[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relative to healthy controls, lithium free bipolar patients exhibit significant gray matter abnormalities. Lithium, the long-time reference standard medication treatment for bipolar disorder, has been proposed to be neuro-protective against these abnormalities. However, its effects on cortical thickness and hippocampal subfield (HSF) volumes remain unstudied and unclear, respectively, in bipolar disorder. This study included 342 healthy controls (HC), 51 lithium free PBD patients (NoLi), and 51 PBD patients taking lithium (Li). Regional gray matter thickness and HSF volume values were extracted from 3T MRI images. After matching NoLi and Li samples, regions where HC differed from either Li or NoLi were identified. In regions of significant or trending HC-NoLi difference, Li-NoLi comparisons were made. No significant HC-Li thickness or HSF volume differences were found. Significantly thinner occipital cortices were observed in NoLi compared to HC. In these regions, Li consistently exhibited non-significant trends for greater cortical thickness relative to NoLi. Significantly less volume was observed in NoLi compared to both HC and Li in right HSFs. Our results suggest that PBD in patients not treated with Li is associated with thinner occipital cortices and reduced HSF volumes compared with HC. Patients treated with Li exhibited significantly larger HSF volumes than NoLi, and those treated with Li were no different from HC in cortical thickness or hippocampal volumes. This evidence directly supports the hypothesis that Li may counteract the locally thinner and smaller gray matter structure found in PBD.
Journal of Psychiatric Research 12/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Val158Met (rs4680) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) influences executive function and prefrontal function through its effect on dopamine (DA) metabolism. Both HIV and the Val allele of the Val158Met SNP are associated with compromised executive function and inefficient prefrontal function. The present study used behavioral and neuroimaging techniques to determine independent and interactive associations between HIV serostatus and COMT genotype on working memory and prefrontal function in women. For the behavioral study, 54 HIV-infected and 33 HIV-uninfected women completed the 0-, 1-, and 2-back conditions of the verbal N-back, a working memory test. For the imaging study, 36 women (23 HIV-infected, 13 HIV-uninfected) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessments while completing the N-back task. HIV-infected women demonstrated significantly worse N-back performance compared with HIV-uninfected women (p p N-back conditions (p p COMT genotype leads to working memory deficits and altered prefrontal function in HIV-infected individuals.
Journal of NeuroVirology 12/2014; · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sexual dysfunction is a troubling obstacle for individuals being treated for depression and can be caused by both depressive symptoms as well as antidepressant drugs. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) represent a class of antidepressants commonly associated with sexual dysfunction, even after symptomatic improvement. Candidate gene studies have identified associations between sexual dysfunction and altered SSRI pharmacokinetics or to the neurotransmitter systems affected by depression and SSRI treatment. The multifactorial nature of this phenotype and study heterogeneity are currently limitations to the translation of these findings to clinical use. Larger, prospective studies of genetic-guided antidepressant selection may help to clarify the clinical utility of pharmacogenetics in minimizing sexual side effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Val(158)Met rs4680 polymorphism in the COMT gene regulates dopamine catabolism in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Dopamine's involvement in reward experience suggests those with the methionine (Met) variant may exhibit trait-level sensitivity to reward due to more post-synaptic dopamine in the PFC. A physiological mediator of this association may be greater relative left asymmetry in the PFC, a putative biomarker for trait positive emotionality. Electroencephalograms of 120 participants were measured during a task that assesses two aspects of reward processing: pre-reward anticipation and post-reward consummatory affect. Participants provided genetics samples and completed the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), which assesses trait-level anticipatory and consummatory positive affect. Met carriers had higher TEPS-Consummatory scores. This effect was mediated by greater relative left activation in the post-reward phase of the task. No effects were observed for the pre-reward phase. Results suggest that frontal asymmetry is an endophenotype between COMT genotype and trait reward responsivity.
