Toshiyuki Harada

Kyoto University, Kioto, Kyōto, Japan

Are you Toshiyuki Harada?

Claim your profile

Publications (9)26.34 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tetrahydroquinoline (THQ)-type compounds are a class of potential larvicides against mosquitoes. The structure-activity relationships (SAR) of these compounds were previously investigated (Smith et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.2003, 13, 1943-1946), and one of cis-forms (with respect to the configurations of 2-methyl and 4-anilino substitutions on the THQ basic structure) was stereoselectively synthesized. However, the absolute configurations of C2 and C4 were not determined. In this study, four THQ-type compounds with cis configurations were synthesized, and two were submitted for X-ray crystal structure analysis. This analysis demonstrated that two enantiomers are packed into the crystal form. We synthesized the cis-form of the fluorinated THQ compound, according to the published method, and the enantiomers were separated via chiral HPLC. The absolute configurations of the enantiomers were determined by X-ray crystallography. Each of the enantiomers was tested for activity against mosquito larvae in vivo and competitive binding to the ecdysone receptor in vitro. Compared to the (2S,4R) enantiomer, the (2R,4S) enantiomer showed 55 times higher activity in the mosquito larvicidal assay, and 36 times higher activity in the competitive receptor binding assay.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 02/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Insect growth is regulated by the orchestrated event of ecdysteroids and their receptor proteins. Agonists/antagonists of ecdysteroid receptor are predicted to disrupt normal growth, providing good candidates of new insecticides. A database of over 2 million compounds was subjected to a shape-based virtual screening cascade to identify novel nonsteroidal hits similar to the known EcR ligand ponasterone A. Testing revealed micromolar hits against two strains of insect cells. Docking experiments against EcR were used to support the predicted binding mode of these ligands based on their overlay to ponasterone A.
    Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 01/2011; 51(2):296-305. · 4.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diacylhydrazine (DAH) analogues have been developed successfully as a new group of insect growth regulators, called ecdysone agonists or moulting accelerating compounds. These DAHs have been shown to manifest their toxicity via interaction with the ecdysone receptor (EcR) in susceptible insects, as does the natural insect moulting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). A notable feature is their high activity and specificity, particularly against lepidopteran insects, raising the question as to whether non-lepidopteran-specific analogues can be isolated. However, for the discovery of ecdysone agonists that target other important insect groups such as Diptera, efficient screening systems that are based on the activation of the EcR are needed. In this study, a dipteran-specific reporter-based screening system with transfected S2 cells of Drosophila melanogaster Meig. was developed in order to discover and evaluate compounds that have ecdysone agonistic or antagonistic activity. A library of non-steroidal ecdysone agonists containing different mother structures with DAH and other related analogues such as acylaminoketone (AAK) and tetrahydroquinoline (THQ) was tested. None of the compounds tested was as active as 20E. This is in contrast to the very high activity of several DAH and AAK congeners in lepidopteran cells (Bombyx mori L.-derived Bm5 cells). The latter agrees with a successful docking of a DAH, tebufenozide, in the binding pocket of the lepidopteran EcR (B. mori), while this was not the case with the dipteran EcR (D. melanogaster). Of note was the identification of two THQ compounds with activity in S2 but not in Bm5 cells. Although marked differences in activity exist with respect to the activation of EcR between dipterans and lepidopterans, there exists a positive correlation (R = 0.724) between the pLC(50) values in S2 and Bm5 cells. In addition, it was found through protein modelling that a second lobe was present in the ligand-binding pocket of lepidopteran BmEcR but was lacking in the dipteran DmEcR protein, suggesting that this difference in structure of the binding pocket is a major factor for preferential activation of the lepidopteran over the dipteran receptors by DAH ligands. The present study confirmed the marked specificity of DAH and AAK analogues towards EcRs from lepidopteran insects. THQ compounds did not show this specificity, indicating that dipteran-specific ecdysone-agonist-based insecticides based on the THQ mother structure can be developed. The differences in activity of ecdysone agonists in dipteran and lepidopteran ecdysone-reporter-based screening systems are discussed.
