[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) originally were identified as small (~24 kDa), soluble, amphitropic proteins that specifically accelerate the intermembrane transfer of glycolipids. GLTPs and related homologs now are known to adopt a unique, helically dominated, two-layer 'sandwich' architecture defined as the GLTP-fold that provides the structural underpinning for the eukaryotic GLTP superfamily. Recent advances now provide exquisite insights into structural features responsible for lipid headgroup selectivity as well as the adaptability of the hydrophobic compartment for accommodating hydrocarbon chains of differing length and unsaturation. A new understanding of the structural versatility and evolutionary premium placed on the GLTP motif has emerged. Human GLTP-motifs have evolved to function not only as glucosylceramide binding/transferring domains for phosphoinositol 4-phosphate adaptor protein-2 during glycosphingolipid biosynthesis but also as selective binding/transfer proteins for ceramide-1-phosphate. The latter, known as ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein, recently has been shown to form GLTP-fold while critically regulating Group-IV cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 activity and pro-inflammatory eicosanoid production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between anthrylvinyl-labeled phosphatidylcholine (AV-PC) as a donor and newly synthesized benzanthrones (referred to here as A8, A6, AM12, AM15 and AM18) as acceptors has been examined to gain insight into molecular level details of the interactions between benzanthrone dyes and model lipid membranes composed of zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine and its mixtures with anionic lipids cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG). FRET data were quantitatively analyzed in terms of the model of energy transfer in two-dimensional systems taking into account the distance dependence of orientation factor. Evidence for A8 location in phospholipid headgroup region has been obtained. Inclusion of CL and PG into PC bilayer has been found to induce substantial relocation of A6, AM12, AM15 and AM18 from hydrophobic membrane core to lipid-water interface.
Journal of Fluorescence 03/2014; 24(3). DOI:10.1007/s10895-014-1370-7 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidycholines (PC) with two saturated acyl chains (e.g. dipalmitoyl) mimic natural sphingomyelin (SM) by promoting raft formation in model membranes. However, sphingoid-based lipids, such as SM, rather than saturated-chain PCs have been implicated as key components of lipid rafts in biomembranes. These observations raise questions about the physical packing properties of the phase states that can be formed by these two major plasma membrane lipids with identical phosphocholine headgroups. To investigate, we developed a monolayer platform capable of monitoring changes in surface fluorescence by acquiring multiple spectra during measurement of a lipid force-area isotherm. We relied on the concentration-dependent emission changes of 4,4 difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene (BODIPY)-labeled PC to detect nano scale alterations in lipid packing and phase state induced by monolayer lateral compression. The BODIPY-PC probe contained an indacene ring with four symmetrically-located methyl (Me) substituents to enhance localization to the lipid hydrocarbon region. Surface fluorescence spectra indicated changes in miscibility even when force-area isotherms showed no deviation from ideal mixing behavior in the surface pressure versus cross-sectional molecular area response. We detected slightly better mixing of Me4-BODIPY-8-PC with the fluid-like, liquid expanded phase of 1 palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC compared to N-oleoyl-SM. Remarkably, in the gel-like, liquid condensed phase, Me4-BODIPY-8-PC mixed better with N-palmitoyl-SM than dipalmitoyl-PC, suggesting naturally-abundant SMs with saturated acyl chains form gel-like lipid phase(s) with enhanced ability to accommodate deeply embedded components compared to dipalmitoyl-PC gel phase. The findings reveal a fundamental difference in the lateral packing properties of SM and PC that occurs even when their acyl chains match.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accelerated cell death 11 (acd11) mutant of Arabidopsis provides a genetic model for studying immune response activation and localized cellular suicide that halt pathogen spread during infection in plants. Here, we elucidate ACD11 structure and function and show that acd11 disruption dramatically alters the in vivo balance of sphingolipid mediators that regulate eukaryotic-programmed cell death. In acd11 mutants, normally low ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) levels become elevated, but the relatively abundant cell death inducer phytoceramide rises acutely. ACD11 exhibits selective intermembrane transfer of C1P and phyto-C1P. Crystal structures establish C1P binding via a surface-localized, phosphate headgroup recognition center connected to an interior hydrophobic pocket that adaptively ensheaths lipid chains via a cleft-like gating mechanism. Point mutation mapping confirms functional involvement of binding site residues. A π helix (π bulge) near the lipid binding cleft distinguishes apo-ACD11 from other GLTP folds. The global two-layer, α-helically dominated, "sandwich" topology displaying C1P-selective binding identifies ACD11 as the plant prototype of a GLTP fold subfamily.