[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unbiased lipidomic approaches have identified impairments in glycerophosphocholine second messenger metabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Specifically, we have shown that amyloid-β42 signals the intraneuronal accumulation of PC(O-16:0/2:0) which is associated with neurotoxicity. Similar to neuronal cells, intracellular accumulation of PC(O-16:0/2:0) is also toxic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, making yeast an excellent model to decipher the pathological effects of this lipid. We previously reported that phospholipase D, a phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2)-binding protein, was relocalized in response to PC(O-16:0/2:0), suggesting that this neurotoxic lipid may remodel lipid signaling networks. Here we show that PC(O-16:0/2:0) regulates the distribution of the PtdIns(4)P 5-kinase Mss4 and its product PtdIns(4,5)P2 leading to the formation of invaginations at the plasma membrane (PM). We further demonstrate that the effects of PC(O-16:0/2:0) on the distribution of PM PtdIns(4,5)P2 pools are in part mediated by changes in the biosynthesis of long chain bases (LCBs) and ceramides. A combination of genetic, biochemical and cell imaging approaches revealed that PC(O-16:0/2:0) is also a potent inhibitor of signaling through the Target of rampamycin complex 2 (TORC2). Together, these data provide mechanistic insight into how specific disruptions in phosphocholine second messenger metabolism associated with Alzheimer's disease may trigger larger network-wide disruptions in ceramide and phosphoinositide second messenger biosynthesis and signaling which have been previously implicated in disease progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) are essential fatty acids with multiple functions, including ceramide synthesis. Although the components of the VLCFA biosynthetic machinery have been elucidated, how their activity is regulated to meet the cell's metabolic demand remains unknown. The goal of this study was to identify mechanisms that regulate the rate of VLCFA synthesis, and we discovered that the fatty acid elongase Elo2 is regulated by phosphorylation. Elo2 phosphorylation is induced upon inhibition of TORC1 and requires GSK3. Expression of nonphosphorylatable Elo2 profoundly alters the ceramide spectrum, reflecting aberrant VLCFA synthesis. Furthermore, VLCFA depletion results in constitutive activation of autophagy, which requires sphingoid base phosphorylation. This constitutive activation of autophagy diminishes cell survival, indicating that VLCFAs serve to dampen the amplitude of autophagy. Together, our data reveal a function for TORC1 and GSK3 in the regulation of VLCFA synthesis that has important implications for autophagy and cell homeostasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maintenance of sphingolipid homeostasis is critical for cell growth and programmed cell death (PCD). Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), composed of LCB1 and LCB2 subunits, catalyzes the primary regulatory point for sphingolipid synthesis. Small subunits of SPT (ssSPT) that strongly stimulate SPT activity have been identified in mammals, but the role of ssSPT in eukaryotic cells is unclear. Candidate Arabidopsis thaliana ssSPTs, ssSPTa and ssSPTb, were identified and characterized. Expression of these 56-amino acid polypeptides in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT null mutant stimulated SPT activity from the Arabidopsis LCB1/LCB2 heterodimer by >100-fold through physical interaction with LCB1/LCB2. ssSPTa transcripts were more enriched in all organs and >400-fold more abundant in pollen than ssSPTb transcripts. Accordingly, homozygous ssSPTa T-DNA mutants were not recoverable, and 50% nonviable pollen was detected in heterozygous ssspta mutants. Pollen viability was recovered by expression of wild-type ssSPTa or ssSPTb under control of the ssSPTa promoter, indicating ssSPTa and ssSPTb functional redundancy. SPT activity and sensitivity to the PCD-inducing mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) were increased by ssSPTa overexpression. Conversely, SPT activity and FB1 sensitivity were reduced in ssSPTa RNA interference lines. These results demonstrate that ssSPTs are essential for male gametophytes, are important for FB1 sensitivity, and limit sphingolipid synthesis in planta.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sphingolipids (SLs) are essential components of cellular membranes formed from the condensation of L-serine and a long-chain acyl thioester. This first step is catalysed by the pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) which is a promising therapeutic target. The fungal natural product myriocin is a potent inhibitor of SPT and is widely-used to block SL biosynthesis despite a lack of a detailed understanding of its molecular mechanism. By combining spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, x-ray crystallography and kinetics we have characterised the molecular details of SPT inhibition by myriocin. Myriocin initially forms an external aldimine with PLP at the active site and a structure of the resulting co-complex explains its nanomolar affinity for the enzyme. This co-complex then catalytically degrades via an unexpected 'retro-aldol like' cleavage mechanism to a C18 aldehyde which in turn acts as a suicide inhibitor of SPT by covalent modification of the essential catalytic lysine. This surprising dual mechanism of inhibition rationalises the extraordinary potency and longevity of myriocin inhibition.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 08/2013; · 10.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant sphingolipids are structurally diverse molecules that are important as membrane components and bioactive molecules. An appreciation of the relationship between structural diversity and functional significance of plant sphingolipids is emerging through characterization of Arabidopsis mutants coupled with advanced analytical methods. It is increasingly apparent that modifications such as hydroxylation and desaturation of the sphingolipid nonpolar long-chain bases and fatty acids influence their metabolic routing to particular complex sphingolipid classes and their functions in signaling pathways and other cellular processes, such as membrane protein targeting. Here, we review recent reports investigating some of the more prevalent sphingolipid structural modifications and their functional importance in plants.
