[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drug malabsorption is a potential concern after bariatric surgery. We present four case reports of hypothyroid patients who were well replaced with thyroxine tablets to euthyroid thyrotropin (TSH) levels prior to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. These patients developed elevated TSH levels after the surgery, the TSH responded reversibly to switching from treatment with oral tablets to a liquid formulation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is not known whether, in obesity, the capillary density or the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are reduced, or whether fibrosis of small vessels is also present. In addition, possible effects of weight reduction on these parameters have never been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated EPCs and capillary density in 25 patients with severe obesity, all submitted to bariatric surgery, and in 18 normotensive lean subjects and 12 hypertensive lean patients as controls. All patients underwent a biopsy of subcutaneous fat during bariatric surgery. In five patients, a second biopsy was obtained after consistent weight loss, about 1 year later, during a surgical intervention for abdominoplasty. EPCs and capillary density were reduced in obesity, and EPCs were significantly increased after weight reduction. Vascular collagen content was clearly increased in obese patients. No significant difference in vascular collagen was observed between normotensive obese patients and hypertensive obese patients. After pronounced weight reduction, collagen content was nearly normalized. No difference in stress-strain relation was observed among groups or before and after weight loss. In conclusion, our data suggest that microvascular rarefaction occurs in obesity. EPCs were significantly reduced in obese patients. Pronounced weight loss induced by bariatric surgery seems to induce a significant improvement of EPC number, but not of capillary rarefaction. A pronounced fibrosis of subcutaneous small resistance arteries is present in obese patients, regardless of the presence of increased blood pressure values. Consistent weight loss induced by bariatric surgery may induce an almost complete regression of microvascular fibrosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in tumor growth and progression. Low expression of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in several malignant tumors correlates with disease recurrence and overall survival. Previous studies have shown that MR expression is decreased in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we hypothesize that decreased MR expression can contribute to angiogenesis and poor patient survival in colorectal malignancies. In a cohort of CRC patients, we analyzed tumor MR expression, its correlation with tumor microvascular density and its impact on survival. Subsequently, we interrogated the role of MR in angiogenesis in an in vitro model, based on the colon cancer cell line HCT116, ingenierized to re-express a physiologically controlled MR. In CRC, decreased MR expression was associated with increased microvascular density and poor patient survival. In pchMR transfected HCT116, aldosterone or natural serum steroids largely inhibited mRNA expression levels of both VEGFA and its receptor 2/KDR. In CRC, MR activation may significantly decrease angiogenesis by directly inhibiting dysregulated VEGFA and hypoxia-induced VEGFA mRNA expression. In addition, MR activation attenuates the expression of the VEGF receptor 2/KDR, possibly dampening the activation of a VEGFA/KDR dependent signaling pathway important for the survival of tumor cells under hypoxic conditions.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e59410. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives- The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of sonography and sonographic elastography in thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic cytologic findings. Methods- The study included 101 patients (74 female, mean age ± SD, 55 ± 11 years [range, 27-70 years]; and 27 male, mean age, 62 ± 9 years [range, 42-72 years]) who had at least 1 nodule with nondiagnostic cytologic findings at two different fine-needle aspiration cytologic evaluations and with an indication for hemi or total thyroidectomy for clinical suspicion of malignancy, nodule size, or the occurrence of a coexisting nodule with cytologic findings suspicious for malignancy. All of the patients underwent sonography and elastography 2 months after the second fine-needle aspiration and before surgery. The elastogram was matched with an elasticity color scale and classified as follows: score 1, nodules with high elasticity (soft); score 2, nodules with indeterminate elasticity; and score 3, nodules with low elasticity (hard). Results- A total of 135 nodules (93.7%) were hyperplastic; 15 (9.4%) were papillary carcinomas; and 9 (6.3%) were follicular adenomas. The association of scores 2 and 3 identified 12 of 15 thyroid cancers (sensitivity, 80.0%; specificity, 93.7%; positive predictive value, 57.1%; negative predictive value, 97.8%; and accuracy, 92.4%), whereas the association of conventional sonographic features plus scores 2 and 3 identified all of the cancers (specificity, 70.8%; positive predictive value, 26.3%; negative predictive value, 100%; and accuracy, 73.6%). Conclusions- Our data suggest that elastography could be a promising tool in the management of nodules that are nondiagnostic at cytologic evaluation, reducing unnecessary surgery.
Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 11/2012; 31(11):1777-82. · 1.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Currently, no guidelines exist for the treatment of patients with multiple colorectal adenomas (MCRAs) (>10 but <100 synchronous nondiminutive polyps of the large bowel). This retrospective study aimed to investigate the clinical and molecular factors related to different treatments for MCRAs. METHODS: Patients with MCRAs were consecutively enrolled from January 2003 to June 2011. Sequencing of their APC and MutYH genes was performed. The clinical, molecular, and family histories of the patients were collected using the Progeny database. The patient treatments were divided into three groups of increasing clinical weight: endoscopic polypectomy, segmental resection, and total colectomy. A logistic regression analysis of clinicomolecular factors related to different treatment options was performed. RESULTS: The study comprised 80 patients (32 women, 40 %) with a median age of 53 years (range 13-74 years). The median number of polyps was 33 (range 10-90).The cases included 62 diffuse polyposis, 18 segmental polyposis coli and synchronous colorectal carcinomas (CRC; 34 cases, 43%). The pathogenetic mutations were biallelic MutYH (n = 19, 24 %) and APC (n = 4, 5 %). The mean follow-up period was 74 months (median 43 months, range 1-468 months). Endoscopic polypectomy was performed in 25 cases (31 %), segmental resection in 16 cases (20 %), and total colectomy in 39 cases (49 %). The logistics regression analysis, considering all the patients, showed that the number of polyps, the presence of CRC, and mutation were correlated with more intensive treatment. For the patients without CRC, only the number of polyps was correlated with the severity of the treatment (p > 0.0166). "On the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve, 25 was the number of polyps that best discriminated between surgical and endoscopic therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with MCRAs undergo surgery. For patients without CRC, only the number of polyps, and not the presence of a disease-causing mutation, is correlated with increased heaviness of treatment. Patients with more than 25 polyps are more likely to undergo a surgical resection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypocalcaemia is a complication of parathyroidectomy. We retrospectively analyzed data on patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) to identify predictive factors for severe postoperative hypocalcaemia. Since 2004 we performed 87 parathyroidectomies for pHPT. We divided the patients into two groups: subjects who presented with postoperative hypocalcaemia (group B) or otherwise (group A). We looked for a correlation between several variables and the incidence of postoperative hypocalcaemia. The median calcemia in group B (19 patients) was 6.9 mg/dL on the first postoperative day and 7.6 mg/dL on the third day. We observed hypocalcemia related clinical symptoms in every patient. In all 19 cases the reduction of intraoperative parathyroid hormone above 85 per cent after parathyroidectomy was related to the development of severe postoperative hypocalcaemia (P = 0.042). We found that the reduction of intraoperative parathyroid hormone over 85 per cent after parathyroidectomy can be considered a reliable predictive factor of postoperative hypocalcaemia after parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism.
The American surgeon 03/2012; 78(3):352-8. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. More rarely neoplasms with histology and immunohistochemistry similar to GISTs may occur outside the gastrointestinal tract ( omentum, mesentery and retroperitoneum) and are so-called Extra-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (EGISTs). EGISTs arising in the retroperitoneum are extremely rare: to date, only 58 cases have been reported in the literature.
We herein report a case of a primary EGIST of the retroperitoneum surgically treated. The pre-operative radiological evaluation showed a retroperitoneal mass, placed in left paravertebral region.
Morphological and immunohistochemical features led to a diagnosis of extra-gastrointestinal stromal tumor (intermediate-low risk form).
As a result of the rarity of reports of primary EGISTs of retroperitoneum we need to analyze the data of reported cases in order to gain a better understanding about the pathogenesis, prognosis and optimal treatment of this disease.
Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology 01/2012; 6:189-97.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structural alterations of subcutaneous small resistance arteries, as indicated by an increased media:lumen ratio, are frequently present in hypertensive and/or diabetic patients and may represent the earliest alteration observed. In addition, media:lumen ratios of small arteries have a strong prognostic significance. However, no data are available about the structure of small resistance arteries of obese patients, particularly after weight loss. We have investigated 27 patients with severe obesity. Twelve of them were normotensive, and 15 were hypertensive. All of the obese patients underwent bariatric surgery. We compared results obtained with those observed in 13 normotensive lean controls and in 13 hypertensive lean patients. All of the subjects and patients underwent a biopsy of subcutaneous fat during surgical intervention. In 8 obese patients, a second biopsy was obtained after consistent weight loss, during a surgical intervention for abdominoplasty. Subcutaneous small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on a wire myograph, and structural parameters were measured. A concentration-response curve to acetylcholine was performed to evaluate endothelial function. Obese patients, independent from the presence of hypertension, show the presence of an increased media:lumen ratio and media cross-sectional area, together with an impaired endothelial-dependent vasodilatation. After surgical correction of obesity and consistent weight loss, a significant improvement of microvascular structure and of some oxidative stress/inflammation markers were observed. In conclusion, our data suggest that the presence of obesity is associated with structural alterations of subcutaneous small resistance arteries, mainly characterized by hypertrophic remodeling. Weight loss may improve microvascular structure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have recently showed functional and morphological changes of the thyroid gland in relation to obesity. To our knowledge, no data are available about the prevalence of thyroid nodules in female obese patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid nodules in morbidly obese women.
