Anja Lüth

Universität Potsdam, Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany

Are you Anja Lüth?

Claim your profile

Publications (25)131.32 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hormone calcitonin (CT) is primarily known for its pharmacologic action as an inhibitor of bone resorption, yet CT-deficient mice display increased bone formation. These findings raised the question about the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism of CT action. Here we show that either ubiquitous or osteoclast-specific inactivation of the murine CT receptor (CTR) causes increased bone formation. CT negatively regulates the osteoclast expression of Spns2 gene, which encodes a transporter for the signalling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). CTR-deficient mice show increased S1P levels, and their skeletal phenotype is normalized by deletion of the S1P receptor S1P3. Finally, pharmacologic treatment with the nonselective S1P receptor agonist FTY720 causes increased bone formation in wild-type, but not in S1P3-deficient mice. This study redefines the role of CT in skeletal biology, confirms that S1P acts as an osteoanabolic molecule in vivo and provides evidence for a pharmacologically exploitable crosstalk between osteoclasts and osteoblasts.
    Nature Communications 01/2014; 5:5215. · 10.74 Impact Factor
  • International journal of cardiology 10/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Major depression is a highly prevalent severe mood disorder that is treated with antidepressants. The molecular targets of antidepressants require definition. We investigated the role of the acid sphingomyelinase (Asm)-ceramide system as a target for antidepressants. Therapeutic concentrations of the antidepressants amitriptyline and fluoxetine reduced Asm activity and ceramide concentrations in the hippocampus, increased neuronal proliferation, maturation and survival and improved behavior in mouse models of stress-induced depression. Genetic Asm deficiency abrogated these effects. Mice overexpressing Asm, heterozygous for acid ceramidase, treated with blockers of ceramide metabolism or directly injected with C16 ceramide in the hippocampus had higher ceramide concentrations and lower rates of neuronal proliferation, maturation and survival compared with controls and showed depression-like behavior even in the absence of stress. The decrease of ceramide abundance achieved by antidepressant-mediated inhibition of Asm normalized these effects. Lowering ceramide abundance may thus be a central goal for the future development of antidepressants.
    Nature medicine 06/2013; · 28.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AIMS: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a cellular signaling lipid generated by sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1). Aim of the study was to investigated whether the activated coagulation factor-X (FXa) regulates SPHK1 transcription and the formation of S1P and subsequent mitogenesis and migration of human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC).Methods and ResultsFXa induced a time (3-6 h) and concentration-dependent (3-30 nmol/L) increase of SPHK1 mRNA and protein expression in human aortic SMC, resulting in an increased synthesis of S1P. FXa-stimulated transcription of SPHK1 was mediated by the protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and PAR-2. In human carotid artery plaques, expression of SPHK1 was observed at SMC-rich sites and was co-localized with intraplaque FX/FXa content. FXa-induced SPHK1 transcription was attenuated by inhibitors of Rho kinase (Y27632) and by protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (GF109203X). In addition, FXa rapidly induced activation of the small GTPase Rho A. Inhibition of signaling pathways which regulate SPHK1 expression, inhibition of its activity or siRNA-mediated SPHK1 knockdown attenuated the mitogenic and chemotactic response of human SMC to FXa. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that FXa induces SPHK1 expression and increases S1P formation independent of thrombin and that this involves activation of Rho A and PKC signaling. In addition to its key function in coagulation, this direct effect of FXa on human SMC may increase cell proliferation and migration at sites of vessel injury and thereby contribute to the progression of vascular lesions.
    Cardiovascular Research 05/2013; · 5.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cathepsin K (CTSK) is secreted by osteoclasts to degrade collagen and other matrix proteins during bone resorption. Global deletion of Ctsk in mice decreases bone resorption, leading to osteopetrosis, but also increases the bone formation rate (BFR). To understand how Ctsk deletion increases the BFR, we generated osteoclast- and osteoblast-targeted Ctsk knockout mice using floxed Ctsk alleles. Targeted ablation of Ctsk in hematopoietic cells, or specifically in osteoclasts and cells of the monocyte-osteoclast lineage, resulted in increased bone volume and BFR as well as osteoclast and osteoblast numbers. In contrast, targeted deletion of Ctsk in osteoblasts had no effect on bone resorption or BFR, demonstrating that the increased BFR is osteoclast dependent. Deletion of Ctsk in osteoclasts increased their sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) expression. Conditioned media from Ctsk-deficient osteoclasts, which contained elevated levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), increased alkaline phosphatase and mineralized nodules in osteoblast cultures. An S1P1,3 receptor antagonist inhibited these responses. Osteoblasts derived from mice with Ctsk-deficient osteoclasts had an increased RANKL/OPG ratio, providing a positive feedback loop that increased the number of osteoclasts. Our data provide genetic evidence that deletion of CTSK in osteoclasts enhances bone formation in vivo by increasing the generation of osteoclast-derived S1P.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 01/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
  • Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 01/2013; 51(01). · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plasma secretion of acid sphingomyelinase is a hallmark of cellular stress response resulting in the formation of membrane embedded ceramide-enriched lipid rafts and the reorganization of receptor complexes. Consistently, decompartmentalization of ceramide formation from inert sphingomyelin has been associated with signaling events and regulation of the cellular phenotype. Herein, we addressed the question of whether the secretion of acid sphingomyelinase is involved in host response during sepsis. We found an exaggerated clinical course in mice genetically deficient in acid sphingomyelinase characterized by an increased bacterial burden, an increased phagocytotic activity and a more pronounced cytokine storm. Moreover, on a functional level, leukocyte-endothelial interaction was found diminished in sphingomyelinase deficient animals corresponding to a distinct leukocytes phenotype with respect to rolling and sticking as well as expression of cellular surface proteins. We conclude that hydrolysis of membrane embedded sphingomyelin, triggered by circulating sphingomyelinase, plays a pivotal role in the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. This function might be essential during the early phase of infection leading to an adaptive response of remote cells and tissues.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 12/2012; · 4.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SPL) is the only known enzyme that irreversibly cleaves sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) into phosphoethanolamine and (2E)-hexadecenal during the final step of sphingolipid catabolism. Because S1P is involved in a wide range of physiological and diseased processes, determining the activity of the degrading enzyme is of great interest. Therefore, we developed two procedures based on liquid chromatography (LC) for analysing (2E)-hexadecenal, which is one of the two S1P degradation products. After separation, two different quantification methods were performed, tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and fluorescence detection. However, (2E)-hexadecenal as a long-chain aldehyde is not ionisable by electrospray ionisation (ESI) for MS quantification and has an insufficient number of corresponding double bonds for fluorescence detection. Therefore, we investigated 2-diphenylacetyl-1,3-indandione-1-hydrazone (DAIH) as a derivatisation reagent. DAIH transforms the aldehyde into an ionisable and fluorescent analogue for quantitative analysis. Our conditions were optimised to obtain the outstanding limit of detection (LOD) of 1 fmol per sample (30 μL) for LC-MS/MS and 0.75 pmol per sample (200 μL) for LC determination with fluorescence detection. We developed an extraction procedure to separate and concentrate (2E)-hexadecenal from biological samples for these measurements. To confirm our new methods, we analysed the (2E)-hexadecenal level of different cell lines and human plasma for the first time ever. Furthermore, we treated HT-29 cells with different concentrations of 4-deoxypyridoxine (DOP), which competitively inhibits pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P), an essential cofactor for SPL activity, and observed a significant decrease in (2E)-hexadecenal relative to the untreated cells.
    Analytica chimica acta 04/2012; 722:70-9. · 4.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanism of action of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2OHOA), a potent antitumor compound, has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we show that human cancer cells have markedly lower levels of sphingomyelin (SM) than nontumor (MRC-5) cells. In this context, 2OHOA treatment strongly augments SM mass (4.6-fold), restoring the levels found in MRC-5 cells, while a loss of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine is observed (57 and 30%, respectively). The increased SM mass was due to a rapid and highly specific activation of SM synthases (SMS). This effect appeared to be specific against cancer cells as it did not affect nontumor MRC-5 cells. Therefore, low SM levels are associated with the tumorigenic transformation that produces cancer cells. SM accumulation occurred at the plasma membrane and caused an increase in membrane global order and lipid raft packing in model membranes. These modifications would account for the observed alteration by 2OHOA in the localization of proteins involved in cell apoptosis (Fas receptor) or differentiation (Ras). Importantly, SMS inhibition by D609 diminished 2OHOA effect on cell cycle. Therefore, we propose that the regulation of SMS activity in tumor cells is a critical upstream event in 2OHOA antitumor mechanism, which also explains its specificity for cancer cells, its potency, and the lack of undesired side effects. Finally, the specific activation of SMS explains the ability of this compound to trigger cell cycle arrest, cell differentiation, and autophagy or apoptosis in cancer cells.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2011; 108(49):19569-74. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: S1P, sphingosine-1-phosphate
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 01/2011; 131(1):266-8. · 6.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Stefan Mebs, Anja Lüth, Peter Luger
