ABSTRACT: Hintergrund und Fragestellung:
Die transapikale Aortenklappenimplantation hat sich bei Hochrisikopatienten mit degenerativer Aortenklappenstenose zu einer
alternativen Therapieoption zum konventionellen Aortenklappenersatz entwickelt. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war, basierend
auf den eigenen Erfahrungen mit diesem Verfahren, eine etwaige Lernkurve zu analysieren.
Patienten und Methodik:
Am Westdeutschen Herzzentrum Essen wurden zwischen Oktober 2007 und Mai 2009 40 Hochrisikopatienten (mittleres Alter: 82 ±
5 Jahre, logistischer EuroSCORE: 42% ± 16%) mit symptomatischer Aortenklappenstenose im Hybridoperationssaal einer transapikalen
Aortenklappenimplantation (ballonexpandierbare Sapien™-Bioprothese, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) unterzogen. Zur
Evaluation einer etwaigen Lernkurve wurden die Patienten zwei Gruppen zugeteilt (1. Hälfte, n = 20: 10/2007 bis 10/2008; 2.
Hälfte, n = 20: 11/2008 bis 05/2009) und diese verglichen.
Alle Aortenklappenimplantationen bis auf eine waren erfolgreich (prozedurale Erfolgsrate: 97,5%), und eine Klappenmigration/-embolisation
oder ein akuter Koronararterienverschluss wurde nicht beobachtet. Im Vergleich beider Gruppen zeigte sich eine signifikante
Reduktion der Operationszeit, der Durchleuchtungszeit sowie des Kontrastmittelverbrauchs (139 ± 30 min vs. 112 ± 41 min; 6,8
± 1,9 min vs. 5,5 ± 1,5 min; 226 ± 75 ml vs. 169 ± 23 ml; p ≤ 0,05). Die für die klassische Technik prognostizierte 30-Tage-Letalität
lag bei 51% ± 14% (logistischer EuroSCORE) bzw. 20% ± 11% (STS-Score [Society of Thoracic Surgeons]) für die ersten 20 Patienten
bzw. 32% ± 12% und 13% ± 7% für die zweiten 20 Patienten. Die beobachtete 30-Tage-Letalität betrug 25% für die ersten 20 Patienten
und 10% für die zweiten 20 Patienten.
Diese Ergebnisse spiegeln die Erfahrungen der Autoren mit der transapikalen Aortenklappenimplantation bei Patienten mit deutlich
erhöhtem Operationsrisiko für den konventionellen Aortenklappenersatz wider und zeigen eine Lernkurve mit Verringerung von
Morbidität und Letalität auf. Als ursächlich für die Verbesserung der Ergebnisse erachten die Autoren 1. eine geeignete Patientenselektion
mit Berücksichtigung spezifischer Risikofaktoren, 2. eine sorgfältige präoperative Patientenvorbereitung, 3. ein optimiertes
interventionelles und chirurgisches Vorgehen sowie 4. eine regelmäßige Anwendung dieser neuen Methode.
Background and Purpose:
Transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation has emerged as an alternative to conventional aortic valve replacement
in high-risk patients with degenerative aortic valve stenosis. The aim of this study was to assess a potential learning curve
with the former technique based on the own experience with this novel procedure.
Patients and Methods:
40 consecutive high-risk patients (82 ± 5 years, logistic EuroSCORE 42% ± 16%) with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis underwent
transapical aortic valve implantation (balloon expandable Sapien™ bioprosthesis, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) in
the hybrid operating room between October 2007 and May 2009 at the West German Heart Center Essen. To assess a potential learning
curve, patients were allocated and compared according to the implantation date (initial n = 20: 10/2007 to 10/2008; second
n = 20: 11/2008 to 05/2009).