One hundred eight consecutive female obese patients were selected from those referred to our medical and surgery outpatients providing that following criteria were satisfied: (1) affected by morbid obesity (body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m(2)); (2) no previous diagnosis of thyroid disease; (3) biochemically proven euthyroid state at the time of recruitment. Ninety-seven control subjects, constituted by normo-weight and/or slightly overweight (BMI ≤ 30 kg/m(2)) women, should satisfy the above criteria 2 and 3. All the subjects were submitted to ultrasound investigation.
The two groups of patients displayed no differences for age and fT4 levels. Obese patients clearly showed a lower prevalence of thyroid nodules [odds ratio 0.294, 95% confidence interval 0.206-0.382]. A single nodule was found in 23% of obese patients as compared to 65% of control subjects (p < 0.0001). No difference for age (year) was found between obese and non-obese subjects with nodules (40.5 ± 8.2 vs. 44.2 ± 8.9, respectively, p = 0.07).
Our data clearly show a significantly lower prevalence of thyroid nodules in morbidly obese patients. Further studies are needed to confirm and to understand this first observation.
Obesity Surgery 04/2011; 22(3):460-4. · 3.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (99m)Technetium-sestamibi hybrid SPECT/CT has been favored over conventional SPECT in preoperative evaluation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) patients. However, the financial implications of CT-image acquisition have never before been published. This prompted us to perform a cost analysis of the aforementioned nuclear procedures.
A total of 55 PHPT patients operated on between 2004 and 2009 were studied. Overall, 27 patients underwent SPECT and 28 SPECT/CT. Localization results, as well as diagnostic and clinical cost variations between SPECT and SPECT/CT patients, were compared.
SPECT/CT revealed higher sensitivity than SPECT (96.7 vs 79.3%; P = .011), as well as higher specificity (96.4 vs 82.4%; P = .037) and positive predictive value (PPV) (96.7 vs 83%; P = .038) for correctly identifying the neck-side affected by PHPT. Likewise, SPECT/CT disclosed higher sensitivity (86.7 vs 61.1%; P < .0001), specificity (97.4 vs 90%; P = .022), and PPV (86.7 vs 65.7%; P = .0001) for correct neck-quadrant identification. The mean operative time decreased from 62 min following SPECT to 36 min following SPECT/CT (P < .0001), yielding a mean surgical expense saving of 109.9 /patient (updated at 2009/2010 billing database). SPECT/CT actually ensures a mean expenditure reduction of 98.7 /patient (95% CI: 47.96 -149.42 ), diagnostic costs variation amounting to 11.2 /procedure.
SPECT/CT ensures better focus for the surgical exploration, shortens surgical times, and eventually cuts costs when used for localization of parathyroid adenomas.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 03/2011; 18(9):2555-63. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed at comparing our long-term results after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) with or without gastric preservation for morbid obesity. Between 1999 and 2009, we performed 540 BPD: 287 patients (group A) underwent BPD with distal gastric resection (BPD-AHS) and 253 (group B) underwent BPD associated with transitory vertical gastroplasty (TGR) with duodenal switch (DS). The results have been analyzed in terms of weight loss, improvement of comorbidities, and quality of life (Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System). The mean follow-up was 7.4 ± 2.9 years. One year after surgery, mean initial excess weight loss percentage was 69% for patients in group A (n = 287) and 65% for group B (n = 253); after 2-5 years, it was 74% for patients who underwent BPD-AHS (n = 130) and 75% for patients who underwent BPD-TGR-DS (n = 116); it was 71% and 74% for patients in group A (n = 157) and B (n = 137), respectively, followed up for >5 years (P = 0.27). Among the diabetic patients in both groups (191 patients), 64% discontinued the medication with insulin (P = 0.25), and 98% had stopped oral drugs within 1 year from surgery (P = 0.29). We did not observe deficiencies of vitamins and proteins. The overall incidence of incisional hernias was 38% (P = 0.35). We recorded 13 anastomotic ulcers (2.4%; P = 0.28). BPD represents, in spite of the side effects, an effective technique for treatment of morbid obesity and its associated diseases. Moreover, our results showed that patients who underwent BPD-TGR-DS had slightly better results in terms of postoperative metabolic complications and improvement in quality of life.
