[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates. Aims The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates. Method Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation. Results There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged. Conclusions Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support there being a clear causal relationship between the current economic crisis and an increase in the suicide rate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Identifying bipolar patients at high-suicide risk is a major health issue. To improve their identification, we compared dimensional and neuropsychological profile of bipolar patients with or without history of suicide attempt, taking into account suicidal severity (i.e. admission to intensive ward).MethodA total of 343 adult euthymic bipolar out-patients recruited in the French FondaMental Advanced Centres of Expertise for Bipolar Disorder were divided into three subgroups: 214 patients without history of suicide attempt, 88 patients with past history of non-severe suicide attempt and 41 patients with past history of severe suicide attempt. General intellectual functioning, speed of information processing, verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency and executive functioning were assessed.ResultsSevere suicide attempters had lower affective intensity and lability than non-severe attempters. Severe suicide attempters outperformed non-severe attempters for verbal learning and non-attempters for Stroop word reading part after adjustment for study centre, age, gender, educational level, antipsychotics use, depression score, anxious and addictive comorbidities.Conclusion
Neuropsychological tasks commonly used to assess bipolar patients do not seem accurate to identify suicide attempters in euthymic patients. In the future, decision-making and emotional recognition tasks should be assessed. Moreover, clinical and neuropsychological profiles should be considered together to better define suicidal risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Emotional dysregulation, characterized by high levels of both arousal and intensity of emotional responses, is a core feature of bipolar disorders (BD). In non-clinical populations, the 40-item Affect Intensity Measure (AIM) can be used to assess the different dimensions of emotional reactivity.
We analyzed the factor structure of the AIM in a sample of 310 euthymic patients with BD using Principal Component Analysis and examined associations between AIM sub-scale scores and demographic and illness characteristics.
The French translation of the AIM demonstrated good reliability. A four-factor solution similar to that reported in non-clinical samples (Positive Affectivity, Unpeacefulness [lack of Serenity], Negative Reactivity, Negative Intensity), explained 47% of the total variance. Age and gender were associated with Unpeacefulness and Negative reactivity respectively. ‘Unpeacefulness’ was also positively associated with psychotic symptoms at onset (p=0.0006), but negatively associated with co-morbid substance misuse (p=0.008). Negative Intensity was positively associated with social phobia (p=0.0005).
We cannot definitively exclude a lack of statistical power to classify all AIM items. Euthymia was carefully defined, but a degree of ‘contamination’ of the self-reported levels of emotion reactivity may occur because of subsyndromal BD symptoms. It was not feasible to control for the possible impact of on-going treatments.
The AIM scale appears to be a useful measure of emotional reactivity and intensity in a clinical sample of patients with BD, suggesting it can be used in addition to other markers of BD characteristics and sub-types.
Journal of Affective Disorders 01/2014; · 3.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythm disturbances have been associated with bipolar disorder (BD) during both the mood episodes and the periods of remission. Circadian phase preferences for the evening have been reported for remitted patients, whereas the amplitude and stability of their rhythms have never been assessed using questionnaires. The primary aim of our study was the validation of a French version of the Circadian Type Inventory (CTI), whereas its secondary aim was the comparison between remitted patients with BD and healthy controls for rhythm stability and amplitude and for phase preference. For this purpose, we used the CTI and the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) that assesses phase preference (''morning'' or ''evening'' type). First, we report here on the validation of the French version of the 11-item Circadian Type Inventory in a sample of 140 remitted patients with BD and 156 healthy controls. Principal components analysis revealed a two-factor structure (FR: flexibility/rigidity scale corresponding to rhythm stability; LV: languid/vigorous scale corresponding to rhythm amplitude) explaining 52% of the variance in the control group and 47% in the bipolar group. Cronbach's alpha was 0.75 for FR and 0.73 for LV. The test-retest reliability was 0.74 for FR and 0.86 for LV (3 wks) and 0.62 for FR and 0.72 for LV (6 mos). LV and FR scores correlated with the Composite Scale of Morningness score (p50.00001 and p ¼ 0.0002, respectively). Second, as compared with controls, patients with BD were more languid (p50.00001) and showed an evening preference (p ¼ 0.0003), but they did not differ from the controls with regard to flexibility/rigidity. The French version of the CTI appeared to have satisfactory psy-chometrics characteristics. Bipolar patients exhibited not only abnormalities in phase preference but also in amplitude as measured by languidity. Since circadian rhythm dysfunction has been shown to predict poor functioning and mood relapses in interepisodic patients with BD, this tool would appear to be a promising, easy-to-use, measure of the amplitude and flexibility of circadian rhythms that could enrich the arsenal of assessments used in clinical settings.
