Jacques de Ceaurriz

Agence française de lutte contre le dopage, Saint-Germain, Pays de la Loire, France

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Publications (51)165.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A metabonomic strategy based on LC-MS was employed to investigate the metabolic profile of urine samples from 20 athletes who had been tested positive for corticoids and anabolic steroids and 29 controls. In this aim, different sample preparations and chromatographic conditions were compared. The acquired LC-MS data of doped athletes and controls were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Using this approach, molecular signature of human urine was obtained showing that metabonomics could be a complementary tool to discriminate different urinary profiles and to track down metabolic changes in humans.
    Talanta 02/2011; 83(5):1769-73. DOI:10.1016/j.talanta.2010.10.030 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tetracosactide (Synacthen), a synthetic analogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), can be used as a doping agent to increase the secretion of glucocorticoids by adrenal glands. The only published method for anti-doping control of this drug in plasma relies on purification by immunoaffinity chromatography and LC/MS/MS analysis. Its limit of detection is 300 pg/mL, which corresponds to the peak value observed 12 h after 1 mg Synacthen IM administration. We report here a more sensitive method based on preparation of plasma by cation exchange chromatography and solid-phase extraction and analysis by LC/MS/MS with positive-mode electrospray ionization using 7-38 ACTH as internal standard. Identification of Synacthen was performed using two product ions, m/z 671.5 and m/z 223.0, from the parent [M + 5H](5+) ion, m/z 587.4. The recovery was estimated at 70%. A linear calibration curve was obtained from 25 to 600 pg/mL (R² > 0.99). The lower limit of detection was 8 pg/mL (S/N > 3). The lower limit of quantification was 15 pg/mL (S/N > 10; CV% < 20%). The performance of the method was illustrated by an 8-h kinetic analysis of plasma samples from nine subjects submitted to IM injections of either Synacthen® (five subjects) or Synacthen® Depot, the slow-release form of the drug (four subjects). Concentrations of Synacthen between 16 and 310 pg/mL were observed. A sensitive method for quantitation of Synacthen in plasma is proposed for anti-doping control analyses.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 02/2011; 399(5):1835-43. DOI:10.1007/s00216-010-4565-z · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectifs En raison des possibles effets dopants, l’Agence mondiale antidopage a instauré certaines restrictions concernant l’utilisation des substances appartenant à la classe pharmacologique des bêta-2 agonistes. En 2010, tous les bêta-2 agonistes sont interdits, à l’exception du salbutamol et du salmétérol par inhalation, ces administrations locales nécessitant une déclaration d’usage. Nous proposons, à partir de la littérature scientifique actuelle, de faire un état des lieux des connaissances concernant les effets ergogéniques des bêta-2 agonistes. Actualités Parallèlement, certaines hypothèses à propos des mécanismes d’action potentiellement impliqués dans l’amélioration de performance sont présentées. La plupart des études ont été conduites suite à des inhalations de bêta-2 agonistes à dose thérapeutique et ne mettent pas en évidence d’amélioration de la performance sportive, probablement en raison des faibles doses administrées n’entraînant pas de passage systémique significatif. Au contraire, la quasi-totalité des études conduites après administration orale (par exemple, aiguë et de courte durée) montrent une amélioration de la performance sportive, quelle que soit l’intensité de l’exercice effectué. Les mécanismes à l’origine de cet effet ergogénique des bêta-2 agonistes lors d’une prise systémique restent mal connus, mais celui-ci ne résulte pas d’un effet anabolisant. L’hypothèse « énergétique » ne peut être qu’une réponse partielle et un effet des bêta-2 agonistes à la fois au niveau central et périphérique doit être considéré. Perspectives De nouvelles études apparaissent nécessaires en particulier afin de : (1) déterminer les effets ergogéniques d’une prise orale de terbutaline et de bambuterol ; (2) vérifier les répercussions d’une inhalation de courte durée à dose supra-thérapeutique et (3) fixer un seuil urinaire de positivité pour la terbutaline, le salmétérol et le formotérol.
    Science & Sports 12/2010; 25(6):281-290. DOI:10.1016/j.scispo.2010.08.002 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine salivary cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and testosterone responses to the bench press in an international powerlifting competition and to determine whether these salivary hormone concentrations could be used to predict performance. Twenty-six elite athletes (13 females and 13 males) provided saliva samples during the official weighing-in and after the last attempt at the bench press, as well as at baseline on a non-competition day. Performance index was determined with the Wilks formula, which adjusts powerlifting scores according to body mass. Salivary cortisol concentrations were significantly increased in all subjects after the bench press (p < 0.01), whereas DHEA concentrations were significantly increased in women (p < 0.01) but not in men after the bench press. No significant change in testosterone concentrations was observed during the experiment in either men or women, which resulted in a marked decrease in the testosterone/cortisol ratio. The performance index showed no significant correlation with any of the hormone responses to competition. In conclusion, despite the increase in stress adrenocortical hormone responses to an international powerlifting competition, these hormone concentrations alone are not predictors of bench press performance in elite powerlifting athletes.
    Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 11/2010; 13(6):528-32. DOI:10.3109/10253891003743440 · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: communication par affiche
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    ABSTRACT: Given the high correlation between the serum and saliva hormone values demonstrated at rest, saliva provides a convenient non-invasive way to determine dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol concentrations. However, to our knowledge, pituitary adrenal recovery following short-term suppression with corticosteroids has never been investigated in saliva. The aim of this study was therefore to examine how steroid hormone concentrations in saliva are influenced by short-term corticosteroid administration. We studied saliva DHEA and cortisol concentrations before, during (day 1-day 7) and following (day 8-day 16) the administration of oral therapeutic doses of prednisone (50 mg daily for 1 week) in 11 healthy recreationally trained women. Mean saliva DHEA and cortisol concentrations decreased immediately after the start of prednisone treatment (P < 0.05). Three days after concluding prednisone administration, both saliva DHEA and cortisol had returned to pretreatment levels. These data are consistent with previous studies on blood samples and suggest that non-invasive saliva samples may offer a practical approach to assessing pituitary-adrenal function continuously during and after short-term corticosteroid therapy.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 10/2009; 40(2):183-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2362.2009.02219.x · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated whether short-term oral administration of glucocorticoid would modify performance and selected hormonal and metabolic parameters during submaximal exercise in healthy women. Nine recreational female athletes completed cycling trials at 70-75% VO(2) max until exhaustion after either placebo (Pla, gelatin) or oral prednisone (Cor, Cortancyl, 50 mg per day for 1 week) treatment, according to a double-blind and randomized protocol. Blood samples were collected at rest; after 10, 20, and 30 min of exercise; at exhaustion; and after 10 and 20 min of passive recovery for adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), insulin (Ins), blood glucose (Glu), and lactate (Lac) determination. Cycling time was significantly increased with short-term Cor intake (Cor: 66.4 +/- 8.4 vs. Pla: 47.9 +/- 6.7 min, P < 0.01). ACTH and DHEA remained completely blunted throughout the experiment with Cor versus Pla (P < 0.01), whereas GH and PRL were significantly decreased with Cor after, respectively, 20 and 30 min of exercise (P < 0.05). No significant difference in Ins or Glu values was found between the two treatments but Lac concentrations were significantly increased with Cor versus Pla between 10 and 30 min of exercise (P < 0.05). These data indicate that short-term glucocorticoid intake improved endurance performance in women, but further investigation is needed to determine whether these results are applicable to elite female athletes and, if so, current WADA legislation needs to be changed.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 09/2009; 107(4):437-43. DOI:10.1007/s00421-009-1149-8 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant erythropoietin has a strong impact on aerobic power and is therefore one of the most potent doping agents in endurance sports. The anti-doping control of this synthetic hormone relies on the detection, in the urine, of its isoelectric pattern, which differs from that of the corresponding natural hormone, the latter being typically more acidic than the former. However, a small number of natural urinary patterns, referred to as "atypical patterns," are less acidic than the dominant form. Based on anecdotal evidence, the occurrence of such patterns seems to be related to particular strenuous exercises. This study aimed to demonstrate this relation using a strenuous exercise protocol. Seven athletes took part in a training protocol including a series of supramaximal short-duration exercises. Urine and blood samples were collected throughout the protocols. World Cycling Center, Aigle, Switzerland, and research laboratories. Seven top-level athletes (cyclists) were involved in this study. Erythropoietin (EPO) isoelectric patterns were obtained by submitting blood and urine samples to isoelectric focusing. Additional protein dosages were performed. Supramaximal short-duration exercises induced the transformation of typical urinary natural EPO patterns into atypical ones. None of the obtained atypical patterns fulfilled the 3 criteria mandatory for reporting an adverse analytical finding. Serum EPO patterns were not affected by the exercises that caused the transformation of urinary patterns. An exercise-induced transient renal dysfunction is proposed as a hypothetic explanation for these observations that rely on parallel investigations of proteinuria in the same samples.