Current opinion in plant biology 03/2013; · 10.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The topological and functional organization of the two isoforms of the small subunits of human serine palmitoyltransferase (hssSPTs) that activate the catalytic hLCB1/hLCB2 heterodimer was investigated. A variety of experimental approaches placed the N-termini of the ssSPTs in the cytosol, their C-termini in the lumen, and showed that they contain a single transmembrane domain. Deletion analysis revealed that the ability to activate the heterodimer is contained in a conserved 33-amino acid core domain that has the same membrane topology as the full-length protein. In combination with analysis of isoform chimera and site-directed mutagenesis, a single amino acid residue in this core (M25 in ssSPTa and V25 in ssSPTb) was identified that confers specificity for palmitoyl- or stearoyl-CoA, respectively, in both yeast and mammalian cells. This same residue also determines which isoform is a better activator of a mutant heterodimer, hLCB1S331F/hLCB2a, that has increased basal SPT activity and decreased amino acid substrate selectivity. This suggests that the role of the ssSPTs is to increase SPT activity without compromising substrate specificity. In addition, the observation that the C-terminal domains of ssSPTa and ssSPTb, which are highly conserved within each subfamily but are the most divergent regions between isoform subfamilies, are not required for activation of the heterodimer or for acyl-CoA selectivity suggests that the ssSPTs have additional roles that remain to be discovered.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) catalyses the first step of de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis. The core human enzyme is a membrane-bound heterodimer composed of two subunits (hLCB1 and hLCB2a/b), and mutations in both hLCB1 (e.g., C133W and C133Y) and hLCB2a (e.g., V359M, G382V, and I504F) have been identified in patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I (HSAN1), an inherited disorder that affects sensory and autonomic neurons. These mutations result in substrate promiscuity, leading to formation of neurotoxic deoxysphingolipids found in affected individuals. Here we measure the activities of the hLCB2a mutants in the presence of ssSPTa and ssSPTb and find that all decrease enzyme activity. High resolution structural data of the homodimeric SPT enzyme from the bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis (Sp SPT) provides a model to understand the impact of the hLCB2a mutations on the mechanism of SPT. The three human hLCB2a HSAN1 mutations map onto Sp SPT (V246M, G268V, and G385F), and these mutant mimics reveal that the amino acid changes have varying impacts; they perturb the PLP cofactor binding, reduce the affinity for both substrates, decrease the enzyme activity, and, in the most severe case, cause the protein to be expressed in an insoluble form.
BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:194371.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SLs (sphingolipids) are composed of fatty acids and a polar head group derived from L-serine. SLs are essential components of all eukaryotic and many prokaryotic membranes but S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate) is also a potent signalling molecule. Recent efforts have sought to inventory the large and chemically complex family of SLs (LIPID MAPS Consortium). Detailed understanding of SL metabolism may lead to therapeutic agents specifically directed at SL targets. We have studied the enzymes involved in SL biosynthesis; later stages are species-specific, but all core SLs are synthesized from the condensation of L-serine and a fatty acid thioester such as palmitoyl-CoA that is catalysed by SPT (serine palmitoyltransferase). SPT is a PLP (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate)-dependent enzyme that forms 3-KDS (3-ketodihydrosphingosine) through a decarboxylative Claisen-like condensation reaction. Eukaryotic SPTs are membrane-bound multi-subunit enzymes, whereas bacterial enzymes are cytoplasmic homodimers. We use bacterial SPTs (e.g. from Sphingomonas) to probe their structure and mechanism. Mutations in human SPT cause a neuropathy [HSAN1 (hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1)], a rare SL metabolic disease. How these mutations perturb SPT activity is subtle and bacterial SPT mimics of HSAN1 mutants affect the enzyme activity and structure of the SPT dimer. We have also explored SPT inhibition using various inhibitors (e.g. cycloserine). A number of new subunits and regulatory proteins that have a direct impact on the activity of eukaryotic SPTs have recently been discovered. Knowledge gained from bacterial SPTs sheds some light on the more complex mammalian systems. In the present paper, we review historical aspects of the area and highlight recent key developments.