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To contribute to an understanding of biological recognition and interaction, an easy-to-use procedure was developed to generate and display molecular surfaces and selected electron density based surface properties. To overcome the present limitations to derive electron densities of macromolecules, the considered systems were reduced to appropriate substructures around the active centers. The combination of experimental X-ray structural information and aspherical atomic electron density data from theoretical calculations resulted in properties like the electrostatic potential and the Hirshfeld surface which allowed a study of electronic complementarity and the identification of sites and strengths of drug-receptor interactions. Applications were examined for three examples. The anilinoquinazoline gefitinib (Iressa(R)) belongs to a new class of anticancer drugs that inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In the second example, the interaction of epoxide inhibitors with the main protease of the SARS coronavirus was investigated. Furthermore, the progesterone receptor complex was examined. The quantitative analysis of hydrogen bonding in the chosen substructure systems follows a progression elaborated earlier on the basis of accurate small molecule crystal structures. This finding and results from modified substructures suggest that also the surface properties seem robust enough to provide stable information about the recognition of interacting biomolecular species although they are obtained from medium molecular weighted subfragments of macromolecular complexes, which consist of no more than approximately 40 residues.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 08/2010; 18(16):5965-74. · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sphingosine kinase-1 is known to mediate Mycobacterium smegmatis induced inflammatory responses in macrophages, but its role in controlling infection has not been reported to date. We aimed to unravel the significance of SphK-1 in controlling M. smegmatis infection in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results demonstrated for the first time that selective inhibition of SphK-1 by either D, L threo dihydrosphingosine (DHS; a competitive inhibitor of Sphk-1) or Sphk-1 siRNA rendered RAW macrophages sensitive to M. smegmatis infection. This was due to the reduction in the expression of iNOs, p38, pp-38, late phagosomal marker, LAMP-2 and stabilization of the RelA (pp-65) subunit of NF-kappaB. This led to a reduction in the generation of NO and secretion of TNF-alpha in infected macrophages. Congruently, overexpression of SphK-1 conferred resistance in macrophages to infection which was due to enhancement in the generation of NO and expression of iNOs, pp38 and LAMP-2. In addition, our results also unraveled a novel regulation of p38MAPK by SphK-1 during M. smegmatis infection and generation of NO in macrophages. Enhanced NO generation and expression of iNOs in SphK-1++ infected macrophages demonstrated their M-1(bright) phenotype of these macrophages. These findings thus suggested a novel antimycobacterial role of SphK-1 in macrophages.
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(5):e10657. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(5). · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: FTY720, a synthetic compound produced by modification of a metabolite from Isaria sinclairii, is known as a unique immunosuppressive agent that exerts its activity by inhibiting lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid tissues. FTY720 is phosphorylated in vivo by sphingosine kinase 2 to FTY720-phosphate (FTY720-P), which acts as a potent sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist. Despite its homology to S1P, which exerts antiapoptotic actions in different cells, FTY720 has also been reported to be able to induce apoptosis in a variety of cells. Therefore, we investigated the action of both, FTY720 and its phosphorylated version FTY720-P, on apoptosis. Moreover, signalling pathways of apoptosis in response to FTY720 and FTY720-P were examined. Although FTY720 acts apoptotic at micromolar concentrations in human fibroblasts the phosphorylated compound FTY720-P possesses a pronounced antiapoptotic effect counteracting FTY720-induced programmed cell death. Interestingly, none of the classical antiapoptotic pathways like MAP kinases, Akt or mTOR play a role in the protective role of FTY720-P. Most important, we identified that the S1P(3) receptor subtype is involved in the antiapoptotic action of FTY720-P leading to an increased phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential.
    Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2010; 26(1):67-78. · 3.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Topical used glucocorticoids (GC) represent an important class of steroid hormones for the treatment of a broad range of acute or chronic inflammatory diseases. Most interestingly, GC exert a pronounced anti-apoptotic effect in primary human fibroblasts whereas in variety of hematopoietic cells a pro-apoptotic effect is visible. Recently, it has been discovered that in human fibroblasts the GC dexamethasone (Dex) exerts its protection from programmed cell death via the formation of the lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) followed by an activation of the S1P(3)-receptor subtype. In the present study, the molecular mechanism of Dex to protect human fibroblasts from apoptosis was elucidated. Thereupon, Dex not only mediates its anti-apoptotic effect via activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling but also includes an involvement of the Bcl-2 family protein Bcl(XL). Most interestingly, the use of S1P(3)-knockout fibroblasts revealed that the S1P(3)-receptor subtype is crucial for activation of PKB/Akt as well as Bcl(XL) by Dex.
