Aaron D Martin

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, Michigan, United States

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Publications (14)29.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer is the fourth and ninth most common malignancy in males and females, respectively, in the U.S. and one of the most costly cancers to manage. With the current economic condition, physicians will need to become more aware of cost-effective therapies for the treatment of various malignancies. Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) is the latest minimally invasive surgical option for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Current reports have shown less blood loss, a shorter hospital stay, and a lower morbidity with RARC, as compared with the traditional open radical cystectomy (ORC), although long-term oncologic results of RARC are still maturing. There are few studies that have assessed the cost outcomes of RARC as compared with ORC. Currently, ORC appears to offer a direct cost advantage due to the high purchase and maintenance cost of the robotic platform, although when the indirect costs of complications and extended hospital stay with ORC are considered, RARC may be less expensive than the traditional open procedure. In order to accurately evaluate the cost effectiveness of RARC versus ORC, prospective randomized trials between the two surgical techniques with long-term oncologic efficacy are needed.
    Current Urology Reports 11/2012; 14(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Extirpation of polycystic kidneys for various medical reasons has been performed using many different approaches in attempts to limit morbidity from such a large operation. In indicated patients, it has usually been offered in a staged approach with renal transplantation to avoid graft complications. We published the first case of simultaneous laparoscopic bilateral native nephrectomy with kidney transplant in 2008. The present study shows our continued experience with offering this minimally invasive, single surgery alternative. The results are comparable to a staged laparoscopic approach with significantly shorter total hospital stay and one recovery for the patient and his/her family. OBJECTIVE: •  To analyse the perioperative outcomes of native bilateral laparoscopic nephrectomy (BLN) with simultaneous kidney transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: •  From November 2000 to April 2011, 37 patients were seen for renal failure secondary to autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and underwent renal transplant with native nephrectomies at a single tertiary academic centre. •  In all, 15 patients underwent BLN for ADPKD followed by simultaneous kidney transplantation. •  The other 22 patients underwent BLN for ADPKD with kidney transplant performed at a separate setting. •  Demographic data, perioperative outcomes, complications regardless of need for intervention, and graft function were analysed in both groups. RESULTS: •  The combined surgery was completed without intraoperative complication in all cases. •  The median total operative duration was 372 min, estimated blood loss was 300 mL with two patients requiring transfusion, and the median (range) hospital stay was 5 (3-7) days. •  All patients had immediate graft function with additional relief of compressive symptoms. •  In comparison to our staged cohort, the simultaneous group had a significantly shorter total hospital stay. •  All other outcomes and complication rates were comparable. CONCLUSION: •  In ADPKD, a less invasive laparoscopic approach for native nephrectomies with simultaneous renal transplant offers comparable morbidity without graft compromise and the convenience of one operation and one recovery for the patient.
    BJU International 08/2012; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Incontinence after radical prostatectomy is common yet poorly defined in the current literature. We aimed to accurately characterize incontinence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy to achieve improved preoperative patient counseling. After receiving institutional review board approval we performed a cross-sectional survey of the first 600 patients with prostate cancer who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy at our institution. The International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life and Urinary Incontinence Short Form were used to evaluate incontinence and quality of life after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Surveys were mailed by a third party. Data were analyzed on the prevalence of incontinence after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. More specifically we characterized in detail the nature of incontinence and its effect on quality of life. The response rate was 68% (408 of 600 participants). Response time since surgery was 2.5 months to 4 years. Overall incontinence bother scores and ratings of life interference were quite low. Patients reported that most incontinence occurred during physical activity but 35% reported interference with sleep. Of the patients 31% experienced some anxiety due to urinary difficulties and 51% had to occasionally change clothes due to leakage. Patients did not report much interference with traveling, visiting friends or family and family life. The most bothersome aspects of incontinence were its effects on partner relationship, sexual life and energy levels. Despite patient concerns of incontinence after prostatectomy they report little interference with quality of life.
    The Journal of urology 07/2011; 186(1):204-8. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine specific causes of postoperative bleeding requiring transfusion after holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) in order to enhance preoperative screening and counseling. After Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, a retrospective review of a single surgeon's experience of 130 consecutive HoLEPs was performed to specifically examine patients requiring perioperative blood transfusions. All patients from August 2007 to April 2009 who underwent a HoLEP at our institution since its inception were included. These patients' charts were reviewed to gain insight into their bleeding diathesis. A case series report was compiled and compared with the relevant published literature. Of the 130 patients, eight (6.7%) were found to require transfusion postoperatively. Four of these patients required a second operation for completion. These patients had a variety of causes for increased bleeding and subsequent transfusion including: chronic anticoagulation (n = 1), significant cardiac disease requiring maintenance of hemoglobin (n = 4), sepsis with secondary disseminated intravascular coagulation (n = 1), large prostate size (>150 g) (n = 4), underlying prostate cancer (n = 1) and inadequate anesthesia during the procedure leading to patient movement (n = 1). All patients made a full recovery with satisfactory urinary symptom improvement except for one patient with residual incontinence at last follow-up. Despite the many benefits of holmium laser enucleation, all patients should be counseled regarding the real potential for postoperative blood transfusion. When feasible, any known bleeding risk should be minimized by the surgeon as long it is done safely for the benefit of the patient considering their co-morbidities.