Biochemical Society Transactions 06/2012; 40(3):547-54. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sphingolipid synthesis is initiated by condensation of Ser with palmitoyl-CoA producing 3-ketodihydrosphinganine (3-KDS), which is reduced by a 3-KDS reductase to dihydrosphinganine. Ser palmitoyltransferase is essential for plant viability. Arabidopsis thaliana contains two genes (At3g06060/TSC10A and At5g19200/TSC10B) encoding proteins with significant similarity to the yeast 3-KDS reductase, Tsc10p. Heterologous expression in yeast of either Arabidopsis gene restored 3-KDS reductase activity to the yeast tsc10Δ mutant, confirming both as bona fide 3-KDS reductase genes. Consistent with sphingolipids having essential functions in plants, double mutant progeny lacking both genes were not recovered from crosses of single tsc10A and tsc10B mutants. Although the 3-KDS reductase genes are functionally redundant and ubiquitously expressed in Arabidopsis, 3-KDS reductase activity was reduced to 10% of wild-type levels in the loss-of-function tsc10a mutant, leading to an altered sphingolipid profile. This perturbation of sphingolipid biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis tsc10a mutant leads an altered leaf ionome, including increases in Na, K, and Rb and decreases in Mg, Ca, Fe, and Mo. Reciprocal grafting revealed that these changes in the leaf ionome are driven by the root and are associated with increases in root suberin and alterations in Fe homeostasis.
The Plant Cell 03/2011; 23(3):1061-81. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emiliania huxleyi is the host for the coccolithovirus (EhV), which is responsible for the demise of large oceanic blooms formed by this alga. The EhV-86 virus genome sequence has identified several genes apparently involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Recently, an unusual glucosylceramide from E. huxleyi infected with EhV-86 was isolated, implicating sphingolipids in the lysis of this alga. However, the EhV-86-encoded genes contain only a subset of the activities required to generate the novel sphingolipid, implying that its synthesis is the result of coordinated interactions between algal- and viral-encoded biosynthetic enzymes. Here, we discuss the likely role for EhV-86 open reading frames (ORFs) in the synthesis of novel sphingolipids and also consider the concept of the trans-dominant manipulation of lipid metabolism.
Trends in Plant Science 10/2010; 15(12):651-5. · 11.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The autosomal dominant peripheral sensory neuropathy HSAN1 results from mutations in the LCB1 subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). Serum from patients and transgenic mice expressing a disease-causing mutation (C133W) contain elevated levels of 1-deoxysphinganine (1-deoxySa), which presumably arise from inappropriate condensation of alanine with palmitoyl-CoA. Mutant heterodimeric SPT is catalytically inactive. However, mutant heterotrimeric SPT has approximately 10-20% of wild-type activity and supports growth of yeast cells lacking endogenous SPT. In addition, long chain base profiling revealed the synthesis of significantly more 1-deoxySa in yeast and mammalian cells expressing the heterotrimeric mutant enzyme than in cells expressing wild-type enzyme. Wild-type and mutant enzymes had similar affinities for serine. Surprisingly, the enzymes also had similar affinities for alanine, indicating that the major affect of the C133W mutation is to enhance activation of alanine for condensation with the acyl-CoA substrate. In vivo synthesis of 1-deoxySa by the mutant enzyme was proportional to the ratio of alanine to serine in the growth media, suggesting that this ratio can be used to modulate the relative synthesis of sphinganine and 1-deoxySa. By expressing SPT as a single-chain fusion protein to ensure stoichiometric expression of all three subunits, we showed that GADD153, a marker for endoplasmic reticulum stress, was significantly elevated in cells expressing mutant heterotrimers. GADD153 was also elevated in cells treated with 1-deoxySa. Taken together, these data indicate that the HSAN1 mutations perturb the active site of SPT resulting in a gain of function that is responsible for the HSAN1 phenotype.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2010; 285(30):22846-52. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iron is an essential cofactor for enzymes involved in numerous cellular processes, yet little is known about the impact of iron deficiency on cellular metabolism or iron proteins. Previous studies have focused on changes in transcript and proteins levels in iron-deficient cells, yet these changes may not reflect changes in transport activity or flux through a metabolic pathway. We analyzed the metabolomes and transcriptomes of yeast grown in iron-rich and iron-poor media to determine which biosynthetic processes are altered when iron availability falls. Iron deficiency led to changes in glucose metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, and lipid biosynthesis that were due to deficiencies in specific iron-dependent enzymes. Iron-sulfur proteins exhibited loss of iron cofactors, yet amino acid synthesis was maintained. Ergosterol and sphingolipid biosynthetic pathways had blocks at points where heme and diiron enzymes function, whereas Ole1, the essential fatty acid desaturase, was resistant to iron depletion. Iron-deficient cells exhibited depletion of most iron enzyme activities, but loss of activity during iron deficiency did not consistently disrupt metabolism. Amino acid homeostasis was robust, but iron deficiency impaired lipid synthesis, altering the properties and functions of cellular membranes.