    Pharmacological Research 12/2009; 61(5):449-59. · 3.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Employing genetic mouse models we have recently shown that ceramide accumulation is critically involved in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Genetic or systemic inhibition of the acid sphingomyelinase (Asm) is not feasible for treatment of patients or might cause adverse effects. Thus, a manipulation of ceramide specifically in lungs of CF mice must be developed. We tested whether inhalation of different acid sphingomyelinase inhibitors does reduce Asm activity and ceramide accumulation in lungs of CF mice. The efficacy and specificity of the drugs was determined. Ceramide was determined by mass spectrometry, DAG-kinase assays, and fluorescence microscopy. We determined pulmonary and systemic Asm activity, neutral sphingomyelinase (Nsm), ceramide, cytokines, and infection susceptibility. Mass spectroscopy, DAG-kinase assays, and semiquantitative immune fluorescence microscopy revealed that a standard diet did not influence ceramide in bronchial respiratory epithelial cells, while a diet with Peptamen severely affected the concentration of sphingolipids in CF lungs. Inhalation of the Asm inhibitors amitriptyline, trimipramine, desipramine, chlorprothixene, fluoxetine, amlodipine, or sertraline restored normal ceramide concentrations in murine bronchial epithelial cells, reduced inflammation in the lung of CF mice and prevented infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All drugs showed very similar efficacy. Inhalation of the drugs was without systemic effects and did not inhibit Nsm. These findings employing several structurally different Asm inhibitors identify Asm as primary target in the lung to reduce ceramide concentrations. Inhaling an Asm inhibitor may be a beneficial treatment for CF, with minimal adverse systemic effects.
    American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 08/2009; 42(6):716-24. · 4.15 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids (GC) represent the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory skin diseases. However, the topical long-term therapy of GC is limited by the occurrence of skin atrophy. Most interestingly, although GC inhibit proliferation of human fibroblasts, they exert a pronounced anti-apoptopic action. In the present study, we further elucidated the molecular mechanism of the GC dexamethasone (Dex) to protect human fibroblasts from programmed cell death. Dex not only significantly alters the expression of the cytosolic isoenzyme sphingosine kinase 1 but also initiated an enhanced intracellular formation of the sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Investigations using S1P (3) ((-/-)) -fibroblasts revealed that this S1P-receptor subtype is essential for the Dex-induced cytoprotection. Moreover, we demonstrate that the ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporter ABCC1 is upregulated by Dex and may represent a crucial carrier to transport S1P from the cytosol to the S1P(3)-receptor subtype.
    Journal of Molecular Medicine 05/2009; 87(6):645-57. · 4.77 Impact Factor
  • Anja Lüth, Werner Löwe
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of membrane receptors has been identified as a key element in the complex signaling network that is utilized by various classes of cell-surface receptors. A new synthetic pathway of 4-(indol-3-yl)quinazolines 15 and 16 is described using cross coupling reactions with quinazoline- and indole moieties. The synthesized compound 15 is a new dual and high potent EGFR- and HER-2-tyrosine kinase inhibitor with excellent cytotoxic properties at different cell lines. Furthermore this substance class shows remarkably strong fluorescence.
    Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry 03/2009; 45(3):703 - 708. · 1.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Migration of Langerhans cells (LCs) from the skin to the lymph node is an essential step in the pathogenesis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Therefore, inhibition of LC-migration could be a promising strategy to improve this skin disease. Effects of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and the immunomodulator FTY720 on LC trafficking is not well defined, yet. Thus, we investigated the action of topically administered S1P and FTY720 in a murine model of ACD. Most interestingly, FTY720 as well as S1P inhibited the inflammatory reaction in the elicitation phase of ACD. In the sensitization phase, FTY720, and S1P reduced the weight and cell count of the draining auricular lymph node, as well as immigrated dendritic cells provoked by repetitive topical administration of the hapten. Correspondingly, the density of LCs in the epidermis was higher in FTY720- and S1P-treated mice compared to vehicle treatment. A skin dendritic cell migration assay confirmed the significant inhibition of dendritic cell migration by FTY720 and S1P. These data supply conclusive evidence that the strategy of targeting the migratory response of LCs with locally acting S1P or FTY720 represents an emerging option in the treatment of allergic skin diseases like contact hypersensitivity and atopic dermatitis.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 03/2009; 129(8):1954-62. · 6.19 Impact Factor
  • Anja Lueth, Werner Loewe
    ChemInform 09/2008; 39(39).

Publication Stats

202 Citations
131.32 Total Impact Points


  • 2010–2014
    • Universität Potsdam
      • Institute of Nutritional Sciences
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
    • European Molecular Biology Laboratory
      • Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit (Heidelberg)
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2008–2009
    • Freie Universität Berlin
      • • Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      • • Institute of Pharmacy
      Berlin, Land Berlin, Germany