    Pest Management Science 11/2010; 66(11):1215-29. · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dibenzoylhydrazine analogues have been developed successfully as a new group of insect growth regulators, called ecdysone agonists or moulting accelerating compounds. A notable feature is their high activity against lepidopteran insects, raising the question as to whether species-specific analogues can be isolated. In this study, the specificity of ecdysone agonists was addressed through a comparative analysis in two important lepidopterans, the silkworm Bombyx mori L. and the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). When collections of non-steroidal ecdysone agonists containing different mother structures (dibenzoylhydrazine, acylaminoketone, tetrahydroquinoline) were tested, in vitro reporter assays showed minor differences using cell lines derived from both species. However, when compounds with high ecdysone agonist activity were examined in toxicity assays, larvicidal activity differed considerably. Of note was the identification of three dibenzoylhydrazine analogues with > 100-fold higher activity against Bombyx than against Spodoptera larvae. The present study demonstrated that species-specific ecdysone-agonist-based insecticides can be developed, but their species specificity is not based on differences in the activation of the ecdysone receptor but rather on unidentified in vivo parameters such as permeability of the cuticle, uptake/excretion by the gut or metabolic detoxification.
    Pest Management Science 05/2010; 66(5):526-35. · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trehalose dimycolate (TDM) is a major surface-exposed mycolyl glycolipid that contributes to the hydrophobic cell wall architecture of mycobacteria. Nevertheless, because of its potent adjuvant functions, pathogenic mycobacteria appear to have evolved an evasive maneuver to down-regulate TDM expression within the host. We have shown previously that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and Mycobacterium avium (M.av), replace TDM with glucose monomycolate (GMM) by borrowing host-derived glucose as an alternative substrate for the FbpA mycolyltransferase. Mycobacterium leprae (M.le), the causative microorganism of human leprosy, is also known to down-regulate TDM expression in infected tissues, but the function of its mycolyltransferases has been poorly analysed. We found that, unlike M.tb and M.av FbpA enzymes, M.av FbpA was unexpectedly inefficient in transferring alpha-branched mycolates, resulting in impaired production of both TDM and GMM. Molecular modelling and mutational analysis indicated that a bulky side chain of leucine at position 130 of M.le FbpA obstructed the intramolecular tunnel that was proposed to accommodate the alpha-branch portion of the substrates. Notably, even after a highly reductive evolution, M.le FbpA remained functional in terms of transferring unbranched acyl chains, suggesting a role that is distinct from that as a mycolyltransferase.
    Journal of Biochemistry 08/2009; 146(5):659-65. · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The insect molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and its analogs (ecdysteroids) specifically bind to the ecdysone receptor. Previously, we synthesized various ecdysteroids containing the side chain moiety of ponasterone A (PonA), and measured the binding activity against Drosophila Kc cells to study the structure-activity relationship. Here we quantitatively analyzed the structure-activity relationship for the ligand binding of ecdysteroids including 20E and PonA. Since the hydrogen bonding (HB) is one of the important physicochemical properties for ligand binding to the ecdysteroid receptor, the number of possible HBs between the ligand molecule and the receptor was manually counted in the modeled ligand-receptor complex for all compounds. The construction of the ligand-receptor model was executed by the full-automatic modeling system (FAMS) in which calculation was done by simulated annealing. The binding potency of 15 ecdysteroids to Kc-cells were linearly correlated (r(2)=0.63) with the number of HBs which are observed between ligand and receptor molecule. Contribution of steric and electrostatic effects on the ligand-receptor binding was also examined using a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3-D QSAR), comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA).
