[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fusobacterium nucleatum is classified into five subspecies that inhabit the human oral cavity (F. nucleatum subsp. nucleatum, F. nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, F. nucleatum subsp. fusiforme, F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii, and F. nucleatum subsp. animalis) based on several phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization patterns. However, the methods for detecting or discriminating the clinical isolates of F. nucleatum at the subspecies levels are laborious, expensive, and time-consuming. Therefore, in this study, the nucleotide sequences of the RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) and zinc protease gene were analyzed to discriminate the subspecies of F. nucleatum. The partial sequences of rpoB (approximately 2,419 bp), the zinc protease gene (878 bp), and 16S rRNA genes (approximately 1,500 bp) of the type strains of five subspecies, 28 clinical isolates of F. nucleatum, and 10 strains of F. periodonticum (as a control group) were determined and analyzed. The phylogenetic data showed that the rpoB and zinc protease gene sequences clearly delineated the subspecies of F. nucleatum and provided higher resolution than the 16S rRNA gene sequences in this respect. According to the phylogenetic analysis of rpoB and the zinc protease gene, F. nucleatum subsp. vincentii and F. nucleatum subsp. fusiforme might be classified into a single subspecies. Five clinical isolates could be delineated as a new subspecies of F. nucleatum. The results suggest that rpoB and the zinc protease gene are efficient targets for the discrimination and taxonomic analysis of the subspecies of F. nucleatum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutans streptococci have been implicated as cariogenic bacteria in dental caries because they can produce high levels of dental caries-causing lactic acid and extracellular polysaccharide. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the mutans streptococci from the dental plaque obtained from Koreans. The dental plaque samples were collected from the anterior and molar teeth of both jaws in 155 subjects (aged 2 to 33.2 years, average age 13.7+/-4.7 years). The samples were diluted by 100-fold in 1x PBS and plated on mitis-salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar plates. The mutans streptococci grown on MSB plates were screened by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) targeting dextranase gene (dex). The mutans streptococci were identified at the species level using a 16S rDNA sequencing comparison method. The biochemical tests were carried out to biotype the mutans streptococci. Ninety-five strains of the mutans streptococci out of 358 colonies, which were derived from 141 subjects, were isolated. Of them, 77 strains and 18 strains were Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, respectively. The biotyping data showed that 62, 1, 20, 10, and 2 strains were biotypes I, II, IV, V and variant, respectively. Of the two strains of variant biotype, one strains was similar to biotype IV except that it was positive to the arginine hydrolysis test. We considered this one strain a new biotype, and classified it as biotype VII. In conclusion, S. mutans and its biotype I was most frequently isolated in Korean dental plaque. The mutans streptococci strains isolated in this study might be useful for the study of the pathogenesis and the prevention of dental caries.
The Journal of Microbiology 07/2007; 45(3):246-55. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we isolated four bacterial strains grown on mitis-salivarius sucrose bacitracin agar. The strains had similar biochemical characteristics to biotypes I or II of mutans streptococci. The four isolates were identified as Streptococcus downei by 16S rDNA and dextranase gene (dex) sequencing as well as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) targeting dex. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation and identification of S. downei from dental plaque in humans. The results suggest that S. downei can inhabit the human oral cavity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the strain-specificity of a DNA probe, Fu12, for Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum ATCC 25586T (F. nucleatum ATCC 25586T), and to develop sets of strain-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Strain-specificity was tested against 16 strains of F. nucleatum and 3 strains of distinct Fusobacterium species. Southern blot hybridization revealed that the Fu12 reacted exclusively with the HindIII-digested genomic DNA of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586T. The results of PCR revealed that three pairs of PCR primers, based on the nucleotide sequence of Fu12, generated the strain-specific amplicons from F. nucleatum ATCC 25586T. These results suggest that the DNA probe Fu12 and the three pairs of PCR primers could be useful in the identification of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586T, especially with regard to the determination of the authenticity of the strain.
The Journal of Microbiology 09/2005; 43(4):331-6. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to both isolate and identify non-mutans streptococci organisms (non-MSO) from dental plaques recovered on mitis-salivarius sucrose bacitracin agar (MSB) plates. The dental plaque samples, which had been collected from 63 human subjects, were diluted and plated on MSB. The bacteria growing on the MSB plates were then identified with biochemical tests, as well as with 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing techniques. Our data indicated that bacteria from 30 subjects had been recovered on the MSB plates. Among the 21 typical colonies selected from the 30 subjects, 12 colonies, derived from 10 subjects, were identified as non-MSO. These 12 colonies were determined to be Streptococcus anginosus (8 colonies), S. sanguinis (1 colony), and Pantoea agglomerans (3 colonies). These results strongly suggest that a new selective medium will be required for the reliable isolation of mutans streptococci.