All but one transapical aortic valve implantations were successful (procedural success rate 97.5%) and no prosthesis migration/embolization
or coronary artery obstruction was observed. Comparing the groups, procedural time, fluoroscopy time, and contrast media volume
decreased significantly (139 ± 30 min vs. 112 ± 41 min; 6.8 ± 1.9 min vs. 5.5 ± 1.5 min; 226 ± 75 ml vs. 169 ± 23 ml; p ≤
0,05). Predicted 30-day mortality for patients operated upon within the 1st period was 51% ± 14% (logistic EuroSCORE) and
20% ± 11% (STS Score [Society of Thoracic Surgeons]) compared hochto 32% ± 12% and 13% ± 7% in the 2nd period, while observed
30-day mortality decreased from 25% to 10%.
This study reflects the authors’ experience with transapical aortic valve implantation in patients presenting with a high
surgical risk for conventional aortic valve replacement. Within this patient cohort improved clinical outcome, and lower morbidity
and mortality demonstrate a learning curve. Improved results were achieved by (1) patient selection with regard to specific
procedure-related risk factors, (2) careful preoperative patient preparation, (3) an optimum interventional and surgical approach,
and (4) continuous application of this new procedure.
Herz 04/2012; 34(5):388-397. · 0.92 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The euroSCORE is a widely applied scoring system to estimate perioperative risk in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. It acknowledges an increased risk in women but does not apply a gender-specific weighing of individual risk indicators. We separately investigated the performance of the euroSCORE for men and women. Cardiac surgical patients operated in 2002 and 2003 (n = 1930) served as training group. Patients operated in 2004 served as validation group (n = 870). Using binary regression analysis, we developed a gender-specific model on the basis of the original euroSCORE risk indicators. The individual risk indicators were assigned gender-specific correlation coefficients. Applying ROC analysis to the validation group, the original euroSCORE performed well, with an area under curve (AUC) of 0.758, for men but poor, with an AUC 0.676, for women. After gender-specific re-weighing, ROC analysis revealed considerably improved predictive values of the modified euroSCORE. AUC for women increased to 0.755, AUC for men further increased to 0.772. The original euroSCORE failed to accurately predict perioperative mortality in women. A binary regression model, assigning a gender-specific weight to each of the risk indicators of the original euroSCORE, considerably improved the predictive power of the modified euroSCORE.
Minimally invasive therapy & allied technologies: MITAT: official journal of the Society for Minimally Invasive Therapy 04/2011; 20(2):67-71. · 1.33 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Shortage of donors is one of the major limitations in lung transplantation (LuTX) and an aggressive expansion of criteria for donor selection has been proposed. This study evaluates the outcome of recipients of pulmonary grafts coming from resuscitated donors when compared with recipients of non-resuscitated donors.
We retrospectively analyzed the donor and recipient charts of all double LuTX performed at our institution between 2000 and 2008 with regard to the performance of donor-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
Out of 186 eligible transplants, 22 patients (11.8%) received lungs from donors who have suffered cardiac arrest (CA) and subsequent CPR. Mean duration of CPR was 15.2 ± 11.3 min. Terminal laboratory profiles of CPR donors and non-CPR donors were similar as were ventilation time and paO(2)/FiO(2) ratio before organ harvesting or chest X-ray. CPR-donor status did not affect the following indices of graft function: length of postoperative ventilation, paO(2)/FiO(2) ratio up to 48 h and lung function up to 60 months. Length of intensive care and hospital stay, need for inotropic support and 30-day mortality were not significantly different for the transplantation of CPR or no-CPR donor lungs. One- and 3-year survival rates were comparable as well with 84.4% and 66.3% for CPR donors versus 88.5% and 69.8% no-CPR donors.
This study indicates that transplantation of lungs from resuscitated donors may not affect outcome after LuTX. Therefore, donor history of CA should not automatically preclude LuTX.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 03/2011; 39(3):342-7. · 2.40 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: There are few data assessing factors, which identify patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) facing high risk for open-heart surgery. We sought to compare the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) classification and the European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) for risk prediction in cirrhotic patients.
Fifty-seven consecutive patients with non-cardiac LC, who underwent open-heart surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass between 1998 and 2008, were studied at our institution. Potential preoperative predictors of outcome, as well as preoperative MELD score, CTP classification and EuroSCORE were calculated. The primary study end points were all-cause in-hospital and long-term mortality.
