Tuula Ojanen-Reuhs

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

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Publications (10)30.21 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cultured cells of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 produce an abundance of capsular polysaccharides, or K antigens; however, cells that are cultured in the presence of apigenin, a nod gene inducer, exhibited a significant reduction in K-antigen production. The flavonoid-induced modulation in capsule production appeared to be related to the phase-shift changes associated with bacteroid differentiation. Therefore, the polysaccharides were extracted from Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 bacteroids recovered from Vigna unguiculata cv Red Caloona root nodules, and subsequent analyses showed that the bacteroid extracts were virtually devoid of K-antigen. Polysaccharide extracts from two nodulation mutants cultured in the presence of apigenin were then analyzed, and the results showed that the flavonoid-inducible decrease in K-antigen production is y4gM- and nodD1-dependent.
    Carbohydrate research 08/2009; 344(15):1947-50. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular signals, including Nod factors and succinoglycan, are necessary for the establishment of nitrogen-fixing nodules (Fix+) in Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis. This report shows that M. truncatula-S. meliloti interactions involve ecotype-strain specificity, as S. meliloti Rm41 and NRG247 are Fix+ (compatible) on M. truncatula A20 and Fix- (incompatible) on M. truncatula A17, the Fix phenotypes are reversed with S. meliloti NRG185 and NRG34, and there is a correlation between the host specificity and succinoglycan oligosaccharide structure. S. meliloti NRG185 produces oligosaccharides that are almost fully succinylated, with two succinate groups per subunit, whereas the oligosaccharides produced by S. meliloti Rm41 include many nonsuccinylated subunits, as well as subunits with a single succinate group and others with malate. The results of this study demonstrated the following: (i) incompatibility is not a consequence of an avirulence factor or lack of Nod factor activity; (ii) the Fix+ phenotypes are succinoglycan dependent; (iii) there is structural variability in the succinoglycan oligosaccharide populations between S. meliloti strains; (iv) the structural nature of the succinoglycan oligosaccharides is correlated to compatibility; most importantly, (v) an S. meliloti Rm41 derivative, carrying exo genes from an M. truncatula A17-compatible strain, produced a modified population of succinoglycan oligosaccharides (similar to the donor strain) and was Fix+ on A17.
    Journal of Bacteriology 12/2007; 189(21):7733-40. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 produces a flavonoid-inducible rhamnose-rich lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that is important for the nodulation of legumes. Many of the genes encoding the rhamnan part of the molecule lie between 87 degrees and 110 degrees of pNGR234a, the symbiotic plasmid of NGR234. Computational methods suggest that 5 of the 12 open reading frames (ORFs) within this arc are involved in synthesis (and subsequent polymerization) of L-rhamnose. Two others probably play roles in the transport of carbohydrates. To evaluate the function of these ORFs, we mutated a number of them and tested the ability of the mutants to nodulate a variety of legumes. At the same time, changes in the production of surface polysaccharides (particularly the rhamnan O antigen) were examined. Deletion of rmlB to wbgA and mutation in fixF abolished rhamnan synthesis. Mutation of y4gM (a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family) did not abolish production of the rhamnose-rich LPS but, unexpectedly, the mutant displayed a symbiotic phenotype very similar to that of strains unable to produce the rhamnan O antigen (NGRDeltarmlB-wbgA and NGROmegafixF). At least two flavonoid-inducible regulatory pathways are involved in synthesis of the rhamnan O antigen. Mutation of either pathway reduces rhamnan production. Coordination of rhamnan synthesis with rhizobial release from infection threads is thus part of the symbiotic interaction.