    Clinical journal of sport medicine: official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine 08/2009; 19(4):311-5. DOI:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181a9483e · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    Haematologica 07/2009; 94(6):888-90. DOI:10.3324/haematol.2009.006809 · 5.87 Impact Factor
  • Noura Meklat, Jean-Claude Tabet, Jacques de Ceaurriz
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    ABSTRACT: We use gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the urine peak area ratio of tetrahydrocortisol (THF) to tetrahydrodeoxycortisol (THS) in spot urine samples of eight male volunteers after a single intramuscular injection of 100 mg hydrocortisone (HC) and after a single oral administration of 10 mg HC at six different post-treatment times over 24 h with 1 week between the two treatments. Control spot urine samples were also obtained from a group of 100 volunteers of each sex for GC-MS analysis. In addition, one female volunteer was collected for GC-MS and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis after a single oral administration of 40 mg HC and 40 mg cortisone (C) at 15 and 10 different post-treatment times over 30 h, respectively. IRMS analysis focused on the acetylated derivative of 11-keto-etiocholanolone (11KE) and 11beta-hydroxy-etiocholanolone (11OHE) as target metabolites, and on androsterone (A) as an endogenous reference compound (ERC) for calculating the corresponding delta(13)C (per thousand) depletion values. There was a small but significant sex-related difference for the THF/THS ratio in the control group with mean THF/THS ratio values of 10 and 13.5 for women and men, respectively. A cut-off value of 28 (mean+2 S.D.) for the THF/THS ratio offered a narrow detection window with 39% of suspicious samples after HC-oral treatment, and a wide detection window with 94% of suspicious samples after HC-intramuscular administration in men. For the woman the same cut-off value offered a wide detection window after HC and C administration with 100% and 90% of suspicious samples, respectively. On the basis of a cut-off value of 3 per thousand for the delta(13)C (per thousand) depletion, the exogenous origin was widely evidenced for at least one target compound in 93% and 80% of the HC and C samples, respectively. We conclude by discussing the predictive ability of the urine THF/THS ratio and its usefulness in pointing out suspicious samples resulting from the systemic administration of HC and C.
    Forensic science international 02/2009; 185(1-3):e13-7. DOI:10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.12.011 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to test the hypothesis that short-term corticoid intake alters food intake, body composition and adipokines secretion in healthy volunteers with regular sport practice, nutrient intake was assessed in eight male athletes with and without prednisolone (PRED, 60 mg/day for 1 week) ingestion in a random, double blind, crossover design. Body weight, body composition, adipokines (i.e., leptin, adiponectin and TNF-alpha), insulin and blood glucose were determined before and at the end of each treatment. PRED did not induce any significant change in body weight, body composition or food intake. Insulin and TNF-alpha were not significantly altered with PRED compared to placebo but blood glucose, leptin and adiponectin concentrations at rest appear significantly increased after PRED treatment (P < 0.05). Our data show that 1 week glucocorticoid treatment does not promote obesity in recreationally trained men but further studies are necessary to understand its effects on the metabolically active hormones, leptin and adiponectin.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 12/2008; 105(2):309-13. DOI:10.1007/s00421-008-0904-6 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolites of hydrocortisone (HC) and cortisone (C), namely tetrahydrocortisol (THF), tetrahydrocortisone (THE), allo-THF, allo-THE for the main metabolites and 11-hydroxyandrosterone, 11-hydoxyetiocholanolone, 11-ketoandrosterone, and 11-ketoetiocholanolone for the minor metabolites, as well as the two main metabolites of testosterone, androsterone and etiocholanolone, were separated from each other using HPLC fractionation of urine extracts. An isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis determined the absolute delta(13)C values of 5alpha-androstanetrione (5alpha-AT) and 5beta-androstanetrione (5beta-AT) as the oxidation products (ox-products) of the HC and C metabolites and as target compounds (TCs). We also performed IRMS analysis of 5alpha-androstanedione (5alpha-AD) and 5beta-androstanedione (5beta-AD) as the ox-products of etiocholanolone and androsterone and as endogenous reference compounds (ERCs). Urine samples came from two male volunteers treated with a single 10-mg oral dose and a single 100-mg intramuscular dose of HC hemisuccinate, a male volunteer treated with a single 25-mg oral dose of C acetate, and a control group of 30 drug-free athletes. The mean -3SD of delta(13)C depletion values from the controls were -1.46, -1.98, -1.78 and -2.42 for 5beta-AT-5beta-AD, 5alpha-AT-5beta-AD, 5beta-AT-5alpha-AD and 5alpha-AT-5alpha-AD, respectively, indicating -3 per thousand as a safe cut-off value for differentiating the pharmaceutical from the natural form. In the main metabolite fraction, delta(13)C depletion values peaked around -5 per thousand and -9 per thousand after oral and intramuscular administration of HC, respectively, and around -6 per thousand after oral administration of C. In comparison, less impressive results were obtained when IRMS analysis focused on the ox-products of the minor metabolites.