Cognition and Emotion 09/2014; · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Difficulty switching behavioral response sets is established in psychotic disorders. In rodent models, prefrontal lesions cause difficulty initially switching to new response sets (perseverative errors) while striatal lesions cause difficulty suppressing responses to previous choice preferences (regressive errors). Studies of psychotic disorders have not previously assessed these 2 error types. Bipolar and Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) participants included probands with schizophrenia (N = 212), psychotic bipolar (N = 192), and schizoaffective disorder (N = 131), their first-degree relatives (N = 267,226,165 respectively), and healthy controls (N = 258). Participants completed the Penn Conditional Exclusion Test (PCET) to assess cognitive set switching and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to assess generalized neuropsychological dysfunction. All proband groups displayed elevated rates of perseverative and regressive errors compared to controls. After correcting for generalized cognitive deficits to identify specific deficits in set shifting and maintenance, there were no significant group differences for perseverative errors, while the increased rate of regressive errors remained significant. Level of regressive errors was similar across proband groups with minimal correlations with antipsychotic medication dose, clinical ratings, and demographic characteristics. Relatives of schizophrenia patients showed increased rates of regressive errors, but familiality of this trait was significant only in bipolar pedigrees. Regressive errors were partially independent of generalized cognitive deficits, suggesting a potentially informative and specific cognitive deficit across psychotic disorders. Preclinical data indicate that this deficit could be related to altered function in a neural system that may include the dorsal striatum or other elements of frontostriatal systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
Aberrant DNA methylation and gene expression have been reported in postmortem brain tissues of psychotic patients, but until now there has been no systematic evaluation of synergistic changes in methylation and expression on a genome-wide scale in brain tissue.Methods
In this study, genome-wide methylation and expression analyses were performed on cerebellum samples from 39 patients with schizophrenia, 36 patients with bipolar disorder, and 43 unaffected controls, to screen for a correlation between gene expression and CpG methylation.ResultsOut of 71,753 CpG gene pairs (CGPs) tested across the genome, 204 were found to significantly correlate with gene expression after correction for multiple testing [p < 0.05, false discovery rate (FDR) q < 0.05]. The correlated CGPs were tested for disease-associated expression and methylation by comparing psychotic patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia to healthy controls. Four of the identified CGPs were found to significantly correlate with the differential expression and methylation of genes encoding phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (PIK3R1), butyrophilin, subfamily 3, member A3 (BTN3A3), nescient helix-loop-helix 1 (NHLH1), and solute carrier family 16, member 7 (SLC16A7) in psychotic patients (p < 0.05, FDR q < 0.2). Additional expression and methylation datasets were used to validate the relationship between DNA methylation, gene expression, and neuropsychiatric diseases.Conclusions
These results suggest that the identified differentially expressed genes with an aberrant methylation pattern may represent novel candidate factors in the etiology and pathology of neuropsychiatric disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the frequency of achieving a therapeutic serum digoxin concentration (SDC), defined as 0.5-0.9 ng/ml, by using a simplified nomogram to individualize digoxin dosing with standard dosing practices in patients with heart failure, and to characterize the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of the ABCB1 gene and SDC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurocognitive deficits are associated with most psychotic disorders, but may differ across diagnosis and by treatment status. This ambiguity is partly addressed in longitudinal pre/post treatment studies with first episode patients. Antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients have shown intact performance on a predictive saccade task that assesses simple motor learning, spatial abilities, and response planning. After antipsychotic treatment, however, schizophrenia patients performing this task show a selective impairment in the accuracy of anticipatory responses, generated from learned internal representations of the task stimulus. This finding is in line with other observations of antipsychotic medication effects on frontostriatal systems, particularly dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We sought to replicate this provocative finding with an independent sample of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and extend it by including a group of patients with first episode bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP). Matched healthy controls were also studied in parallel. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated intact performance pretreatment followed by impairment post-treatment for accuracy of anticipatory responses, and worse accuracy was associated with higher antipsychotic dose. BDP patients displayed saccade accuracy deficits before and after treatment and had no correlation of performance and antipsychotic dose. The findings suggest different neural alterations early in the course of each psychotic disorder, and different vulnerabilities to antipsychotic treatment effects between schizophrenia and BDP.