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A synthesis for fluorescent analogs of ceramide-1-phosphate bearing 9-anthrylvinyl or 4,4-difluoro-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-8-yl (Me4-BODIPY) fluorophore at co-position of fatty acid residue was carried out. The key stage of the synthesis is hydrolysis of corresponding sphingomyelins catalyzed by phospholipase D from Streptomyces chromofuscus; the enzymatic yield has been raised to 50–70% by appliance of organic solvent in the incubation medium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphorylated sphingolipids ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) have emerged as key regulators of cell growth, survival, migration and inflammation. C1P produced by ceramide kinase is an activator of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α), the rate-limiting releaser of arachidonic acid used for pro-inflammatory eicosanoid production, which contributes to disease pathogenesis in asthma or airway hyper-responsiveness, cancer, atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To modulate eicosanoid action and avoid the damaging effects of chronic inflammation, cells require efficient targeting, trafficking and presentation of C1P to specific cellular sites. Vesicular trafficking is likely but non-vesicular mechanisms for C1P sensing, transfer and presentation remain unexplored. Moreover, the molecular basis for selective recognition and binding among signalling lipids with phosphate headgroups, namely C1P, phosphatidic acid or their lyso-derivatives, remains unclear. Here, a ubiquitously expressed lipid transfer protein, human GLTPD1, named here CPTP, is shown to specifically transfer C1P between membranes. Crystal structures establish C1P binding through a novel surface-localized, phosphate headgroup recognition centre connected to an interior hydrophobic pocket that adaptively expands to ensheath differing-length lipid chains using a cleft-like gating mechanism. The two-layer, α-helically-dominated 'sandwich' topology identifies CPTP as the prototype for a new glycolipid transfer protein fold subfamily. CPTP resides in the cell cytosol but associates with the trans-Golgi network, nucleus and plasma membrane. RNA interference-induced CPTP depletion elevates C1P steady-state levels and alters Golgi cisternae stack morphology. The resulting C1P decrease in plasma membranes and increase in the Golgi complex stimulates cPLA2α release of arachidonic acid, triggering pro-inflammatory eicosanoid generation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human glycolipid transfer protein (hsGLTP) forms the prototypical GLTP fold and is characterized by a broad transfer selectivity for glycosphingolipids (GSLs). The GLTP mutation D48V near the `portal entrance' of the glycolipid binding site has recently been shown to enhance selectivity for sulfatides (SFs) containing a long acyl chain. Here, nine novel crystal structures of hsGLTP and the SF-selective mutant complexed with short-acyl-chain monoSF and diSF in different crystal forms are reported in order to elucidate the potential functional roles of lipid-mediated homodimerization. In all crystal forms, the hsGLTP-SF complexes displayed homodimeric structures supported by similarly organized intermolecular interactions. The dimerization interface always involved the lipid sphingosine chain, the protein C-terminus (C-end) and α-helices 6 and 2, but the D48V mutant displayed a `locked' dimer conformation compared with the hinge-like flexibility of wild-type dimers. Differences in contact angles, areas and residues at the dimer interfaces in the `flexible' and `locked' dimers revealed a potentially important role of the dimeric structure in the C-end conformation of hsGLTP and in the precise positioning of the key residue of the glycolipid recognition centre, His140. ΔY207 and ΔC-end deletion mutants, in which the C-end is shifted or truncated, showed an almost complete loss of transfer activity. The new structural insights suggest that ligand-dependent reversible dimerization plays a role in the function of human GLTP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among amphitropic proteins, human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) forms a structurally-unique fold that translocates on/off membranes to specifically transfer glycolipids. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers with curvature-induced packing stress stimulate much faster glycolipid intervesicular transfer than nonstressed PC bilayers raising questions about planar, cytosol-facing biomembranes being viable sites for GLTP interaction. Herein, GLTP-mediated desorption kinetics of fluorescent glycolipid (tetramethyl-BODIPY-label) from lipid monolayers are assessed using a novel, microfluidics-based surface balance that monitors lipid lateral packing while simultaneously acquiring surface fluorescence data. At biomembrane-like packing (30-35 mN/m), GLTP uptake of BODIPY-glycolipid from 1 palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC monolayers was nearly nonexistent but could be induced by reducing surface pressure to mirror packing in curvature-stressed bilayers. In contrast, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) matrices supported robust BODIPY-glycolipid uptake by GLTP at both high and low surface pressures. Unexpectedly, negatively-charged, cytosol-facing lipids, i.e. phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine, also supported BODIPY-glycolipid uptake by GLTP at high surface pressure. Remarkably, including both POPA (5 mole%) and POPE (15 mole%) in POPC synergistically activated GLTP at high surface pressure. Our study shows that matrix lipid headgroup composition, rather than molecular packing per se, is a key regulator of GLTP-fold function while demonstrating the novel capabilities of the microfluidics-based film balance for investigating protein-membrane interfacial interactions.