Obesity Surgery 02/2011; 21(2):139-45. · 3.10 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of cancer or severe polyposis of the rectal stump after total colectomy for MutYH-associated polyposis is scarcely defined. To evaluate this risk, we describe the findings of endoscopic surveillance of the rectal stump in a series of patients with biallelic MutYH mutations and polyposis.
This is a retrospective, observational, multicenter case series derived from 2 familial cancer registries. Biallelic, germ-line MutYH mutations were found in 14 patients with no adenomatous polyposis coli gene mutations. Eleven of them underwent total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis and yearly proctoscopic surveillance thereafter. Phenotype and histology of rectal polyps were recorded at diagnosis and during follow-up. Development of adenomas and carcinomas during endoscopic surveillance of the rectal stump was observed.
At diagnosis, 6 patients had attenuated polyposis (10-100 adenomas), 5 patients had classical polyposis, 8 patients had colon carcinoma, and no patient had rectal carcinoma. The mean number of rectal polyps at diagnosis was 2.64 ± 2.11 (range, 0-6). No patients had rectal cancer. The most frequent MutYH mutations were Y165C/Y165C and G382D/G382D in 6 and 2 patients, respectively. During surveillance of the rectal stump after surgery (median duration, 5 y; range, 2-23 y), no patient developed rectal cancer. The mean number of adenomas per proctoscopy was 1.23 ± 2.19 (range, 0-10 adenomas per proctoscopy). This study was limited by the small size and retrospective nature of the case series.
Total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis may be appropriate for patients with MutYH-associated polyposis, provided that they have no rectal cancer or severe rectal polyposis at presentation and that they undergo yearly endoscopic surveillance thereafter.
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 12/2010; 53(12):1670-5. · 3.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the impact of loupe magnification (LM) on incidental parathyroid gland removal (from pathology reports), hypocalcemia, and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury after total thyroidectomy and answer the question of whether this tool should be always recommended for patient's safety. Between January 2005 and December 2008, 126 patients underwent total thyroidectomy with routine use of 2.5 x galilean loupes; their charts were compared with data on 118 patients operated on between January 1997 and December 2000 without LM (two different equally skilled surgical teams operating in the two periods). LM decreased the rate of inadvertent parathyroid glands removal (3.8 vs 7.8% of total parathyroid glands; P = 0.01), as well as of biochemical (20.6 vs 33.9%; P = 0.028) and clinical (12.7 vs 33%; P = 0.0003) hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy. All cases (16 of 16) of symptomatic hypocalcaemia in the LM group proved to be associated with parathyroidectomy vs 76.9 per cent (30 of 39) without LM (P = 0.046). A trend toward decreased RLN injury rate, although statistically insignificant, was reported, being unilateral transient, unilateral permanent, and bilateral transient palsy rates 6.8, 2.5, and 1.7 per cent, respectively, without LM vs 4.8, 2.4, and 0.8 per cent, respectively, with LM (P = 0.69; P = 1, and P = 0.61, respectively). Our results do support the routine use of LM during total thyroidectomy.
The American surgeon 12/2010; 76(12):1345-50. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mediastinal goiter (MG) removal occasionally needs sternotomy, mainly in case of subaortic extension. We aimed to test the hypothesis that sternal-split may safely replace full sternotomy for MG removal (through total thyroidectomy) when thoracic access is required. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study comparing 15 subaortic MGs receiving sternal-split with 87 MGs undergoing cervicotomy alone between January 1997 and June 2009. Among 15 cases requiring sternal incision, sternal-split was extended to the angle of Louis in nine patients (60%), to the third intercostal space (IS) in one of five (20%) cases of MGs with anterior mediastinum involvement, and in five of 10 (50%) cases with posterior involvement (P = 0.6). Full sternotomy was never necessary. The median hospitalization was 5 days (range, 4-8 days) after sternal access as compared with 3 days (range, 2-4 days) after cervicotomy (P = 0.04). Complications were similar in these two study groups: one postoperative bleeding in each group and three recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies after cervicotomy (P = 0.5). There was no operative mortality, blood transfusion, tracheotomy requirement, wound infection, or persistent hypoparathyroidism. Proper extension of sternal-split to the second or third IS allows an adequate approach to both the anterior and to the posterior mediastinum, thus permitting safe management of MGs requiring thoracic access.