    BJU International 02/2011; 107(3):433-7. · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Aaron D Martin, Rafael N Nunez, Erik P Castle
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    ABSTRACT: To perform a complete cost analysis comparing robot assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) versus open radical cystectomy (ORC). After institutional review board approval for data collection, we prospectively recorded perioperative outcomes and costs, such as hospital stay, transfusion rate, readmission rate, and medications for consecutive patients undergoing RARC or ORC. Using actual cost data, we developed a cost decision tree model to determine typical perioperative costs for both RARC and ORC. Multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to elucidate which variables had the greatest impact on overall cost. Breakeven points with ORC were calculated using our model to better evaluate variable influence. In addition to the above modeled analysis, actual patient costs, including complications 30 days from surgery, were also compared for each procedure. Our model analysis showed that operative time and length of stay had the greatest impact on perioperative costs. Robotic cystectomy became more expensive than open cystectomy at the following break-even points: operating room (OR) time greater than 361 minutes, length of stay greater than 6.6 days, or robotic OR supply cost exceeding $5853. RARC was 16% more expensive when only comparing direct operative costs. Interestingly, actual total patient costs revealed a 38% cost advantage favoring RARC due to increased hospitalization costs for ORC in our cohort. RARC can provide a cost-effective alternative to ORC with operative time and length of stay being the most critical cost determinants. Higher complication rates with ORC make total actual costs much higher than RARC.
    Urology 11/2010; 77(3):621-5. · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Article: Reply.
    Aaron D Martin, Erik P Castle
    Urology 02/2010; 75(2):425. · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Urology - J UROL. 01/2010; 183(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Bleeding from ileal conduit peristomal varices is an uncommon complication of hepatic cirrhosis. Treatment with local measures such as compression and suture ligation is associated with high recurrence rates and does not address the underlying pathology. Herein we describe two similar cases of bleeding peristomal varices managed differently due to unique patient characteristics. One was treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and the other with direct percutaneous access of the varix with coil embolization.
    Current Urology. 01/2010; 4(2):110-112.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility of performing a robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) as an outpatient procedure while maintaining patient satisfaction and safety. Herein we report our experience, selection criteria, and discharge criteria for outpatient RARP. We performed a prospective study with 11 patients undergoing extraperitoneal RARP. These patients were counseled before the procedure that they would go home the same evening of the procedure. The patients were then surveyed by a third party shortly after they returned home, using the Patient Judgement System-24, a previously validated instrument for patient satisfaction. Sociodemographic data, comorbidities, and outcomes were collected for analysis. All patients were successfully discharged the same day of surgery. Mean patient age was 62.2 years with a mean body mass index of 26 kg/m(2). Mean operative time was 117.6 minutes, console time was 76.7 minutes, and estimated blood loss was 168.2 mL. Mean indwelling catheter time was 7.5 days. No complications occurred in this series of patients. Satisfaction was unanimously high in all patients surveyed, with most scores over 90% on the Patient Judgement System-24. No patient reported any ill effects from the shortened stay or felt rushed to leave the hospital. The early experience with extraperitoneal RARP as a same day surgery is promising. Preoperative patient counseling and selection is paramount. Patient satisfaction is not adversely affected by the shortened stay. Surgeon experience, assessment of intraoperative findings, and adequate postoperative assessment are essential.
    Urology 12/2009; 75(2):421-4. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the overall and disease-specific survival rates of patients undergoing robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) compared with historical open cystectomy. Survival, pathological and demographic data were collected on all patients undergoing RARC for bladder cancer from both Tulane University Medical Center and Mayo Clinic Arizona. Of a total of 80 RARCs we only included those with a follow-up of > or =6 months from surgery. Survival curves were compared with those from historical series of open cystectomy. Of the 80 patients 59 were identified as having a follow-up of > or =6 months from the date of surgery. The mean (range) follow-up was 25 (6-49) months. Overall survival rates at 12 and 36 months were 82% and 69%, respectively, and disease-specific survival rates were 82% and 72% at 12 and 36 months, respectively. These results are comparable to survival rates from open cystectomy. As expected, patients with lymph node-positive disease fared worse than those with lymph node-negative disease. Patients with extravesical lymph node-negative disease (pT3, pT4) fared worse than patients with organ-confined lymph node-negative disease. Also, patients with lymph node-positive disease fared worse than those with extravesical lymph node-negative disease, which is consistent with historical results of open cystectomy. RARC has a comparable survival rate to open cystectomy in the intermediate follow-up. Further study with a longer follow-up and more patients is necessary to determine any long-term survival benefits.