The Journal of Lipid Research 01/2013; 54(4). DOI:10.1194/jlr.M034744 · 4.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositol 4-phosphate adaptor protein-2 (FAPP2) plays a key role in glycosphingolipid (GSL) production using its C-terminal domain to transport newly synthesized glucosylceramide away from the cytosol-facing glucosylceramide synthase in the cis-Golgi for further anabolic processing. Structural homology modeling against human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) predicts a GLTP-fold for FAPP2 C-terminal domain, but no experimental support exists to warrant inclusion in the GLTP superfamily. Here, the biophysical properties and glycolipid transfer specificity of FAPP2-C-terminal domain have been characterized and compared with other established GLTP-folds. Experimental evidence for a GLTP-fold includes: i) Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) showing secondary structure with high alpha-helix content and a low thermally-induced unfolding transition (~41°C); ii) Near-UV-CD indicating only subtle tertiary conformational change before/after interaction with membranes containing/lacking glycolipid; iii) Red-shifted tryptophan (Trp) emission wavelength maximum (λ(max) ~352nm) for apo-FAPP2-C-terminal domain consistent with surface exposed intrinsic Trp residues; iv) 'Signature' GLTP-fold Trp fluorescence response, i.e., intensity decrease (~30%) accompanied by strongly blue-shifted λ(max) (~14nm) upon interaction with membranes containing glycolipid, supporting direct involvement of Trp in glycolipid binding and enabling estimation of partitioning affinities. A structurally-based preference for other simple uncharged GSLs, in addition to glucosylceramide, makes human FAPP2-GLTP more similar to fungal HET-C2 than to plant AtGLTP1 (glucosylceramide-specific) or to broadly GSL-selective human GLTP. These findings along with the distinct mRNA exon/intron organizations originating from single-copy genes on separate human chromosomes suggest adaptive evolutionary divergence by these two GLTP-folds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein polymerization into ordered fibrillar structures (amyloid fibrils) is currently associated with a range of pathological conditions. Recent studies clearly indicate that amyloid cytotoxicity is provoked by a continuum of cross-β-sheet aggregates including mature fibrils. In view of the possible diversity of cytotoxicity mechanisms, the present study addressed the question of whether protein conversion into amyloid fibrils can modify its competitive membrane adsorption behavior. Using a combination of resonance energy transfer, dynamic light scattering and fluorescence quenching techniques, the competitive binding of either monomeric or polymerized lysozyme, and cytochrome c to the model lipid membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine mixtures with varying proportions of phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine or cardiolipin has been studied. The ability of fibrillar lysozyme to induce dissociation of cytochrome c from the membrane binding sites proved to be markedly stronger than that of its monomeric counterpart, with desorption process displaying cooperativity features upon increasing the charge of lipid bilayer. The decreased efficiency of tryptophan fluorescence quenching by acrylamide and short-wavelength shift of emission maximum observed upon membrane binding of lysozyme fibrils were rationalized in terms of fluorophore transfer into interfacial bilayer region. It is hypothesized that electrostatic interactions play predominant role in determining the lipid-associating and competitive abilities of fibrillar lysozyme.
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 10/2012; 165(7). DOI:10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2012.10.001 · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) fold represents a novel structural motif for lipid binding/transfer and reversible membrane translocation. GLTPs transfer glycosphingolipids (GSLs) that are key regulators of cell growth, division, surface adhesion, and neurodevelopment. Herein, we report structure-guided engineering of the lipid binding features of GLTP. New crystal structures of wild-type GLTP and two mutants (D48V and A47D‖D48V), each containing bound N-nervonoyl-sulfatide, reveal the molecular basis for selective anchoring of sulfatide (3-O-sulfo-galactosylceramide) by D48V-GLTP. Directed point mutations of "portal entrance" residues, A47 and D48, reversibly regulate sphingosine access to the hydrophobic pocket via a mechanism that could involve homodimerization. "Door-opening" conformational changes by phenylalanines within the hydrophobic pocket are revealed during lipid encapsulation by new crystal structures of bona fide apo-GLTP and GLTP complexed with N-oleoyl-glucosylceramide. The development of "engineered GLTPs" with enhanced specificity for select GSLs provides a potential new therapeutic approach for targeting GSL-mediated pathologies.