The Journal of Microbiology 05/2005; 43(2):204-8. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal proteins (tPMP) are alpha-granule-derived cationic antimicrobial proteins released from platelets by stimulation with thrombin. tPMP has potent microbicidal activities against a broad spectrum of common microbial pathogens in infective endocarditis. We studied in vitro interactions of tPMP with penicillin against oral streptococci, Streptococcus rattus BHT (a tPMP-susceptible organism) and Streptococcus gordonii DL1 (a tPMP-insusceptible organism). tPMP was prepared by stimulating rabbit platelets with thrombin. tPMP plus penicillin showed a synergistic bactericidal effect on both S. rattus BHT and S. gordonii DL1, in contrast to either agent alone. Sequential exposure of both S. rattus BHT and S. gordonii DL1 to tPMP followed by exposure to penicillin at 10x the MICs resulted in a significant extension of the postantibiotic-effect duration compared with antibiotic exposure alone. The combined data indicate that tPMP exerts cooperative bactericidal and growth-inhibiting effect in concert with penicillin.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 06/2004; 23(5):457-61. DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2003.09.018 · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly associated with periodontal diseases and is regarded as one of the risk factors for periodontitis. Insertion sequence element IS1126-based PCR was used to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of P. gingivalis from periodontitis patients and to examine the frequency of the parent-child and spouse-spouse transmission. Two sets of IS1126-specific primers were used for the PCR. The inward primer set (PI1 and PI2), which amplifies the IS1126 fragment of approximately 690 bp, was used to identify P. gingivalis. The outward primer set (PI1RC and PI2RC), which is reverse complementary to PI1 and PI2, respectively, and amplifies the gene fragments between the adjacent IS1126 elements was used to characterize the genotypes of the P. gingivalis strains. PCR of P. gingivalis with PI1RC and PI2RC resulted in the production of two to seven amplicons, which showed a unique electrophoretic pattern in each strain (4 laboratory strains and 37 clinical isolates cultured from 12 patients with aggressive periodontitis). The usefulness of the method for transmission study was confirmed by detecting identical genotypes between the isolates and the plaque samples from which the isolates were cultured and between the plaque samples from different tooth sites in the same patient. Thirty probands with periodontal diseases and their thirty immediate family members were included in the transmission study. In 11 of 14 parent-child pairs (78.6%), P. gingivalis revealed an identical or similar band pattern, whereas 5 of 16 spouse pairs (31.25%) had this similarity. These results show that IS1126-based PCR for genotyping P. gingivalis has a highly discriminating potential with reproducible data and is a simple and reliable method for a transmission study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein (tPMP) is a small cationic peptide that exerts potent in vitro microbicidal activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus rattus BHT. Earlier evidence has suggested that tPMP targets and disrupts the bacterial membrane. However, it is not yet clear whether membrane disruption itself is sufficient to kill the bacteria or whether subsequent, presumably intracellular, events are also involved in this process. In this study, we investigated the microbicidal activity of rabbit tPMP toward S. rattus BHT cells in the presence or absence of a pretreatment with antibiotics that differ in their mechanisms of action. The streptocidal effects of tPMP on control cells (no antibiotic pretreatment) were rapid and concentration-dependent. Pretreatment of S. rattus BHT cells with either penicillin or amoxicillin (inhibitors of bacterial cell wall synthesis) significantly enhanced the anti-S. rattus BHT effects of tPMP compared with the effects against the respective control cells over most tPMP concentration ranges tested. On the other hand, pretreatment of S. rattus BHT cells with tetracycline or doxycycline (30S ribosomal subunit inhibitors) significantly decreased the streptocidal effects of tPMP over a wide peptide concentration range. Furthermore, pretreatment with rifampin (an inhibitor of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase) essentially blocked the killing of S. rattus BHT by tPMP at most concentrations compared with the respective control cells. These results suggest that tPMP exerts anti-S. rattus BHT activity through mechanisms involving both the cell membrane and intracellular targets.