The American surgeon 11/2010; 76(11):1240-3. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although 99m Technetium-sestamibi scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and, recently, hybrid SPECT/computed tomography (CT) have been claimed to be the preoperative methods of choice for parathyroid localization in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and concomitant nodular goiter (NG), they have never been compared in this setting. We aimed at testing the hypothesis that SPECT/CT may be superior to SPECT for parathyroid localization in patients with PHPT and NG.
Thirty-three patients with PHPT and NG (one or more nodular lesions based on cervical ultrasound) who underwent open parathyroidectomy during 2004-2009 were reviewed. All patients had preoperative 99m Tc-sestamibi planar scintigraphy and SPECT (18 patients) or SPECT/CT (15 patients) after cervical ultrasound. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) (for both correct neck side and quadrant identification) were calculated for the two procedures through comparison with intraoperative findings. In addition, operative times were assessed if the surgery was only for PHPT and not for the six patients who also had thyroidectomy.
The sensitivity of SPECT/CT for correctly identifying the neck side containing an abnormal parathyroid was 93.7% versus 80% for SPECT (p = 0.21, not significant [ns]). The specificity and PPV for this attribute were 92.9% and 93.7%, respectively, for SPECT/CT versus 87.5% and 88.9%, respectively, for SPECT (p = 0.75 and 0.8, ns). SPECT/CT showed higher sensitivity than SPECT (87.5% vs. 55.6%; p = 0.0001) and higher PPV (87.5% vs. 62.5%; p = 0.0022) for correctly identifying the neck quadrant affected by PHPT. The specificity for this was 95.5% for SPECT/CT versus 88.5% for SPECT (p = 0.26, ns). Mean operative time was shorter after SPECT/CT than after SPECT (38 vs. 56 minutes; p = 0.034). One of the patients having SPECT/CT had double adenomas, and two had ectopic parathyroid glands, all of which were recognized preoperatively by this technique. Two of the patients having SPECT had double adenomas, and two had ectopic glands, none of which were recognized preoperatively. No patient had persistent or recurrent PHPT.
SPECT/CT is superior to SPECT for preoperative imaging of patients with PHPT and NG. We recommend the routine use of SPECT/CT for work-up of all such patients, particularly if minimally invasive parathyroid surgery is planned.
Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 10/2010; 20(10):1121-7. · 2.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify the preoperative risk factors for patients in need of a sternotomy in the management of mediastinal goiters in order to provide better preoperative planning and patient consent.
We analyzed 98 patients who underwent surgery for mediastinal goiters (goiters extending below the thoracic inlet > or =3 cm with the neck in hyperextension) between 1995 and 2008. Twelve (12.2%) of the patients required a sternotomy. The patients' features were analyzed by the surgical approach performed. Logistic regression analysis was used to study which variables were influencing the surgical strategy. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were designed when appropriate.
The analysis disclosed the following risk factors: radiologic extension of mediastinal goiters below the aortic arch (odds ratio [OR] = 32.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.04-267.12; p < .0001); posterior mediastinum involvement for mediastinal goiters with subaortic extension (OR = 7.2; 95% CI = 1.52-34.14; p = .0244); history of mediastinal goiters before surgery (for mediastinal goiters aged >160 months: OR = 22.8; 95% CI = 5.28-98.53; p < .0001).
Sternotomy need for mediastinal goiter removal can be predicted; in such cases surgeons should not hesitate to perform it for minimizing complications.
Head & Neck 12/2009; 32(9):1131-5. · 2.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In hemodynamically stable patients after blunt pancreatic trauma, the main pancreatic duct (MPD) disruption (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma [AAST] grade III-IV-V lesions) is usually treated surgically or by endoscopic stent placement, whereas injuries without duct involvement (grade I-II) are liable to medical treatment. To date, no evidence has been reported regarding nonoperative management (NoM) of grade III injuries. We aimed to evaluate the safety of extending medical management to include cases of distal MPD involvement (grade III).
Data were collected on patients admitted after blunt pancreatic trauma between January 1999 and December 2007. Patients exhibiting hemodynamic instability or hollow organ perforations were excluded from this study, as they were surgically managed. In all remaining cases NoM was attempted. Antibiotic prophylaxis and early total enteral nutrition were routinely adopted. Grade III patients received octreotide during hospitalization and for 6 months after discharge.
Eleven patients (2 with grade I injury, 3 with grade II injury, and 6 with grade III injury, all diagnosed by contrast-enhanced helical CT) were included. Nonsurgical management was carried out in all of these patients. Among grade III patients, one developed a peripancreatic abscess; another, a pancreatic fistula. Both were successfully treated nonoperatively. The average length of hospital stay was similar in grade I-II and grade III patients. After a median follow-up of 57 months no mortality or pancreatic sequelae had occurred.
Under the aforementioned conditions, an attempt to extend NoM to include patients with AAST-grade III lesions can be justified. However, such a strategy demands continuous patient monitoring, because should the case worsen, surgery might become necessary.
World Journal of Surgery 07/2009; 33(8):1611-7. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This prospective study assessed the prevalence of the extralaryngeal branching of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and its impact on the incidence of postoperative transient or permanent RLN palsy.
Total or hemithyroidectomy was performed in 115 patients, with a total of 195 RLNs displayed. The RLN extralaryngeal branches were routinely identified and preserved. The postoperative course of each patient was evaluated. Outcomes of patients with and without branching RLN were compared.
In all, 36 of 195 (18.5%) nerves showed extralaryngeal branching: 27 cases (25.5%) on the right and 9 on the left side (10.1%; p = 0.0088).Trifurcation of the RLN was identified in two dissections (1%). Bilateral bifurcations were observed in 3 of 80 (3.7%) patients. We reported four (2.1%) unilateral permanent RLN palsies, eight cases of unilateral transient nerve palsy (4.1%), and one bilateral transient RLN injury (0.6%). The comparative analysis of postoperative outcomes between branched and nonbranched RLNs revealed that the anatomical variation was more frequently associated both with unilateral permanent RLN palsy (relative risk, 13.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-123.73; p = 0.0204) and unilateral transient RLN palsy (relative risk, 7.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.84-29.4; p = 0.0061). The only case of bilateral transient RLN injury was associated with a nonrecurrent inferior laryngeal nerve.
Branched RLNs represent a risk factor both for transient and permanent nerve palsy after surgery. Awareness of this anatomical variation and its routine investigation are essential during thyroid surgery to limit its relevant impact on postoperative RLN injury rate.
World Journal of Surgery 12/2008; 33(2):261-5. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transient hypoparathyroidism is a frequent and challenging complication following total thyroidectomy. The aim of the study was to identify patients at risk of developing thyroidectomy-related hypocalcemia and symptoms by means of the intraoperative quick parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay.
Eighty-one patients undergoing total thyroidectomy were included in the study. Quick PTH levels were measured at induction of anaesthesia and 10 minutes after total thyroidectomy. A sample of 10 patients who underwent unilateral thyroid lobectomy was considered as a control group. The accuracy of intraoperative PTH decline in predicting postoperative hypoparathyroidism was analysed.
After total thyroidectomy, 27 patients (33.3%) developed postoperative hypocalcemia. Symptoms were reported by 21 patients (25.9%). The mean percentage decline of intraoperative quick PTH was 81% in hypocalcemic compared with 39% in normocalcemic patients (P<0.001), and it was 83% in symptomatic compared with 42% in asymptomatic patients (P<0.001). Mean proportion decline of quick PTH after unilateral lobectomy was 20%, significantly lower than the 53% registered after total thyroidectomy (P=0.005). Analysis of variation of intraoperative quick PTH with the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve showed a 75.7% decline as the cut-off value predicting postoperative hypocalcemia with the highest accuracy (91.4%) (sensitivity: 81.5% specificity: 96.3% positive likelihood ratio: 22; negative likelihood ratio: 0.2). Regarding the prediction of postoperative symptoms, a 79.5% decline was the most accurate (92.6%) cut-off point (sensitivity: 76.2% specificity: 98.3% positive likelihood ratio: 46; negative likelihood ratio: 0.2).
Quick PTH monitoring during total thyroidectomy is a useful means for identifying low-risk patients for postoperative hypoparathyroidism and candidates for early, safe discharge. Furthermore, it is an objective method complementary to the surgeon's judgement of the intraoperative function of parathyroid glands, which should be implanted in the event of a 75%-80% decline.
World Journal of Surgery 08/2006; 30(8):1428-33. · 2.23 Impact Factor