MELD score and CTP classification both differed significantly between survivors and non-survivors for in-hospital (P<0.0001) and long-term mortality (P<0.0001). Univariate predictors of in-hospital mortality were emergency surgery (odds ratio (OR), 4.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-20.6; P=0.03), ascites (OR, 7.2; 95% CI, 2.0-25.5; P=0.002), total serum protein (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8; P=0.01), CTP class (OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.4-21.5; P=0.04) and MELD score (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6; P=0.001). Multivariable exact logistic regression analyses revealed MELD score (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.005-1.6; P=0.04) as the only independent factor associated with in-hospital mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis showed MELD score to be highly predictive with an optimal cut-off value of 13.5 (sensitivity: 82.0%, specificity: 78.5%) for postoperative in-hospital mortality (area under curve (AUC): 85.1 ± 0.05%) and superior compared to the CTP classification (AUC: 75.7±0.08%) and EuroSCORE (AUC: 65.9 ± 0.08%).
The mortality of patients with liver cirrhosis undergoing open-heart surgery progressively increases with the severity of liver dysfunction. Therefore, the MELD score most reliably identifies those cirrhotic patients who are at high risk for open-heart surgery.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 04/2010; 38(5):592-9. · 2.40 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Lung organ scarcity has led to more generous acceptance of organs under the idea of extended-donor criteria. However, long-term effects have to be monitored to redefine present practice. In this study, we investigated the impact of donor age over 55 years in lung transplantation.
In this retrospective study, 186 consecutive double-lung transplantation procedures from January 2000 to December 2008 were evaluated. A total of 19 recipients received lungs from donors aged 55 years or older (range 55-69 years) (group A) and 167 received lungs from younger donors (range 8-54) (group B). In-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, rejection episodes, lung function and survival up to 5 years were evaluated.
In-hospital mortality was similar in both groups (group A: 10.5%; group B: 13.7%). Postoperative ICU stay was 19+/-33 days versus 17+/-34 days (A vs B). Rejection episodes as well as postoperative lung function up to 5 years, and overall cumulative 5-year survival (group A: 52.4%; group B: 50.9%) did not reach statistical significance. However, a trend of increased bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) prevalence and reduced lung function was noted. Cause of death showed no differences in both groups.
Donor age > or =55 years does not compromise immediate and long-term results after lung transplantation, although long-term observation of patients receiving such an organ suggests earlier lung dysfunction. Due to the rising need of organs, lungs from donors aged 55 or older have to be considered for transplantation. However, the acceptance should be based on donor lung evaluation and individual recipient needs. Long-term outcomes over 5 years need to be further investigated.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 03/2010; 38(2):192-7. · 2.40 Impact Factor
The Annals of thoracic surgery 02/2010; 89(2):673; author reply 673-4. · 3.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a life-threatening complication of heparin therapy. At our institution, postoperative cardiac surgical patients are screened for HIT antibodies, when platelet counts persist to be less than 50% of the baseline level or less than 50000 nl(-1). In the present study, we compared the outcomes in HIT-antibody-positive and HIT-antibody-negative patients.
Patients who underwent a cardiac surgical procedure between 1999 and 2007 and in whom a clinical suspicion of HIT prompted a test for heparin-dependent platelet-activating antibodies, that is, the heparin-induced platelet activation (HIPA) test, were retrieved from the database. Patients were divided in group 1 (antibodies present) and group 2 (no antibodies present).
In 153 of more than 10000 patients (1.5%), a HIPA test was performed, Of those, 21 patients tested positive (group 1) and 132 tested negative (group 2). Central venous and pulmonary thrombo-embolism was more frequent in group 1 (10% vs 2%, p=0.04). Intestinal, microvascular thrombo-embolism was more frequent in group 2 (15% as opposed to 0%, p=0.03). By multivariate analysis, only patient age (p=0.04, confidence interval (CI): 1.04 (1.00-1.08)), female sex (p=0.03 CI 3.45 (1.51-7.86)) and perioperative sepsis (p<0.001 CI 6.88 (2.96-16.02)) were associated with mortality.