Schizophrenia Research 08/2014; · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type-3 metabotropic glutamate receptor gene (GRM3) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with cognitive performance and prefrontal cortex brain activity in chronically treated schizophrenia patients. Whether these SNPs are associated with cognitive and symptom response to antipsychotic therapy has not been extensively evaluated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antipsychotic medications have established clinical benefit, but there are few neuroimaging studies before and after initiating antipsychotic medication to assess drug influence on brain circuitry. Attention and motor learning tasks are promising approaches for examining treatment-related changes in frontostriatal systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: This study seeks to determine if variation in the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3/DAT1) moderates the dose-response effects of long-acting dexmethylphenidate (D-MPH) and mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: Fifty-six children and adolescents (mean age=11.7±2.2) participated in a double-blind, two period crossover, dose-response study with a randomized placebo week in each 4 week drug period. Each period consisted of sequential week-long exposures to three dose levels (10, 20, 25-30 mg, depending upon weight) of D-MPH or MAS. Results: Doses of 10-20 mg of either D-MPH or MAS had little to no effect on hyperactivity-impulsivity and total ADHD symptom scores in subjects with the 9/9 genotype; this was in contrast to the dose-response curves of subjects with either the 10/10 or 10/9 genotype. Conclusions: ADHD youth with the 9/9 genotype may require higher stimulant doses to achieve adequate symptom control.
Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 05/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research has indicated that individuals of Asian descent, relative to other racial groups, demonstrate reduced emotional responding and lower prevalence rates of several anxiety disorders. It is unclear though whether these group differences extend to biomarkers of anxiety disorders and whether genetic differences play a role. This study compared self-identified Caucasian, Latino, and Asian persons (total N = 174) on startle response during a baseline period and while anticipating unpredictable threat-a putative biomarker for certain anxiety disorders-as well as predictable threat. In addition, the association between genetic ancestry and startle response was examined within each racial group to determine potential genetic influences on responding. For the baseline period, Asian participants exhibited a smaller startle response relative to Caucasian and Latino participants, who did not differ. Within each racial group, genetic ancestry was associated with baseline startle. Furthermore, genetic ancestry mediated racial group differences in baseline startle. For the threat conditions, a Race × Condition interaction indicated that Asian participants exhibited reduced startle potentiation to unpredictable, but not predicable, threat relative to Caucasian and Latino participants, who did not differ. However, genetic ancestry was not associated with threat-potentiated startle in any racial group. This study adds to the growing literature on racial differences in emotional responding and provides preliminary evidence suggesting that genetic ancestry may play an important role. Moreover, reduced sensitivity to unpredictable threat may reflect a mechanism for why individuals of Asian descent are at less risk for particular anxiety disorders relative to other racial groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) exert robust influence on social affiliation and specific cognitive processes in healthy individuals. Abnormalities in these neuroendocrine systems have been observed in psychotic disorders, but their relation to impairments in behavioral domains that these endocrines modulate is not well understood. We compared abnormalities of OT and AVP serum concentrations in probands with schizophrenia (n = 57), schizoaffective disorder (n = 34), and psychotic bipolar disorder (n = 75); their first-degree relatives without a history of psychosis (n = 61, 43, 91, respectively); and healthy controls (n = 66) and examined their association with emotion processing and cognition. AVP levels were lower in schizophrenia (P = .002) and bipolar probands (P = .03) and in relatives of schizophrenia probands (P = .002) compared with controls. OT levels did not differ between groups. Familiality estimates were robust for OT (h (2) = 0.79, P = 3.97e-15) and AVP (h (2) = 0.78, P = 3.93e-11). Higher levels of OT were associated with better emotion recognition (β = 0.40, P < .001) and general neuropsychological function (β = 0.26, P = .04) in healthy controls as expected but not in any proband or relative group. In schizophrenia, higher OT levels were related to greater positive symptom severity. The dissociation of OT levels and behavioral function in all proband and relative groups suggests that risk and illness factors associated with psychotic disorders are not related to reduced OT levels but to a disruption in the ability of physiological levels of OT to modulate social cognition and neuropsychological function. Decreased AVP levels may be a marker of biological vulnerability in schizophrenia because alterations were seen in probands and relatives, and familiality was high.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advancements in pharmacogenomics have introduced an increasing number of opportunities to bring personalized medicine into clinical practice. Understanding how and when to use this technology to guide pharmacotherapy used to treat psychiatric and neurological (neuropsychiatric) conditions remains a challenge for many clinicians. Currently, guidelines exist to assist clinicians in the use of existing genetic information for drug selection and/or dosing for the tricyclic antidepressants, carbamazepine, and phenytoin. Additional language in the product labeling suggests that genetic information may also be useful for determining the starting and target doses, as well as drug interaction potential, for a number of other drugs. In this review, we outline the current status of pharmacogenomic testing for neuropsychiatric drugs as it pertains to information contained in drug labeling, consensus guidelines, and test panels, as well as considerations related to obtaining tests for patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Appetitive and defensive motivation account for a good deal of variance in personality and mental health, but whether individual differences in these systems are correlated or orthogonal has not been conclusively established. Previous investigations have generally relied on self-report and have yielded conflicting results. We therefore assessed the relation between psychophysiological indices of appetitive and defensive motivation during elicitation of these motivational states: specifically, frontal electroencephalogram asymmetry during reward anticipation and startle response during anticipation of predictable or unpredictable threat of shock. Results in a sample of psychopathology-free community members (n=63), an independent sample of undergraduates with a range of internalising symptoms (n=64), and the combination of these samples (n=127) revealed that differences in responding to the two tasks were not significantly correlated. Average coefficients approached zero in all three samples (community: .04, undergraduate: -.01, combined: .06). Implications of these findings for research on normal and abnormal personality are discussed.
