observed in 129 (64.5%) of the 200 donors. Fifteen percent of the donors had variation in the portal vein. Normal biliary anatomy was found in 126 (63%) donors, and biliary tract variation in 70% of donors with portal vein variations. In recipients with single duct biliary anastomosis, 16 (14.4%) developed biliary leak, and 9 (8.1%) developed biliary stricture; however more than one biliary anastomosis increased recipient biliary complications. Donor vascular variations did not increase recipient vascular complications. Variant anatomy was not associated with an increase in donor morbidity.
Living donor liver transplantation provides information about variant hilar anatomy. The success of the procedure depends on a careful approach to anatomical variations. When the deceased donor supply is inadequate, living donor transplantation is a life-saving alternative and is safe for the donor and recipient, even if the donor has variant hilar anatomy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatic venous outflow should be maintained for the success of living right lobe liver transplantation. In cases when the right hepatic vein is not the dominant venous drainage, the anterior branch of the middle hepatic vein and the accessory hepatic veins should be adequately drained to preserve graft function. One-step reconstruction of the hepatic veins became a preferred technique to create separate outflow for each of the graft's veins. In this report, we have described a quilt plasty technique for 1-step reconstruction of living donor hepatic veins using cadaveric cryopreserved aorta and iliac vein grafts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the outcomes of patients who received living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for HCC comparing the impact of up-to-seven criteria and Asan Criteria (AC) with Milan Criteria (MC). Between July 2004 and July 2009, of 175 consecutive LDLT, there were 45 consecutive patients with HCC. Forty patients who completed 12 months follow-up were enrolled. In search for the highest number of expansion, we selected AC as the extended criteria. Patients were divided into having tumors within MC, beyond MC within AC and Beyond Criteria (BC) groups. With a median follow-up of 46 months, overall 1, 3, and 5 years survival was -90%, -81%, and -70%, respectively. In patients within AC, estimated mean survival was 49.8 vs. 40.5 months for BC group (P = 0.2). Disease-free survival was significantly higher in patients within AC comparing with BC group; 48.0 vs. 38.6 months (P = 0.04). Preoperative AFP level >400 and poor tumor differentiation were factors adversely effecting recipient survival. On multivariate analysis, the presence of poor tumor differentiation (P = 0.018 RR: 2.48) was the only independent predictor of survival. Extension of tumor size and number to AC is feasible, without significantly compromising outcomes; however, the presence of poor tumor differentiation was associated with worse outcomes after LDLT.
Transplant International 08/2011; 24(11):1075-83. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An accepted definition of donor exclusion criteria has not been established for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The use of elderly donors to expand the living donor pool raises ethical concerns about donor safety. The aims of this study were (1) the comparison of the postoperative outcomes of living liver donors by age (≥ 50 versus < 50 years) and (2) the evaluation of the impact of the extent of right hepatectomy on donor outcomes. The study group included 150 donors who underwent donor right hepatectomy between October 2004 and April 2009. Extended criteria surgery (ECS) was defined as right hepatectomy with middle hepatic vein (MHV) harvesting or right hepatectomy resulting in an estimated remnant liver volume (RLV) less than 35%. The primary endpoints were donor outcomes in terms of donor complications graded according to the Clavien classification. Group 1 consisted of donors who were 50 years old or older (n = 28), and group 2 consisted of donors who were less than 50 years old (n = 122). At least 1 ECS criterion was present in 74% of donors: 57% had 1 criterion, and 17% had 2 criteria. None of the donors had grade 4 complications or died. The overall and major complication rates were similar in the 2 donor age groups [28.6% and 14.3% in group 1 and 32% and 8.2% in group 2 for the overall complication rates (P = 0.8) and the major complication rates (P = 0.2), respectively]. However, there was a significant correlation between the rate of major complications and the type of surgery in donors who were 50 years old or older. In LDLT, extending the limits of surgery comes at the price of more complications in elderly donors. Right hepatectomy with MHV harvesting and any procedure causing an RLV less than 35% should be avoided in living liver donors who are 50 years old or older.