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2010; 285(19):14823-33. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the SPTLC1 subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) cause an adult-onset, hereditary sensory, and autonomic neuropathy type I (HSAN1). We previously reported that mice bearing a transgene-expressing mutant SPTLC1 (tgSPTLC1(C133W)) show a reduction in SPT activity and hyperpathia at 10 months of age. Now analyzed at a later age, we find these mice develop sensory loss with a distal small fiber neuropathy and peripheral myelinopathy. This phenotype is largely reversed when these mice are crossed with transgenic mice overexpressing wild-type SPTLC1 showing that the mutant SPTLC1 protein is not inherently toxic. Simple loss of SPT activity also cannot account for the HSAN1 phenotype, since heterozygous SPTLC1 knock-out mice have reduced SPT activity but are otherwise normal. Rather, the presence of two newly identified, potentially deleterious deoxysphingoid bases in the tgSPTLC1(C133W), but not in the wild-type, double-transgenic tgSPTLC1(WT + C133W) or SPTLC1(+/-) mice, suggests that the HSAN1 mutations alter amino acid selectivity of the SPT enzyme such that palmitate is condensed with alanine and glycine, in addition to serine. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that HSAN1 is the result of a gain-of-function mutation in SPTLC1 that leads to accumulation of a toxic metabolite.
Journal of Neuroscience 11/2009; 29(46):14646-51. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) catalyzes the first committed step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. In yeast, SPT is composed of a heterodimer of 2 highly-related subunits, Lcb1p and Lcb2p, and a third subunit, Tsc3p, which increases enzyme activity markedly and is required for growth at elevated temperatures. Higher eukaryotic orthologs of Lcb1p and Lcb2p have been identified, but SPT activity is not highly correlated with coexpression of these subunits and no ortholog of Tsc3p has been identified. Here, we report the discovery of 2 proteins, ssSPTa and ssSPTb, which despite sharing no homology with Tsc3p, each substantially enhance the activity of mammalian SPT expressed in either yeast or mammalian cells and therefore define an evolutionarily conserved family of low molecular weight proteins that confer full enzyme activity. The 2 ssSPT isoforms share a conserved hydrophobic central domain predicted to reside in the membrane, and each interacts with both hLCB1 and hLCB2 as assessed by positive split ubiquitin 2-hybrid analysis. The presence of these small subunits, along with 2 hLCB2 isofoms, suggests that there are 4 distinct human SPT isozymes. When each SPT isozyme was expressed in either yeast or CHO LyB cells lacking endogenous SPT activity, characterization of their in vitro enzymatic activities, and long-chain base (LCB) profiling revealed differences in acyl-CoA preference that offer a potential explanation for the observed diversity of LCB seen in mammalian cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2009; 106(20):8186-91. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In yeast, Tsc10p catalyzes reduction of 3-ketosphinganine to dihydrosphingosine. In mammals, it has been proposed that this reaction is catalyzed by FVT1, which despite limited homology and a different predicted topology, can replace Tsc10p in yeast. Silencing of FVT1 revealed a direct correlation between FVT1 levels and reductase activity, showing that FVT1 is the principal 3-ketosphinganine reductase in mammalian cells. Localization and topology studies identified an N-terminal membrane-spanning domain in FVT1 (absent in Tsc10p) oriented to place it in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. In contrast, protease digestion studies showed that the N terminus of Tsc10p is cytoplasmic. Fusion of the N-terminal domain of FVT1 to green fluorescent protein directed the fusion protein to the ER, demonstrating that it is sufficient for targeting. Although both proteins have two predicted transmembrane domains C-terminal to a cytoplasmic catalytic domain, neither had an identifiable lumenal loop. Nevertheless, both Tsc10p and the residual fragment of FVT1 produced by removal of the N-terminal domain with factor Xa protease behave as integral membrane proteins. In addition to their topological differences, mutation of conserved catalytic residues had different effects on the activities of the two enzymes. Thus, while FVT1 can replace Tsc10p in yeast, there are substantial differences between the two enzymes that may be important for regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis in higher eukaryotes.