Cognition and Emotion 11/2013; · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Similar smooth pursuit eye tracking dysfunctions are present across psychotic disorders. They include pursuit initiation and maintenance deficits that implicate different functional brain systems. This candidate gene study examined psychosis-related genotypes regulating dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission in relation to these pursuit deficits. One hundred and thirty-eight untreated first-episode patients with a psychotic disorder were genotyped for four markers in DRD2 and four markers in GRM3. The magnitude of eye movement abnormality in patients was defined in relation to performance of matched healthy controls (N = 130). Eighty three patients were followed after 6 weeks of antipsychotic treatment. At baseline, patients with a −141C deletion in DRD2 rs1799732 had slower initiation eye velocity and longer pursuit latency than CC insertion carriers. Further, GRM3 rs274622_CC carriers had poorer pursuit maintenance than T-carriers. Antipsychotic treatment resulted in prolonged pursuit latency in DRD2 rs1799732_CC insertion carriers and a decline in pursuit maintenance in GRM3 rs6465084_GG carriers. The present study demonstrates for the first time that neurophysiological measures of motor and neurocognitive deficits in patients with psychotic disorders have different associations with genes regulating dopamine and glutamate systems, respectively. Alterations in striatal D2 receptor activity through the −141C Ins/Del polymorphism could contribute to pursuit initiation deficits in psychotic disorders. Alterations in GRM3 coding for the mGluR3 protein may impair pursuit maintenance by compromising higher perceptual and cognitive processes that depend on optimal glutamate signaling in corticocortical circuits. DRD2 and GRM3 genotypes also selectively modulated the severity of adverse motor and neurocognitive changes resulting from antipsychotic treatment.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 10/2013; · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Utilizing a combination of neuropsychological and cognitive neuroscience approaches may be essential for characterizing cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and eventually assessing cognitive outcomes. This study was designed to compare the stability of select exemplars for these approaches and their correlations in schizophrenia patients with stable treatment and clinical profiles. Reliability estimates for serial order processing were comparable to neuropsychological measures and indicate that experimental serial order processing measures may be less susceptible to practice effects than traditional neuropsychological measures. Correlations were moderate and consistent with a global cognitive factor. Exploratory analyses indicated a potentially critical role of the Met allele of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism in externally paced sequential recall. Experimental measures of serial order processing may reflect frontostriatal dysfunction and be a useful supplement to large neuropsychological batteries.
Schizophrenia Research 10/2013; · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Met allele of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism is associated with increased cortical dopamine and risk behaviors including illicit drug use and unprotected sex. Therefore, we examined whether or not the distribution of the Val158Met genotype differed between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.
Cross-sectional analysis using data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), the largest longitudinal cohort study of HIV in women.
We conducted an Armitage-Cochran test and logistic regression to compare genotype frequencies between 1848 HIV-infected and 612 HIV-uninfected women in WIHS.
The likelihood of carrying one or two Met alleles was greater in HIV-infected women (61%) compared to HIV-uninfected women (54%), Z = -3.60, P <0.001.
We report the novel finding of an association between the Val158Met genotype and HIV serostatus that may be mediated through the impact of dopamine function on propensity for risk-taking.
AIDS (London, England) 07/2013; 27(11):1779-1782. · 6.56 Impact Factor