    Steroids 12/2008; 74(3):393-7. DOI:10.1016/j.steroids.2008.11.001 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to test the hypothesis that salbutamol would change substrate oxidation during submaximal exercise, eight recreationally trained men twice performed 1 h at 60% VO(2) peak after ingestion of placebo or 4 mg of salbutamol. Gas exchange was monitored and blood samples were collected during exercise for GH, ACTH, insulin, and blood glucose and lactate determination. With salbutamol versus placebo, there was no significant difference in total energy expenditure and substrate oxidation, but the substrate oxidation balance was significantly modified after 40 min of exercise. ACTH was significantly decreased with salbutamol during the last 10 min of exercise, whereas no difference was found between the two treatments in the other hormonal and metabolic parameters. The theory that the ergogenic effect of salbutamol results from a change in substrate oxidation has little support during relatively short term endurance exercise, but it is conceivable that longer exercise duration can generate positive findings.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 11/2008; 105(2):207-13. DOI:10.1007/s00421-008-0891-7 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) has been synthesized in order to specifically extract tamoxifen, a nonsteroidal antiestrogen, and its metabolites from urine by solid-phase extraction (SPE) before HPLC-UV analysis. Clomiphene, a chlorinated tamoxifen analogue, was selected as template for MIP synthesis. Polymerisation was achieved by thermal polymerisation of methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linking agent and acetonitrile as porogen. The efficient elimination of the urinary matrix has been obtained by MIP-SPE but the elution recovery of tamoxifen was initially too low ( approximately 14%). This problem has been overcome following two ways. At first, a preliminary HLB-SPE of the urine has enabled to discard endogenous salts and to percolate an organic sample through the MIP cartridge. Extraction recoveries are equal to 56 and 74% for tamoxifen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen, respectively. Then, a second MIP has been prepared with styrene and MAA as functional co-monomers. Strong pi-pi interactions occurring between phenyl groups of styrene and tamoxifen promote rebinding of the analyte by the specific sites. The enhanced hydrophobic character of the imprinted polymer has enabled the direct percolation of urine through MIP-SPE and the easy elimination of endogenous salts from urine with only one aqueous washing step. HPLC-UV analysis has confirmed high extraction recoveries (85%) for tamoxifen and its metabolite with an enrichment factor of 8. This analytical protocol can selectively detect the presence of tamoxifen metabolites in urines and be useful as a proof of doping in competitive sports.
    Journal of Chromatography A 08/2008; 1196-1197:81-8. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2008.05.022 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether acute glucocorticoid (GC) intake alters performance and selected hormonal and metabolic variables during submaximal exercise. In total, 14 recreational male athletes completed two cycling trials at 70-75% maximum O(2) uptake starting 3 h after an ingestion of either a lactose placebo or oral GC (20 mg of prednisolone) and continuing until exhaustion, according to a double-blind randomised protocol. Blood samples were collected at rest, after 10, 20, 30 minutes, and at exhaustion and recovery for measurement of growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), prolactin, insulin, blood glucose, lactate and interleukin (IL)-6 determination. Cycling duration was not significantly changed after GC or placebo administration (55.9 (5.2) v 48.8 (2.9) minutes, respectively). A decrease in ACTH and DHEA (p<0.01) was observed with GC during all of the experiments and in IL-6 after exhaustion (p<0.05). No change in basal, exercise or recovery GH, prolactin, insulin or lactate was found between the two treatments but blood glucose was significantly higher with GC (p<0.05) at any time point. From these data, acute systemic GC administration does seem to alter some metabolic markers but did not influence performance during submaximal exercise.