Chronobiology International 07/2013; · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The PAtient SAtisfaction with Psychotropic (PASAP) scale is a self-completed questionnaire measuring satisfaction with psychotropic medication. The aim of the study was to describe its development in French and its psychometric properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scale construction was based on an extensive search of the literature. The item reduction process required semi-structured interviews of psychiatric outpatients (n=30). The final version of the PASAP is a 9-item, 5-point Likert-type scale, covering the scope of effectiveness and adherence. To assess the psychometric properties of the scale, French patients with an acute manic episode (n=314) from a large European observational cohort completed the PASAP scale 3months after psychotropic treatment initiation/change. Internal validity and reliability were assessed using principal component analysis (PCA). Concurrent validity was assessed using comparisons to physician-rated satisfaction with life, illness severity, mood relapse, compliance and side effects. RESULTS: Participation rate was 68.4%. PCA was in favour of uni-dimensionality. Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.85 (95%CI 0.83-0.88). All five concurrent measures were significantly associated with the PASAP score. CONCLUSION: The PASAP scale showed good psychometric properties in a large bipolar population and thus seems adequate for evaluating treatment satisfaction. Its short length and good acceptability makes it suitable for clinical research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore any heterogeneity in the 6-month clinical response in patients with antipsychotic drug-naive schizophrenia and to determine predictors of that outcome. METHOD: 467 patients with antipsychotic drug-naive schizophrenia were included in France nationwide and followed up over 6 months. To identify trajectories of clinical response, a latent class growth analysis (LCGA) was performed using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scores at baseline, 1, 3, and 6 months. Regression models were used to identify predictors of trajectory membership. RESULTS: Five trajectory groups were identified: a rapid response group (n = 45), a gradual response group (n = 204), patients remaining mildly ill (n = 133), patients remaining very ill (n = 23), and a group with unsustained clinical response (n = 62). Predictors of the 6-month clinical response were baseline CGI-S score (odds ratio: 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-4.4) and negative symptoms (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.9). The sole predictor of rapid response as compared to gradual response was employment (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9). CONCLUSION: Clinical response in patients with schizophrenia 6 months after a first-ever antipsychotic drug initiation is heterogeneous. Therapeutic strategies in first episode should take account of symptom severity and early clinical response, to maximize the chances of recovery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To analyze the interface between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolarity in depressed patients comorbid with BPD. METHODS: As part of National Multi-site Study of 493 consecutive DSM-IV major depressive patients evaluated in at least two semi-structured interviews 1month apart, 19 (3.9%) had comorbid BPD (BPD+), whereas 474 (96.1%) did not manifest this comorbidity (BPD-). RESULTS: Compared to BPD (-), BPD (+) patients displayed higher rates of bipolar (BP) disorders and temperaments, an earlier age at onset with a family history of affective illness, more comorbidity, more stressors before the first episode which was more often depressive or mixed, as well as a greater number and severity of affective episodes. CONCLUSIONS: The hypothesis which fitted at best our findings was to consider BPD as a contributory factor in the development of BP disorder, which could have favoured the progression from unipolar major depression to BP disorder. We could not however exclude that some features of BP disorder may have contributed to the development of BPD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The definitions of bipolar-I (BP-I) and bipolar-II (BP-II) disorders are currently under revision by the APA and by the WHO. We provide evidence of a revised set of criteria for bipolar disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD) which could serve to strengthen the construct and predictive validity of both disorders and enable more incisive studies of treatments and courses of both disorders. In the diagnostic Bridge Study of 5,635 patients with major depressive episodes from 18 countries (Europe, North Africa, Near East and Far East) leading psychiatrists in each country assessed a pre-specified group of symptoms, illness course, family history and duration of episodes; these data allowed tests of several definitions of bipolarity. The primary revised specifier diagnosis of BP-I disorder included manic episodes based on an additional category A criterion (increased activity/energy) and did not apply any exclusion criteria. The revised BP-II disorders included hypomanic