Patients in whom a low platelet count prompted testing for HIT antibodies, had a high mortality (59%), independent of whether heparin-dependent antibodies were present, indicating that a persistently lowered platelet count is a bad prognostic sign after cardiac surgery. Interestingly, the HIPA-positive patients had more central venous and pulmonary embolisms. Patient age, female sex and perioperative sepsis were risk factors for perioperative mortality.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 02/2010; 37(6):1391-5. · 2.40 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: If there is no shunt defect, the total blood volume entering the right heart is thereafter ejected into the lungs. Apart from
the blood entering the lungs over the right heart, the lungs are perfused via bronchial arteries that are branches of the
descending aorta. The bronchial arteries primarily have nutritive function and are thought not to contribute to the oxygenation
of the circulating blood. The contribution of bronchial arteries to the perfusion of the lungs may be as low as 1–3%.1,2 Bronchial venous blood is collected in the right and, mainly, left atrium.
12/2009: pages 385-391;
ABSTRACT: The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) is one of the most prominent scores used for the evaluation of predicted mortality in cardiac surgery. The aim of our study was to analyze the logistic and additive EuroSCORE in view of its accuracy for patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR).
A total of 652 patients underwent isolated AVR from January 1999 to June 2007. Emergency and redo operations were included. Acute endocarditis was excluded. Out of logistic regression analyses, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve statistics were calculated both for the logistic and additive EuroSCORE.
By using the identical variables used in the EuroSCORE, the area under curve was 70.7% for the logistic and 72.4% for the additive EuroSCORE, respectively. If age, which is by nature positively correlated with increasing cardiac and non-cardiac comorbidity, is calculated as a single parameter, the area under curve remains at 69.9% being very close to the result of the EuroSCORE.
For the subgroup of patients undergoing isolated AVR, the use of the EuroSCORE provides a comparable precision concerning the estimation of early mortality compared with the simple factor 'age'. The extended use of the EuroSCORE in view of percutaneous AVR, the insufficient accuracy of the score bears the risk of incorrect decision-making.
Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery 11/2009; 10(2):239-44.
ABSTRACT: Hemodynamic function and clinical outcomes were compared between the bovine pericardial Edwards Perimount Magna (EPM) and the porcine Medtronic Mosaic Ultra (MMU) aortic valve prostheses.
Between January 2003 and June 2007, a total of 227 consecutive patients was prospectively enrolled, and received either the EPM (n = 125) or the MMU (n = 102) aortic valve prosthesis. The primary study end-point was the mean transvalvular gradient after surgery, at discharge and at six months follow up, as measured echocardiographically. The secondary study end-points were 30-day mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs).
The intraoperative transvalvular mean pressure gradients were 9.4 +/- 4.6 mmHg in the EPM group compared to 17.7 +/- 6.7 mmHg in the MMU group (p < 0.001), and these remained essentially unchanged at hospital discharge (11.2 +/- 4.2 mmHg versus 19.1 +/- 6 mmHg; p < 0.001) and at six months' follow up (10 +/- 5 mmHg versus 20 +/- 7 mmHg; p < 0.001). A multivariable risk-adjusted analysis of covariance revealed the MMU valve (p < 0.0001) to be strongly associated with elevated postoperative mean transvalvular gradients during the six-month follow up. In addition, renal insufficiency, concomitant valve surgery and reoperation were identified as being significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.3-8.1; OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.4-9.8; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.2, respectively) and major adverse cardiac events (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.7; OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.7-8.2; OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-7.2, respectively). To further control for selection bias, the propensity score was computed based on the major risk factors of 12 patients. An analysis of covariance model, adjusted for the propensity score, also confirmed the MMU prosthesis to be strongly associated with elevated mean transvalvular gradients during the six-month follow up period (p < 0.0001).
The study results clearly demonstrated a favorable hemodynamic function as shown by lower transvalvular gradients of the bovine pericardial Edwards Perimount Magna compared to the porcine Medtronic Mosaic Ultra aortic valve prosthesis.