The Journal of Lipid Research 02/2009; 50(8):1630-40. · 4.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Arabidopsis thaliana resistance gene RPW8 triggers the hypersensitive response (HR) to restrict powdery mildew infection via the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway. To further understand how RPW8 signaling is regulated, we have conducted a genetic screen to identify mutations enhancing RPW8-mediated HR-like cell death (designated erh). Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the Arabidopsis erh1 mutant, in which the At2g37940 locus is knocked out by a T-DNA insertion. Loss of function of ERH1 results in salicylic acid accumulation, enhanced transcription of RPW8 and RPW8-dependent spontaneous HR-like cell death in leaf tissues, and reduction in plant stature. Sequence analysis suggests that ERH1 may encode the long-sought Arabidopsis functional homolog of yeast and protozoan inositolphosphorylceramide synthase (IPCS), which converts ceramide to inositolphosphorylceramide. Indeed, ERH1 is able to rescue the yeast aur1 mutant, which lacks the IPCS, and the erh1 mutant plants display reduced ( approximately 53% of wild type) levels of leaf IPCS activity, indicating that ERH1 encodes a plant IPCS. Consistent with its biochemical function, the erh1 mutation causes ceramide accumulation in plants expressing RPW8. These data reinforce the concept that sphingolipid metabolism (specifically, ceramide accumulation) plays an important role in modulating plant programmed cell death associated with defense.
The Plant Cell 12/2008; 20(11):3163-79. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) catalyzes the first step in sphingolipid biosynthesis, and downregulation of this enzyme provides a means for exploring sphingolipid function in cells. We have previously demonstrated that Arabidopsis SPT requires LCB1 and LCB2 subunits for activity, as is the case in other eukaryotes. In this study, we show that Arabidopsis has two genes (AtLCB2a and AtLCB2b) that encode functional isoforms of the LCB2 subunit. No alterations in sphingolipid content or growth were observed in T-DNA mutants for either gene, but homozygous double mutants were not recoverable, suggesting that these genes are functionally redundant. Reciprocal crosses conducted with Atlcb2a and Atlcb2b mutants indicated that lethality is associated primarily with the inability to transmit the lcb2 null genotype through the haploid pollen. Consistent with this, approximately 50% of the pollen obtained from plants homozygous for a mutation in one gene and heterozygous for a mutation in the second gene arrested during transition from uni-nucleate microspore to bicellular pollen. Ultrastructural analyses revealed that these pollen grains contained aberrant endomembranes and lacked an intine layer. To examine sphingolipid function in sporophytic cells, Arabidopsis lines were generated that allowed inducible RNAi silencing of AtLCB2b in an Atlcb2a mutant background. Studies conducted with these lines demonstrated that sphingolipids are essential throughout plant development, and that lethality resulting from LCB2 silencing in seedlings could be partially rescued by supplying exogenous long-chain bases. Overall, these studies provide insights into the genetic and biochemical properties of SPT and sphingolipid function in Arabidopsis.
The Plant Journal 05/2008; 54(2):284-98. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sphingoid long chain bases (LCBs) and their phosphorylated derivatives (LCB-Ps) are important signaling molecules in eukaryotic organisms. The cellular levels of LCB-Ps are tightly controlled by the coordinated action of the LCB kinase activity responsible for their synthesis and the LCB-P phosphatase and lyase activities responsible for their catabolism. Although recent studies have implicated LCB-Ps as regulatory molecules in plants, in comparison with yeast and mammals, much less is known about their metabolism and function in plants. To investigate the functions of LCB-Ps in plants, we have undertaken the identification and characterization of Arabidopsis genes that encode the enzymes of LCB-P metabolism. In this study the Arabidopsis At1g27980 gene was shown to encode the only detectable LCB-P lyase activity in Arabidopsis. The LCB-P lyase activity was characterized, and mutant plant lines lacking the lyase were generated and analyzed. Whereas in other organisms loss of LCB-P lyase activity is associated with accumulation of high levels of LCB/LCB-Ps and developmental abnormalities, the sphingolipid profiles of the mutant plants were remarkably similar to those of wild-type plants, and no developmental abnormalities were observed. Thus, these studies indicate that the lyase plays a minor role in maintenance of sphingolipid metabolism during normal plant development and growth. However, a clear role for the lyase was revealed upon perturbation of sphingolipid synthesis by treatment with the inhibitor of ceramide synthase, fumonisin B(1).
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2007; 282(38):28195-206. · 4.65 Impact Factor