    BJU International 11/2009; 105(12):1706-9. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether shorter intervals (<4 and 6 weeks) between prostate biopsy and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) have a detrimental effect on perioperative outcomes, as recent studies showed that open RP shortly after prostate biopsy does not adversely influence surgical difficulty or efficacy, but RARP relies solely on visual cues rather than tactile sensation to determine posterior surgical planes of dissection. A series of 559 patients undergoing RARP from March 2004 to July 2007 was retrospectively reviewed. The interval between prostate biopsy and RARP was determined and patients with intervals of <or=4 weeks were compared to those >4 weeks. Patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes were analysed to determine statistically significant differences between the groups. This comparison was then repeated with a <or=6- vs >6-week interval, and examined with a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the <or=4-week group (27 patients) vs the >4-week group (509 patients), there was a significantly (P < 0.05) higher rate of complications (18.5% vs 6.9%). In the <or=6-week group (81 patients) vs the >6-week group (455 patients) there was a smaller but still significantly higher rate of complications (13.6% vs 6.4%). These results were still significant when controlling for patient and disease characteristics and the 'learning curve'. There was also a significantly higher rate of transfusion in the <or=6-week group (3.7%) than the >6-week group (0.7%). Our data suggest that RARP should be delayed after prostate biopsy; RARP within 6 weeks of biopsy was associated with a greater risk of complications even when controlling for disease and patient characteristics.
    BJU International 06/2009; 104(11):1734-7. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flank positioning with the patient's ipsilateral arm elevated over the head on an arm board is often used during laparoscopic kidney surgery. There have been reports of brachial plexus neuropraxia, rhabdomyolysis and other complications related to this positioning. Herein we describe our modified positioning technique for laparoscopic renal surgery. Beginning in November 2003, all patients undergoing laparoscopic renal surgery have been positioned in the 30 degree modified flank position. The ipsilateral arm on the surgical side is not elevated on an arm board but lies in an ergonomic "sling" position with the elbow flexed slightly greater than 90 degrees. The chest, hips, and knees are secured with tape to allow for extreme table rotation which creates a "true" flank angle relative to the horizontal. Over 1240 cases have been performed utilizing this method, with no events of rhabdomyolysis or neuropraxia secondary to positioning. All patients up to a body mass index (BMI) of 67 kg/m2 have successfully undergone laparoscopic renal surgery with this method without any limitation encountered secondary to positioning. This novel technique allows for more ergonomic arm positioning as well as significantly decreased pressure on the contralateral down side. The use of extreme table rotation eliminates the need for conventional flank positioning which employs table flexion, arm boards, and axillary rolls. This technique allows for rapid, easy, and safe positioning with no related complications in 1240 laparoscopic kidney cases.
    The Canadian Journal of Urology 05/2009; 16(2):4580-3. · 0.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate retrospectively whether or not previous treatment to the prostate alters the perioperative outcomes from robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) after the initial 'learning curve', as there are conflicting data on outcomes of RP in patients with previous treatment to the prostate. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who had RARP between March 2005 and August 2007, and analysed demographic, perioperative variables and pathological data. In all, 510 patient charts were reviewed, identifying 24 patients with a history of previous treatment to the prostate including transurethral resection or incision of the prostate, transurethral microwave therapy, transurethral needle ablation, photoselective vaporization, simple prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and open bladder neck reconstruction (group 1) and 486 with no previous treatment (group 2). There was no significant difference between the groups in body mass index, clinical stage, grade or prostate volume, but the patients in group 1 were older (70 vs 65 years, P = 0.001). Outcome analysis comparing groups 1 and 2 showed an estimated blood loss of 155 vs 137 mL, length of hospital stay of 2.2 vs 1.5 days, operative duration of 200 vs 186 min and catheter time of 12 vs 8 days, respectively; only the last was statistically significant (P = 0.03). There was an 8.3% and 6.8% complication rate in groups 1 and 2, respectively, and the respective overall positive margin rate was 20.8% and 22.6%. A history of previous treatment of the prostate does not appear to compromise the perioperative outcomes of RARP.
    BJU International 01/2009; 103(12):1696-8. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present our experience with laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for T(3b) disease focusing on thrombus within the vena cava. A total of 14 patients with T(3b) disease were identified from a retrospective laparoscopic renal cancer database from 2000 to 2007. Patient demographics, clinical stage, preoperative imaging, intraoperative parameters, final pathology, and postoperative course were analyzed. In patients with a large tumor thrombus, the infraumbilical extraction excision was performed early and a gel port was placed. This was used when laparoscopic milking or determination of the distal extent of the tumor thrombus was difficult. Preoperative imaging identified T(3b) disease in all but four patients. Four patients had caval involvement seen on imaging, with one extending well above 2 to 3 cm above the renal vein. Of the 14 patients, procedures in 13 were completed laparoscopically. There was one conversion early in the experience because of a positive frozen section of the renal vein; however, additional vein and caval margins were negative. There was one complication-a pulmonary embolism 5 days postoperatively, managed with anticoagulation, with no disease recurrence 4 years later. In patients with T(3b) disease, laparoscopy is feasible and safe. Using advanced laparoscopic techniques to milk the tumor thrombus into the proximal renal vein with laparoscopic vascular instruments is critical to success in a purely laparoscopic thrombectomy. Placement of a gel port in the extraction incision early in the procedure may aid in hand-milking of the tumor thrombus into the renal vein in cases of extensive inferior vena cava involvement.
    Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 08/2008; 22(8):1681-5. · 1.75 Impact Factor