The Journal of heart valve disease 11/2009; 18(6):703-11; discussion 712. · 0.81 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We sought to determine whether transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a reasonable treatment option in patients with a very or extremely high risk for conventional aortic valve replacement, presenting with a logistic EuroSCORE greater than 30% or a Society of Thoracic Surgeons score greater than 15%.
Between May 2005 and November 2008, 39 of 85 transcatheter aortic valve implantation patients with a very high risk for aortic valve replacement underwent either transfemoral (n = 15) or transapical (n = 24) transcatheter aortic valve implantation with a mean estimated logistic EuroSCORE of 44.2% +/- 12.6% (mean +/- standard deviation) and a Society of Thoracic Surgeons score of 17.9% +/- 6.1%. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation was performed in a hybrid operative theater using the Cribier-Edwards or Edwards SAPIEN prosthesis.
Valve implantation was successful in 97% of the patients. Operative mortality was 2.6%, and mortality at 30 days was 17.9%. After valve implantation, hemodynamic improvement was assessed by decreased mean pressure gradient (p < 0.001) and increased aortic valve area (p < 0.001), accompanied by improved New York Heart Association functional status (p < 0.01). Actuarial survival was 74.4% at 3 months, 74.4% at 6 months, and 64.1% at 12 months of follow-up. Echocardiography revealed aortic regurgitation in 58% of the patients during hospital stay, 43% at 6 months of follow-up, and 40% at 12 months of follow-up, but no structural valve deterioration could be observed during the complete follow-up period.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe aortic stenosis and a very high risk for aortic valve replacement is feasible and may be a reasonable treatment option in these patients.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 11/2009; 88(5):1468-74. · 3.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Major scores for the evaluation of procedural risk in cardiac surgery are the European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation score (EuroSCORE), the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score, and the Parsonnet score. The aim of our study was to analyze the predictive value of these scores in "high risk" patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR).
Six hundred and fifty-two patients underwent isolated AVR from January 1999 through June 2007. Emergency and redo operations were included; acute endocarditis was excluded. Evaluation was performed by logistic regression analysis. Data collection was prospective.
The mean logistic EuroSCORE of all patients was 8.5 +/- 7.9%, the mean STS score was 4.4 +/- 3.9%, and the mean logistic Parsonnet score was 9.8 +/- 8.5%. In-hospital mortality was 2.5% (n = 16). Freedom from all-cause death was 93.4% at 1 year, 90.2% at 2 years, and 75.8% at 5 years, respectively. A total of 182 patients had a logistic EuroSCORE greater than 10. For the group of patients with a EuroSCORE between 10% and 20% (n = 130) the mean EuroSCORE was 13.9 +/- 2.8% and the STS score was 6.5 +/- 3.8%. Observed mortality was 4.6% in this group. For the 52 patients with a logistic EuroSCORE of at least 20 (mean 28.5 +/- 10.3%, STS score 10.1 +/- 7.3%) the observed mortality was 3.9% (n = 2). By stepwise logistic regression, none of the EuroSCORE variables could be identified as an independent predictor in the "high- risk" group.
The logistic EuroSCORE was primarily created to allow patient grouping for the total spectrum of cardiac surgery. In patients undergoing isolated AVR, the EuroSCORE highly overestimates mortality, whereas the STS score seems to be actually more suitable in assessing perioperative mortality for these patients.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 09/2009; 88(2):468-74; discussion 474-5. · 3.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation has emerged as an alternative to conventional aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients with degenerative aortic valve stenosis. The aim of this study was to assess a potential learning curve with the former technique based on the own experience with this novel procedure.
40 consecutive high-risk patients (82 +/- 5 years, logistic EuroSCORE 42% +/- 16%) with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis underwent transapical aortic valve implantation (balloon expandable Sapien bioprosthesis, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) in the hybrid operating room between October 2007 and May 2009 at the West German Heart Center Essen. To assess a potential learning curve, patients were allocated and compared according to the implantation date (initial n = 20: 10/2007 to 10/2008; second n = 20: 11/2008 to 05/2009).
All but one transapical aortic valve implantations were successful (procedural success rate 97.5%) and no prosthesis migration/embolization or coronary artery obstruction was observed. Comparing the groups, procedural time, fluoroscopy time, and contrast media volume decreased significantly (139 +/- 30 min vs. 112 +/- 41 min; 6.8 +/- 1.9 min vs. 5.5 +/- 1.5 min; 226 +/- 75 ml vs. 169 +/- 23 ml; p <or= 0,05). Predicted 30-day mortality for patients operated upon within the 1st period was 51% +/- 14% (logistic EuroSCORE) and 20% +/- 11% (STS Score [Society of Thoracic Surgeons]) compared to 32% +/- 12% and 13% +/- 7% in the 2nd period, while observed 30-day mortality decreased from 25% to 10%.
This study reflects the authors' experience with transapical aortic valve implantation in patients presenting with a high surgical risk for conventional aortic valve replacement. Within this patient cohort improved clinical outcome, and lower morbidity and mortality demonstrate a learning curve. Improved results were achieved by (1) patient selection with regard to specific procedure-related risk factors, (2) careful preoperative patient preparation, (3) an optimum interventional and surgical approach, and (4) continuous application of this new procedure.
Herz 09/2009; 34(5):388-97. · 0.92 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Do prior percutaneous coronary interventions adversely affect the outcome of subsequent coronary artery bypass grafting? We investigated this effect on a multicenter basis.
Eight cardiac surgical centers provided outcome data of 37,140 consecutive patients who underwent isolated first-time coronary bypass grafting between January 2000 and December 2005. Twenty-two patient characteristics and outcome variables were retrieved. Three groups of patients were analysed for in-hospital mortality and in-hospital major adverse cardiac events: patients without a previous percutaneous coronary intervention, with 1 previous intervention, and with 2 or more previous percutaneous coronary interventions before bypass grafting. A total of 29,928 patients with complete information for prior percutaneous coronary intervention underwent final analysis. Unadjusted univariate and risk-adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis as well as computed propensity score matching were performed, based on 14 major risk factors to correct for and minimize selection bias.
A total of 10.3% of patients had 1 previous percutaneous coronary intervention, and 3.7% of patients had 2 or more previous interventions. Risk-adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association of 2 or more previous percutaneous coronary interventions with in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.0; P = .0005) and major adverse cardiac events (OR, 1.5; CI, 1.2-1.9; P = .0013). After propensity score matching, conditional logistic regression analysis confirmed the results of adjusted analysis. A history of 2 or more previous percutaneous coronary interventions was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.9; CI, 1.3-2.7; P = .0016) and major adverse cardiac events (OR, 1.5; CI, 1.2-1.9; P = .0019).
Multicenter analysis confirms that a history of multiple previous percutaneous coronary interventions increases in-hospital mortality and the incidence of major adverse cardiac events after subsequent coronary artery bypass grafting. Critical discussion of the treatment strategy in these patients is warranted.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 05/2009; 137(4):840-5. · 3.41 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Thrombophilia may cause severe complications in cardiac surgical patients. We analyzed our experience with symptomatic factor V Leiden patients.
Over an eight-year period, 14 symptomatic patients previously diagnosed with activated protein C resistance,caused by factor V Leiden, underwent a cardiac surgical procedure. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data, operative and postoperative courses, and the intermediate-term results of these patients.
Procedures performed were coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, 10 patients), aortic valve replacement+ CABG, pulmonary thromboendarterectomy, left ventricular thrombus removal, and aortic valve reconstruction(one patient each). Eleven patients survived; three patients died perioperatively, one from sepsis (25 days after surgery), one from recurrent stroke (28 days after surgery), and one from multiorgan failure following perioperative stroke (31 days after surgery). In one patient, all bypass grafts occluded intraoperatively.Three patients underwent cardiac surgery under continuous anticoagulation with phenprocoumon. In these three patients, no perioperative thromboembolic events occurred. At a mean follow-up of 32 months,three patients had suffered from cerebral stroke, two from graft occlusion, of which one was recurrent. Two more patients had died (one after cerebral stroke and one from cerebral metastases of a renal cell carcinoma).