episodes of 1-3 days. Family history and illness course validators (history of mania/hypomania among first degree relatives, 2 or more lifetime episodes and first symptoms having occurred before age 30) discriminated clearly between patients with bipolar-I or bipolar-II disorders meeting bipolarity specifier criteria and those with MDD. Specifier definitions provided better discrimination between MDD and the two bipolar subgroups. Patterns of concurrent comorbidities also differed significantly between patients meeting criteria for MDD compared with those meeting bipolar specifier criteria. Comorbidity patterns differed between bipolar-I and bipolar-II patients. This study provides evidence for the validity of modified (specifier) BP-I and BP-II definitions that incorporate illness course and family history which reduce ambiguities of major depressive episodes between bipolar-I and bipolar-II disorders and MDD.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 01/2013; · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Partial and non-adherence to medication is a common problem in schizophrenia, leading to an increased risk of relapse, increased likelihood of hospitalization and poorer long-term outcomes. In contrast, continuous medication in the treatment of schizophrenia is associated with positive outcomes, including improved clinical status, improved quality of life and functioning, and reduced risk of relapse and rehospitalization. Strategies aimed at improving medication adherence are therefore key for patients to achieve their treatment goals. In an attempt to address the issues of partial/non-adherence to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia, a group of psychiatrists convened to discuss and develop a set of principles aimed at helping patients adhere to their medication. These principles were then refined and developed into the STAY (the Six principles to improve Treatment Adherence in Your patients) initiative following presentation to a wider group of psychiatrists from across Europe. This manuscript summarizes these principles and explains the rationale for their selection. These principles are: (1) recognizing that most patients with schizophrenia are at risk of partial/non-adherence at some time during the course of their illness; (2) the benefits of a good therapeutic alliance for identifying potential adherence issues; (3) tailored treatment plans to meet an individual's needs, including the most suitable route of delivery of antipsychotic medication; (4) involving family/key persons in care and psychoeducation of the patient, assuming the patient agrees to this; (5) ensuring optimal effectiveness of care; and (6) ensuring continuity in the care of patients with schizophrenia. The application of these six principles should help to raise awareness of and address poor patient adherence, as well as generally improving care of patients with schizophrenia. In turn, this should lead to improved overall clinical outcomes for patients receiving long-term treatment for schizophrenia.
Clinical Drug Investigation 01/2013; · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DSM-IV mixed states have become the mixed mania and mixed depression in the new DSM-5. One noticeable point is the introduction of nine cations, among which the “with mixed features” specification. These non exclusive specifications may contribute to a more precise identification of mixed clinical pictures, and therefore to offer a more efficient therapeutic answer. Different dimensional approaches are widely documented. They allow the isolation of a mixed factor which is clinically associated with two other specifications: anxious distress and psychotic features. These severity markers may encourage clinicians to be alert about the risk of misdiagnosis, and cautious in the management of these clinical situations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mixed states are complex manifestations of bipolar disorders. Pathophysiology of mixed states remains unclear. Several models have been proposed to understand the mechanisms underlying these mood states. These models describe mixed state either as a combinaison of depression and mania, as well as a transition between mania and depression, or mixed state as a severe type of depression or mania. Pathophysiological hypotheses involve temperaments or some personality disorders, psychiatric comorbidities as well as substance use disorders, or thyroid dysfunction. However, the formal demonstration of any specific genetic vulnerability to mixed state has not yet been provided.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Mixed states present nosologic and diagnostic challenges with a relative paucity of evidence to guide treatment. Mixed bipolar states are difficult to treat and are associated with a high neuropsychiatric morbidity, a high risk of suicide and a poor outcome. In DSM- 5, the definition of mixed episode has been removed (in DSM- IV TR: “juxtaposed full manic and depressive episodes”). Mixed symptoms are captured under a broader concept called “mixed features” that is applied to mania and depression. The classification of mixed states as defined in DSM- 5 is less restrictive than in DSM- IV TR and challenges us at methodological and therapeutic levels.