    British Journal of Sports Medicine 04/2008; 42(4):250-4; discussion 254. DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2007.039040 · 5.03 Impact Factor
  • Jacques de Ceaurriz, Michel Audran
    Revue Francophone des Laboratoires 04/2008; 2008(401):25-26. DOI:10.1016/S1773-035X(08)71753-2
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the hypothesis that acute therapeutic glucocorticoid intake could change the contribution of fat and carbohydrate (CHO) in energy production during exercise. Nine healthy recreationally-trained male subjects twice performed submaximal exercise (60 min at 60 % VO2max) after ingestion of placebo (Pla) or 20 mg of prednisolone (Pred), according to a double blind and randomized protocol. Respiratory exchange was monitored during exercise and blood samples were collected at rest, every 10 min during exercise and after 5, 10, and 20 min of passive recovery. Pred intake significantly increased total energy expenditure during exercise, but CHO oxidation was lower and fat oxidation higher after Pred vs. Pla. ACTH and IL-6 concentrations were significantly decreased with Pred during exercise, whereas no variations were found in GH, insulin, blood glucose, and lactate between the 2 treatments. In conclusion, it appears that acute prednisolone systemic administration does reduce total carbohydrate oxidation during submaximal exercise. Further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms involved and to determine whether this modification in the substrate oxidation balance under glucocorticoid administration in recreationally-trained male subjects could result in a competitive advantage in elite athletes.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 02/2008; 29(1):21-6. DOI:10.1055/s-2007-964994 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of short-term prednisolone ingestion combined with intense training on exercise performance, hormonal (adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), prolactin, luteinising hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, insulin) and metabolic parameters (blood glucose, lactate, bicarbonate, pH). Eight male recreational athletes completed four cycling trials at 70-75% peak O(2) consumption until exhaustion just before (1) and after (2) either oral placebo or prednisolone (60 mg/day for 1 week) treatment coupled with standardised physical training (2 hours/day), according to a double-blind and randomised protocol. Blood samples were collected at rest, during exercise and passive recovery for the hormonal and metabolic determinations. Time of cycling was not significantly changed after placebo but significantly increased (p<0.05) after prednisolone administration (50.4 (6.2) min for placebo 1, 64.0 (9.1) min for placebo 2, 56.1 (9.1) min for prednisolone 1 and 107.0 (20.7) min for prednisolone 2). There was no significant difference in any measured parameters after the week of training with placebo but a decrease in ACTH, DHEA, PRL, GH, TSH and testosterone was seen with prednisolone treatment during the experiment (p<0.05). No significant change in basal, exercise or recovery LH, insulin, lactate, pH or bicarbonate was found between the two treatment, but blood glucose was significantly higher under prednisolone (p<0.05) at all time points. Short-term glucocorticoid administration induced a marked improvement in endurance performance. Further studies are needed to determine whether these results obtained in recreational male athletes maintaining a rigorous training schedule are gender-dependent and applicable to elite athletes.
    British Journal of Sports Medicine 11/2007; 42(12):983-8. DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2007.043083 · 5.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By adding a step of immunoaffinity to the method we had previously developed for analysing erythropoietin (EPO) in urine, we were able to study the isoelectric profiles of this hormone in human serum samples. This method was sensitive enough to investigate samples presenting physiological levels of this hormone. Comparison with the corresponding profiles in urine showed that natural EPO was systematically more acidic in urine. The acidification process, which was not patent in the non-human primate Cynomolgus macaque, clearly also affected recombinant EPO when injected into humans. This process was unrelated to any enzymatic activity in urine since the incubation of natural or recombinant EPO in urine induced no transformation of their isoelectric profiles. The nature and mechanism of the structural modifications occurring during the renal handling of this hormone remain to be investigated.
    International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 09/2007; 41(3):354-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2007.04.002 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the prednisolone's ergogenic and metabolic effects during submaximal exercise. Ten recreational male athletes completed two cycling trials at 70-75% peak O2 consumption until exhaustion after either placebo (Pla, lactose) or oral prednisolone (Pred, 60 mg.d(-1) for 1 wk) treatment, according to a double-blind and randomized protocol. Blood samples were collected at rest and during exercise and recovery to determine ACTH, growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), DHEA, insulin, blood glucose, and blood lactate values. Time of cycling was significantly increased after chronic Pred treatment (Pred: 74.5+/-9.5 min; Pla: 46.1+/-3.3 min, P<0.01). Pred intake significantly lowered basal, exercise, and recovery ACTH, DHEA, and PRL concentrations, whereas GH concentrations were significantly lowered by Pred after 30 min of exercise. Blood glucose and insulin were significantly (P<0.05) increased by Pred during the whole experiment and until 30 min of exercise. Blood lactate concentrations were higher after Pred versus Pla at 10 min of exercise until 10 min of recovery (P<0.05). From these data, short-term Pred intake did seem to significantly improve performance during submaximal exercise, with concomitant alterations in hormonal and metabolic responses. Further studies will be necessary to elucidate the mechanisms of these hormonal and metabolic changes, and to determine whether the changes may be associated with the marked performance improvement obtained.
    Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise 09/2007; 39(9):1672-8. DOI:10.1249/mss.0b013e3180dc992c · 4.46 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
165.91 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2011
    • Agence française de lutte contre le dopage
      Saint-Germain, Pays de la Loire, France
  • 2006
    • Université d'Orléans
      Orléans, Centre, France
  • 2004
    • Université de Montpellier 1
      Montpelhièr, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
  • 2000
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France