In 14 patients with symptomatic factor V Leiden who underwent cardiac surgery, we observed a considerable number of fatal and nonfatal thromboembolic events in the perioperative period and during a 32 months' follow-up. As conducted in three patients, continued anticoagulation with coumarin was safe and prevented perioperative thromboembolic events.
Journal of Cardiac Surgery 12/2008; 24(4):379-82. · 0.87 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Decline in renal and cognitive function may complicate early recovery after coronary-artery bypass grafting. AT(1)-receptor antagonists have been demonstrated to be neuro- and renoprotective. Aim of ARTA, a prospective, double-blind, randomised and placebo controlled study, was to detect whether preoperative treatment with candesartan influences postoperative cognitive and renal function.
One hundred and five patients eligible for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (65-85 years old, all suffering from hypertension and coronary artery disease, with stable kidney function) were randomized to candesartan (8 mg od) or placebo for between 8 and 11 days prior to surgery. Existing ACE-inhibitor/angiotensin receptor antagonist-therapy had to be stopped prior to the study. Validated cognitive function tests (trail making, Horn's perfomance III und VI, divided attention and change of reaction, memory - immediate and delayed recall, digit span) were performed preoperatively, 1 week and 3 months after surgery. Renal function was assessed by creatinine clearance on the day before, 1 week and 3 months after surgery.
Eighty-seven patients (n = 43 Candesartan, n = 44 placebo) were included in the ITT-population for analysis. Drug treatment had no adverse effect on perioperative blood pressure. Only five patients experienced a period of hypotension during introduction of anaesthesia (Candesartan 1/44, placebo 4/44). One week as well as three months after surgery, there were no differences in relevant cognitive function parameters compared to the status prior to surgery, independent from treatment. Creatinine clearance showed a clear decrease one week after surgery with a minor further reduction observed 3 months after surgery, but there was no difference between Candesartan and placebo treated patients. Between both groups, there were no significant differences in the number of adverse events and number of patients with adverse events nor in the incidence of renal failure with consecutive dialysis and cerebral strokes (candesartan 2, placebo 5) and possibly drug related severe adverse events.
This randomised placebo-controlled and prospective study in elderly patients does not support previous reports suggesting a substantial impairment of cognitive function after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Preservation of cognitive and renal function was independent of pre-surgical administration of candesartan.
Clinical Research in Cardiology 11/2008; 98(1):33-43. · 2.95 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To possibly prevent late complications after classic type A aortic dissection repair, the radical concept of ascending/arch replacement with simultaneous antegrade descending stent grafting using a hybrid prosthesis was applied and compared with conventional repair leaving the distal false lumen untreated.
Between January 2001 and October 2007, of 71 consecutive patients with acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD), 45 had DeBakey type I dissection and underwent emergency surgery within 24 hours after onset of symptoms. These patients were separated into group 1 (n = 23) undergoing conventional surgery, and group 2 (n = 22) undergoing combined repair with antegrade stent grafting.
Patients were comparable for baseline characteristics, but more group 2 patients had severely compromised hemodynamics (p = 0.05) and cerebral malperfusion at arrival (p < 0.01). Intraoperative and postoperative characteristics were similar, with an overall hospital mortality of 16% (5 [22%] versus 2 [9%], group 1 versus group 2; p = 0.22). At a mean follow-up time of 48 months for group 1 versus 23 months for group 2 (p < 0.01), late mortality did not differ between groups (p = 0.38) and was mainly related to additional surgical procedures and persisting neurologic sequelae and not to the aortic pathology. Persisting distal false lumen patency was observed in 89% of group 1 versus 10% of group 2 patients (p < 0.01).
This hybrid approach to patients with type I acute aortic dissection is technically feasible without increasing the operative risk and offers the chance of persistent occlusion of the persistent graft distal false lumen.