The aim of this paper was to conduct an overview of the literature to ascertain the efficacy of pharmacotherapy of mixed states.
A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed.
Manic symptoms of mixed episodes seem to show a good response to second generation antipsychotics and to divalproate. There is no evidence of differential efficacy for second generation of antipsychotics (SGAs). Lithium and carbamazepine may be effective in mixed states in monotherapy and perhaps benefit in combination with SGAs as second line. Combination pharmacological treatment of SGAs and moodstabilizers are common in mixed states. This pattern has the best literature evidence.
There is a few evidence to help us to choose the right treatment for patients with mixed state. In light with the DSM 5, more drugs specifically designed to treat mixed state are needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurocognitive dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a prominent feature of bipolar disorder. Cognitive function seems to be impaired across different states of bipolar illness. Nervertheless, research that studies neuropsychological functioning in acute phases is scarce. Acutely ill patients have shown dysfunctions in several cognitive areas. We reviewed the literature on neuropsychological studies of acute phases to highlight neurocognitive deficits in mixed and pure mania. The results show dysfunctions in sustained attention that are significantly more important in mixed mania rather than in pure mania. Impulsive pattern of responding seems to characterize pure manic state. We also found impairments in processing speed, verbal and spatial learning/memory and executive functions, including cognitive fl exibility, inhibitory control, conceptual reasoning, planning and problem solving. Disturbance in executive functioning seems to be more important in pure mania rather than mixed mania.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies of major depressive episodes (MDE) highlighted the frequent association of symptoms or signs of mania or hypomania with depressive syndrome. Beyond the strict definition of DSM-IV, epidemiological recognition of a subset of MDE characterized by the presence of symptoms or signs of the opposite polarity is clinically important because it is associated with pejorative prognosis and therapeutic response compared to the subgroup of “typical MDE”. The development of DSM-5 took into account the epidemiological data. DSM-5 opted for a more dimensional perspective in implementing the concept of “mixed features” from an “episode” to a “specification” of mood disorder. As outlined in the DSM-5: “Mixed features associated with a major depressive episode have been found to be a significant risk factor for the development of bipolar I and II disorder. As a result, it is clinically useful to note the presence of this specifier for treatment planning and monitoring of response to therapeutic”. However, the mixed features are sometimes difficult to identify, and neurophysiological biomarkers would be useful to make a more specific diagnosis. Two neurophysiological models make it possible to better understand MDE with mixed features : i) the emotional regulation model that highlights a tendency to hyper-reactive and unstable emotion response, and ii) the vigilance regulation model that highlights, through EEG recording, a tendency to unstable vigilance. Further research is required to better understand relationships between these two models. These models provide the opportunity of a neurophysiological framework to better understand the mixed features associated with MDE and to identify potential neurophysiological biomarkers to guide therapeutic strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the growing number of neuroimaging studies in bipolar disorder over the past years, the brain regions involved in mood dysregulation in this disease are still poorly understood. If some neurofunctional abnormalities seem to be independent of mood state, others were preferentially associated with mania or depression, involving the amygdala and other limbic regions as well as ventral frontal regions, with a likely hemispheric lateralization of these abnormalities according to the thymic state that was examined. Very few imaging studies became interested in bipolar patients in a mixed state, making it harder to connect brain malfunction to a given mood state. However, data obtained so far support the hypothesis of a lateralization of brain abnormalities in relation to bipolar symptomatology, suggesting that neurofonctional abnormalities preferentially located in the right ventral frontal and limbic areas may underlie the depressive component, associated with abnormalities of the left similar regions for the manic component. Identifi cation of brain dysfunctions that may explain the emergence of mixed symptoms will likely provide useful information to better understand the respective roles of each hemisphere in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nosological position of mixed states has followed the course of classifying methods in psychiatry, the steps of the invention of the clinic, progress in the organization of care, including the discoveries of psychopharmacology. The clinical observation of a mixture of symptoms emerging from usually opposite clinical conditions is classical. In the 70s, a syndromic specifi cation fixed the main symptom combinations but that incongruous assortment failed to stabilize the nosological concept. Then stricter criteriology was proposed. To be too restrictive, a consensus operates a dimensional opening that attempts to meet the pragmatic requirements of nosology validating the usefulness of the class system. This alternation between rigor of categorization and return to a more flexible criteriological option reflects the search for the right balance between nosology and diagnosis. The definition of mixed states is best determined by their clinical and prognostic severity, related to the risk of suicide, their lower therapeutic response, the importance of their psychiatric comorbidities, anxiety, emotional lability, alcohol abuse. Trying to compensate for the lack of categorical definitions and better reflecting the clinical field problems, new definitions complement criteriology with dimensional aspects, particularly taking into account temperaments.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of their compilation of contrasted symptoms and their variable clinical presentation, mixed episodes have been withdrawn from the DSM. However, mixed states question not only the bonds between depression and mania, but also the distinction between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia. Indeed, doubts about the dichotomy introduced by Kraepelin between bipolar disorders and schizophrenia is as old as the nosolgy itself, as attest the later works of this author revealing his hesitations on his own classification. But findings here reviewed issued from recent technical advances, particularly in the imaging and genetic fields, offer a better understanding of the boundaries between these two disorders. Yet, when confronted to an acute episode, clinicians may find it challenging to distinguish a mixed state from a schizophrenic relapse. Indeed, there is no pathognomonic manifestation allowing to retain a diagnosis with confidence. The physician will therefore have to identify a pattern of signs, which will orient his assessment with no certainty. Thus, negative rather than affective or psychotic symptomatology appears to be useful in discriminating schizophrenia (or schizoaffective) disorders from mixed mania. However, a conclusion during this acute stage appears in definitive a formal exercise, first because the final diagnosis will only be ascertained once the symptoms are amended, and second because, according to our classifications, a mood episode, including mania and mixed mania, can be observed without ruling out the diagnosis of schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mixed states are a frequent mood state characterized by the mixture of manic and depressive symptoms. Their clinical description has been studied for centuries but has known a renewal of interest recently. Several authors intend to redefine its diagnostic criteria to develop an appropriate therapeutic strategy.
Current recommendations suggest to treat mixed depression as a mixed state whatever the dominant polarity is, and therefore according to the rules of therapeutic management of the manic state. Mood stabilizers and antipsychotic medications are indicated and have proven their effectiveness. Lithium, which was considered controversial, now appears to have some therapeutic value, especially in the prevention of suicidal behavior.
The depressive component of mixed states, even pronounced, should not be an argument for a prescription of antidepressants, at the risk of aggravating clinical components such as irritability and impulsivity and increasing the danger of suicide attempt.
Furthermore, electroconvulsivetherapy represents a real alternative ; psychotherapies have their place in relapse prevention and psychoeducation, but not during acute phases.
Finally, an accurate assessment and appropriate management of suicide risk should be a constant concern for the clinicians.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic factors of ASD stay unknown after 30 years of research. The concept of “endophenotype” seems an interesting approach toward these factors. “Enlarged phenotypes” in families of ASD persons could lead to the definition of ASD endophenotypes. “Enlarged phenotypes” include clinical symptoms, morphological and functional brain anomalies enlightening ASD physiopathology and brain physiology. Knowledge of endophenotypes will lead to ASD genetic risk factors. This knowledge will open ethical questions about prenatal diagnosis.
L Encéphale 12/2012; 38:S67–S69. · 0.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endophenotypes are proposed for a better understanding of the molecular substrate underlying psychiatric disorders vulnerability. In this review, we discuss key points of the definition of endophenotypes from the molecular biology point of view. First, we examine the concept of heritability of endophenotype, which does not directly explain the molecular mechanisms responsible for the studied disorder Indeed, we discuss the necessity to better decipher the functional role of polymorphisms associated to endophenotypes, especially if those endophenotypes would be assigned a clinical and biological value. The complexity of endophenotypes definition and use in psychiatric research is also illustrated by the complexity of the human genome organization and gene networks as well as by the gene x environment interactions and also the possible existence of phenocopies.
L Encéphale 12/2012; 38:S62–S66. · 0.49 Impact Factor