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 08/2009; 17(16):5868-73. · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Carboxylesterases are enzymes that hydrolyze a broad suite of endogenous and exogenous ester-containing compounds to the corresponding alcohol and carboxylic acid. These enzymes metabolize a number of therapeutics including the anti-tumor agent CPT-11, the anti-viral drug oseltamivir, and the anti-thrombogenic agent clopidogrel as well as many agrochemicals. In addition, carboxylesterases are involved in lipid homeostasis, including cholesterol metabolism and transport with a proposed role in the development of atherosclerosis. Several different scaffolds capable of inhibiting carboxylesterases have been reported, including organophosphates, carbamates, trifluoromethyl ketone-containing structures (TFKs), and aromatic ethane-1,2-diones. Of these varied groups, only the 1,2-diones evidence carboxylesterase isoform-selectivity, which is an important characteristic for therapeutic application and probing biological mechanisms. This study constructed a series of classical and 3D-QSAR models to examine the physiochemical parameters involved in the observed selectivity of three mammalian carboxylesterases: human intestinal carboxylesterase (hiCE), human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1), and rabbit carboxylesterase (rCE). CoMFA-based models for the benzil-analogs described 88%, 95% and 76% of observed activity for hiCE, hCE1 and rCE, respectively. For TFK-containing compounds, two distinct models were constructed using either the ketone or gem-diol form of the inhibitor. For all three enzymes, the CoMFA ketone models comprised more biological activity than the corresponding gem-diol models; however the differences were small with described activity for all models ranging from 85-98%. A comprehensive model incorporating both benzil and TFK structures described 92%, 85% and 87% of observed activity for hiCE, hCE1 and rCE, respectively. Both classical and 3D-QSAR analysis showed that the observed isoform-selectivity with the benzil-analogs could be described by the volume parameter. This finding was successfully applied to examine substrate selectivity, demonstrating that the relative volumes of the alcohol and acid moieties of ester-containing substrates were predictive for whether hydrolysis was preferred by hiCE or hCE1. Based upon the integrated benzil and TFK model, the next generation inhibitors should combine the A-ring and the 1,2-dione of the benzil inhibitor with the long alkyl chain of the TFK-inhibitor in order to optimize selectivity and potency. These new inhibitors could be useful for elucidating the role of carboxylesterase activity in fatty acid homeostasis and the development of atherosclerosis as well as effecting the controlled activation of carboxylesterase-based prodrugs in situ.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 12/2008; 17(1):149-64. · 2.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite crucial importance of non-human primates as a model of human infectious diseases, group 1 CD1 genes and proteins have been poorly characterized in these species. Here, we isolated CD1A, CD1B, and CD1C cDNAs from rhesus macaque lymph nodes that encoded full-length CD1 proteins recognized specifically by monoclonal antibodies to human CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c molecules, respectively. The monkey group 1 CD1 isoforms contained amino acid residues and motifs known to be critical for intramolecular disulfide bond formation, N-linked glycosylation, and endosomal trafficking as in human group 1 CD1 molecules. Notably, monkey CD1b molecules were capable of presenting a mycobacterial glycolipid to human CD1b-restricted T cells, providing direct evidence for their antigen presentation function. This also detects for the first time a trans-species crossreaction mediated by group 1 CD1 molecules. Taken together, these results underscore substantial conservation of the group 1 CD1 system between humans and rhesus macaque monkeys.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2008; 377(3):889-93. · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, 172 diacylhydrazine analogs were examined for their ability to activate an ecdysone (molting hormone)-dependent reporter gene in a silkworm (Bombyx mori) cell-based high-throughput screening assay. The measured EC(50) values (concentration required to cause an effect in 50% of the cells) were used to construct a 3-D QSAR model that describes the ecdysone agonist activities of the diacylhydrazine analogs. Of these compounds, 14 exhibited no activity and were excluded from the 3-D QSAR analysis. The resulting equation described approximately 74% of the activity for 158 compounds. The final equation consisted of 42% electrostatic and 58% steric effects (r(2) = 0.74 and q(2) = 0.45). Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) was used to visualize the steric and electrostatic potential fields that were favorable and unfavorable for biological activity. Of particular interest was the observation that the hydrophobic parameter (logP) was not necessary for describing the observed activities, although previous studies have cited the importance of hydrophobic parameters in both classical and 3-D QSAR analyses of these compounds. Modeling studies of the B. mori ecdysone receptor supported the observed physicochemical parameters required for activity reported by the CoMFA models. Comparison of the present analysis with those performed using other lepidopteran assay systems evidenced a high degree of correlation (r(2) = 0.81 for a Sf-9 cell-based assay and r(2) = 0.89 for a Chilo suppressalis integument-based assay), indicating that it is valid to compare the results generated with the B. mori cell-based system to those generated with previous lepidopteran assays. This novel assay system is amendable to a high-throughput screening format and should greatly increase our ability to discover novel agonists of molting hormone (ecdysone) activity.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 03/2006; 14(4):1143-59. · 2.90 Impact Factor