The Annals of thoracic surgery 08/2008; 86(1):95-101. · 3.74 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that 2 weeks of hypoxia protect the right ventricle of the rat heart from subsequent ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). In the present study, we examined the following: (1) Do shorter periods of hypoxia protect from subsequent I/R? (2) Does intermittent normoxia increase the cardioprotective effect? (3) Is hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), erythropoietin (EPO), or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) involved in the protective effects? Preischemic cardiac work was followed by global ischemia, reperfusion, and postischemic cardiac work (15 min each). External heart work was determined at the end of both work phases. Four groups of hearts were investigated: hearts from normoxic rats (n=8), hearts from rats after 24 h of continuous hypoxia (10.5% inspired oxygen, n=7), hearts from rats after 24 h hypoxia with a single intermission of 30 min normoxia (n=9), and hearts from rats after 24 h hypoxia and multiple intermissions of 30 min normoxia (n=7). Protein levels of HIF-1alpha and mRNA levels of EPO and VEGF were determined in right ventricular tissue of normoxic and hypoxic hearts. Postischemic right heart recovery was better in all three hypoxic groups compared with normoxic hearts (61.8 +/- 5.9%, 65.6 +/- 3.0%, and 75.7 +/- 2.6% vs. 46.0 +/- 3.9%, p < 0.01). Hypoxia with multiple normoxic intermissions further improved right heart recovery compared to continuous hypoxia (p < 0.05). HIF-1alpha protein levels were 80.3 +/- 2.5 pg/microg in normoxic hearts and 108.0 +/- 10.3 pg/microg in hypoxic hearts (p = 0.02). No differences in EPO and VEGF mRNA levels were found between normoxic and hypoxic hearts. Twenty-four hours of continuous hypoxia protect the isolated working right heart from subsequent ischemia and reperfusion. When preceding hypoxia is interrupted by multiple reoxygenation periods, there is a further significant increase in cardiac functional recovery. HIF-1alpha may be involved in the protective effect.
Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 07/2008; 378(1):27-32. · 2.65 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to relate the extent of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in cardiac MRI to intraoperative graft flow in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Thirty-three CAD patients underwent LGE MRI before surgery using an inversion-recovery GRE sequence (turboFLASH). Intraoperative graft flow in Doppler ultrasonography was compared with the scar extent in each coronary vessel territory. One hundred and fourteen grafts were established supplying 86 of the 99 vessel territories. A significant negative correlation was found between scar extent and graft flow (r = -0.4, p < 0.0001). Flow in grafts to territories with no or small subendocardial scar was significantly higher than in grafts to territories with broad nontransmural or transmural scar (75 +/- 39 vs. 38 +/- 26 cc min(-1); p < 0.0001). In summary, the extent of myocardial scar as defined by contrast-enhanced MRI predicts coronary bypass graft flow. Beyond the probability of functional recovery, preoperative MRI might add value to surgery planning by predicting midterm bypass graft patency.
European Radiology 06/2008; 18(12):2756-64. · 3.22 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious and frequent complication after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was identified as a major AKI risk factor after CABG. Our aim was to assess the impact of the off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) compared to the on-pump coronary artery bypass (ONCAB) technique on the rate and severity of AKI, while taking other risk factors for AKI into account.
An observational study of 201 consecutive adult patients was conducted; 100 were operated by the OPCAB and 101 by the ONCAB technique. All patients in each group were operated by a single, experienced surgeon. Fifteen pre-, intra- and postoperative variables that were repeatedly identified in previous studies as independent AKI risk factors were included in this analysis. AKI was defined as an increase of serum creatinine >/=50% or >/=0.3 mg/dL within 48 h and AKI severity was classified, according to current AKIN definitions.
Significantly fewer OPCAB patients developed AKI compared to ONCAB (14.0 versus 27.7%; P = 0.03). OPCAB was associated with milder stages of AKI, whereas ONCAB patients had more severe AKI. Congestive heart failure and chronic kidney disease were independent risk factors for AKI. The OPCAB technique for CABG was identified as the only independent factor associated with lower incidence of AKI.
Using current AKI definitions and classifications, the OPCAB technique for CABG, which avoids CPB; was associated with a significantly lower rate and less severe AKI compared to ONCAB. The OPCAB technique was identified as the only modifiable and potentially protective factor against postoperative AKI.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 04/2008; 23(9):2853-60. · 3.40 Impact Factor