    Journal of Bacteriology 06/2006; 188(10):3654-63. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) sp. strain NGR234 contains three replicons, the smallest of which (pNGR234a) carries most symbiotic genes, including those required for nodulation and lipo-chito-oligosaccharide (Nod factor) biosynthesis. Activation of nod gene expression depends on plant-derived flavonoids, NodD transcriptional activators, and nod box promoter elements. Nod boxes NB6 and NB7 delimit six different types of genes, one of which (fixF) is essential for the formation of effective nodules on Vigna unguiculata. In vegetative culture, wild-type NGR234 produces a distinct, flavonoid-inducible lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that is not produced by the mutant (NGRomegafixF); this LPS is also found in nitrogen-fixing bacteroids isolated from V. unguiculata infected with NGR234. Electron microscopy showed that peribacteroid membrane formation is perturbed in nodule cells infected by the fixF mutant. LPSs were purified from free-living NGR234 cultured in the presence of apigenin. Structural analyses showed that the polysaccharide portions of these LPSs are specialized, rhamnose-containing O antigens attached to a modified core-lipid A carrier. The primary sequence of the O antigen is [-3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1,3)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1,2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-]n, and the LPS core region lacks the acidic sugars commonly associated with the antigenic outer core of LPS from noninduced cells. This rhamnan O antigen, which is absent from noninduced cells, has the same primary sequence as the A-band O antigen of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, except that it is composed of L-rhamnose rather than the D-rhamnose characteristic of the latter. It is noteworthy that A-band LPS is selectively maintained on the P. aeruginosa cell surface during chronic cystic fibrosis lung infection, where it is associated with an increased duration of infection.
    Journal of Bacteriology 10/2005; 187(18):6479-87. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria expresses a type III secretion system that is necessary for both pathogenicity in susceptible hosts and the induction of the hypersensitive response in resistant plants. This specialized protein transport system is encoded by a 23-kb hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) gene cluster. Here we show that X. campestris pv. vesicatoria produces filamentous structures, the Hrp pili, at the cell surface under hrp-inducing conditions. Analysis of purified Hrp pili and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that the major component of the Hrp pilus is the HrpE protein which is encoded in the hrp gene cluster. Sequence homologues of hrpE are only found in other xanthomonads. However, hrpE is syntenic to the hrpY gene from another plant pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that all major Hrp pilus subunits from gram-negative plant pathogens may share the same structural organization, i.e., a predominant alpha-helical structure. Analysis of nonpolar mutants in hrpE demonstrated that the Hrp pilus is essential for the productive interaction of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria with pepper host plants. Furthermore, a functional Hrp pilus is required for type III-dependent protein secretion. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that type III-secreted proteins, such as HrpF and AvrBs3, are in close contact with the Hrp pilus during and/or after their secretion. By systematic analysis of nonpolar hrp/hrc (hrp conserved) and hpa (hrp associated) mutants, we found that Hpa proteins as well as the translocon protein HrpF are dispensable for pilus assembly, while all other Hrp and Hrc proteins are required. Hence, there are no other conserved Hrp or Hrc proteins that act downstream of HrpE during type III-dependent protein translocation.
    Journal of Bacteriology 04/2005; 187(7):2458-2468. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on legume roots by Rhizobium sp. NGR234 requires an array of bacterial factors, including nodulation outer proteins (Nops) secreted through a type III secretion system (TTSS). Secretion of Nops is abolished upon inactivation of ttsI (formerly y4xI), a protein with characteristics of two-component response regulators that was predicted to activate transcription of TTSS-related genes. During the symbiotic interaction, the phenotype of NGR omega ttsI differs from that of a mutant with a nonfunctional secretion machine, however. This indicated that TtsI regulates the synthesis of other symbiotic factors as well. Conserved sequences, called tts boxes, proposed to act as binding sites for TtsI, were identified not only within the TTSS cluster but also in the promoter regions of i) genes predicted to encode homologs of virulence factors secreted by pathogenic bacteria, ii) loci involved in the synthesis of a rhamnose-rich component (rhamnan) of the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and iii) open reading frames that play roles in plasmid partitioning. Transcription studies showed that TtsI and tts boxes are required for the activation of TTSS-related genes and those involved in rhamnose synthesis. Furthermore, extraction of polysaccharides revealed that inactivation of ttsI abolishes the synthesis of the rhamnan component of the LPS. The phenotypes of mutants impaired in TTSS-dependent protein secretion, rhamnan synthesis, or in both functions were compared to assess the roles of some of the TtsI-controlled factors during symbiosis.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 10/2004; 17(9):958-66. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In two published reports using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generated against whole cells, Olsen et al. showed that strain-specific antigens on the surface of cultured cells of Sinorhizobium meliloti were diminished or absent in the endophytic cells (bacteroids) recovered from alfalfa nodules, whereas two common antigens were not affected by bacterial differentiation (P. Olsen, M. Collins, and W. Rice, Can. J. Microbiol. 38:506-509, 1992; P. Olsen, S. Wright, M. Collins, and W. Rice, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:654-661, 1994). The nature of the antigens (i.e., the MAb epitopes), however, were not determined in those studies. For this report, the epitopes for five of the anti-S. meliloti MAbs were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-immunoblot analyses of the polysaccharides extracted from S. meliloti and Sinorhizobium fredii. This showed that the strain-specific MAbs recognized K antigens, whereas the strain-cross-reactive MAbs recognized the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core. The MAbs were then used in the analysis of the LPS and K antigens extracted from S. meliloti bacteroids, which had been recovered from the root nodules of alfalfa, and the results supported the findings of Olsen et al. The size range of the K antigens from bacteroids of S. meliloti NRG247 on polyacrylamide gels was altered, and the epitope was greatly diminished in abundance compared to those from the cultured cells, and no K antigens were detected in the S. meliloti NRG185 bacteroid extract. In contrast to the K antigens, the LPS core appeared to be similar in both cultured cells and bacteroids, although a higher proportion of the LPS fractionated into the organic phase during the phenol-water extraction of the bacteroid polysaccharides. Importantly, immunoblot analysis with an anti-LPS MAb showed that smooth LPS production was modified in the bacteroids.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 12/1999; 65(11):5186-91. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to develop a specific immunological diagnostic assay for yellow disease in hyacinths, using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Mice were immunized with a crude cell wall preparation (shear fraction) from Xanthomonas hyacinthi and with purified type IV fimbriae. Hybridomas were screened for a positive reaction with X. hyacinthi cells or fimbriae and for a negative reaction with X. translucens pv. graminis or Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Nine MAbs recognized fimbrial epitopes, as shown by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoelectron microscopy; however, three of these MAbs had weak cross-reactions with two X. translucens pathovars in immunoblotting experiments. Seven MAbs reacted with lipopolysaccharides and yielded a low-mobility ladder pattern on immunoblots. Subsequent analysis of MAb 2E5 showed that it specifically recognized an epitope on the O antigen, which was found to consist of rhamnose and fucose in a 2:1 molar ratio. The cross-reaction of MAb 2E5 with all X. hyacinthi strains tested showed that this O antigen is highly conserved within this species. MAb 1B10 also reacted with lipopolysaccharides. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were further tested in ELISA and immunoblotting experiments with cells and extracts from other pathogens. No cross-reaction was found with 27 other Xanthomonas pathovars tested or with 14 other bacterial species from other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas, indicating the high specificity of these antibodies. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were shown to be useful in ELISA for the detection of X. hyacinthi in infected hyacinths.
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10/1999; 65(9):4171-80. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fimA gene of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria was identified and characterized. A 20-mer degenerate oligonucleotide complementary to the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified 15.5-kDa fimbrillin was used to locate fimA on a 2.6-kb SalI fragment of the X. campestris pv. vesicatoria 3240 genome. The nucleotide sequence of a 1.4-kb fragment containing the fimA region revealed two open reading frames predicting highly homologous proteins FimA and FimB. FimA, which was composed of 136 amino acids and had a calculated molecular weight of 14,302, showed high sequence identity to the type IV fimbrillin precursors. fimB predicted a protein product of 135 amino acids and a molecular weight of 13,854. The open reading frame for fimB contained near the 5' end a palindromic sequence with a terminator loop potential, and the expression level of fimB in vitro and in Xanthomonas was considerably lower than that of fimA. We detected an efficiently transcribed fimA-specific mRNA of 600 bases as well as two weakly expressed, longer mRNA species that reacted with both fimA and fimB. A homolog of fimA but not of fimB was detected by Southern hybridization in strains of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, campestris, begoniae, translucens, and graminis. A fimA::omega mutant of strain 3240 was not significantly reduced in virulence or adhesiveness to tomato leaves. However, the fimA mutant was dramatically reduced in cell aggregation in laboratory cultures and on infected tomato leaves. The fimA mutant strain also exhibited decreased tolerance to UV light.
    Journal of Bacteriology 03/1997; 179(4):1280-90. · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • Tuula. Ojanen-Reuhs
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    ABSTRACT: Diss. -- Helsingin yliopisto.

Publication Stats

177 Citations
30.21 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009
    • Purdue University
      • Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research
      West Lafayette, Indiana, United States
  • 2007
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Cell Biology
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1999
    • University of Georgia
      • Complex Carbohydrate Research Center
      Athens, GA, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Biosciences
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland