Harry P W Kozakewich

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (162)643 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Many benign and malignant soft tissue tumors in children are challenging and their diagnosis requires knowledge of their vast diversity, histopathological complexity, and immunohistochemical, cytogenetic, and molecular characteristics. The importance of clinical and imaging features cannot be overstated. Soft tissue sarcomas account for 15% of all pediatric malignancies after leukemia/lymphoma, central nervous system tumors, neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor. This article discusses selected challenging pediatric soft tissue tumors with an update on recently described entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    09/2015; 8(3):399-418. DOI:10.1016/j.path.2015.05.009
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    ABSTRACT: Verrucous venous malformation (VVM), also called "verrucous hemangioma," is a non-hereditary, congenital, vascular anomaly comprised of aberrant clusters of malformed dermal venule-like channels underlying hyperkeratotic skin. We tested the hypothesis that VVM lesions arise as a consequence of a somatic mutation. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on VVM tissue from six unrelated individuals and looked for somatic mutations affecting the same gene in specimens from multiple persons. We observed mosaicism for a missense mutation (NM_002401.3, c.1323C>G; NP_002392, p.Iso441Met) in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP3K3) in three of six individuals. We confirmed the presence of this mutation via droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in the three subjects and found the mutation in three additional specimens from another four participants. Mutant allele frequencies ranged from 6% to 19% in affected tissue. We did not observe this mutant allele in unaffected tissue or in affected tissue from individuals with other types of vascular anomalies. Studies using global and conditional Map3k3 knockout mice have previously implicated MAP3K3 in vascular development. MAP3K3 dysfunction probably causes VVM in humans. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 02/2015; 135(5S Suppl). DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.01.007 · 10.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that somatic phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphospate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) mutations would be found in patients with more common disorders including isolated lymphatic malformation (LM) and Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS). We used next generation sequencing, droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, and single molecule molecular inversion probes to search for somatic PIK3CA mutations in affected tissue from patients seen at Boston Children's Hospital who had an isolated LM (n = 17), KTS (n = 21), fibro-adipose vascular anomaly (n = 8), or congenital lipomatous overgrowth with vascular, epidermal, and skeletal anomalies syndrome (n = 33), the disorder for which we first identified somatic PIK3CA mutations. We also screened 5 of the more common PIK3CA mutations in a second cohort of patients with LM (n = 31) from Seattle Children's Hospital. Most individuals from Boston Children's Hospital who had isolated LM (16/17) or LM as part of a syndrome, such as KTS (19/21), fibro-adipose vascular anomaly (5/8), and congenital lipomatous overgrowth with vascular, epidermal, and skeletal anomalies syndrome (31/33) were somatic mosaic for PIK3CA mutations, with 5 specific PIK3CA mutations accounting for ∼80% of cases. Seventy-four percent of patients with LM from Seattle Children's Hospital also were somatic mosaic for 1 of 5 specific PIK3CA mutations. Many affected tissue specimens from both cohorts contained fewer than 10% mutant cells. Somatic PIK3CA mutations are the most common cause of isolated LMs and disorders in which LM is a component feature. Five PIK3CA mutations account for most cases. The search for causal mutations requires sampling of affected tissues and techniques that are capable of detecting low-level somatic mosaicism because the abundance of mutant cells in a malformed tissue can be low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Pediatrics 02/2015; 166(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.12.069 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare congenital disorder that manifests early in infancy as intractable watery diarrhea. The entity is characterized morphologically by a deficient brush border and apical cytoplasmic inclusions within absorptive cells (enterocytes) due to misplaced assembly of brush border proteins. The diagnosis is based upon histopathology, special stains, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and ultimately upon electron microscopy. Currently, the periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS) and CD10 IHC are commonly used as adjuncts, but in addition to brush border structures, they stain a variety of apical cytoplasmic inclusions and organelles, thereby interfering with recognition of microvillus inclusions. Villin is a protein that specifically binds to the actin core bundle of microvilli. We utilized villin IHC in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastrointestinal biopsies from 6 patients with MVID, 5 with celiac disease, and 17 children with normal intestinal biopsies and compared the results with those obtained with CD10 IHC and PAS staining. All MVID cases had confirmatory electron microscopy at the time of diagnosis. Villin immunoreactivity was restricted to the brush border in the control groups. In MVID, villin IHC showed attenuation or loss of the surface brush border and also highlighted the cytoplasmic microvillus inclusions with clarity. In MVID, CD10 IHC and the PAS stain also showed attenuation or loss of the surface brush border, but staining of a variety of cytoplasmic structures largely obscured the microvillus inclusions. In sum, villin IHC is a reliable and superior adjunct in the diagnosis of MVID. Study of additional cases will determine whether villin IHC would obviate the need for electron microscopic confirmation.
    American Journal of Surgical Pathology 12/2014; 39(2). DOI:10.1097/PAS.0000000000000355 · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multifocal and diffuse hepatic hemangiomas are true infantile hemangiomas, which likely exist in a continuum. We reviewed our hepatic hemangioma registry to identify prognostic indicators for mortality. Registry records entered between 1995 and 2012 were reviewed. Clinical characteristics were evaluated for prognostic significance using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Survival data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method. We identified 123 patients with multifocal (n=91) and diffuse (n=32) hepatic hemangiomas. Mortality was 16% (n=20); 40% (n=8) had multifocal and 60% (n=12) had diffuse lesions. A diagnosis of diffuse disease (hazard ratio: 9.9, 95% CI: 2.0-50.8, P=.002) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (hazard ratio: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.3-14.2, P=.031) were significant risk factors for mortality across the continuum; age at presentation, cardiomegaly, presence of shunts, and hypothyroidism were not statistically significant independent risk factors. Among patients with diffuse lesions, eight (67%) who died had abdominal compartment syndrome, which was also associated with mortality (P=.002). Hepatic hemangioma patients with CHF or diffuse disease are at higher risk for mortality. Patients with multifocal lesions without CHF may go undetected until lesions become diffuse. Aggressive treatment of symptomatic patients and close follow-up of asymptomatic patients may improve mortality. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Pediatric Surgery 12/2014; 50(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.09.056 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Uncommon congenital hemangiomas differ from common infantile hemangiomas in their appearance, postnatal behavior, histopathology, and immunohistologic staining. Two types are well described in the literature: noninvoluting congenital hemangioma (NICH) and rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma (RICH). We report a series of infants with another presentation of congenital hemangioma that arises prenatally and is nearly regressed at birth. This was a retrospective case series. We describe six infants with unusual congenital vascular tumors. Each lesion presented at birth as a violaceous, atrophic plaque with a surrounding pale halo. The lesions involuted in infancy, fading in color and becoming atrophic, with prominent central veins, similar to RICH in the final stage of regression. The distinctive morphology and behavior suggests that these tumors undergo a life cycle of proliferation and involution during fetal life. We describe a new variant of congenital hemangioma that we refer to as rapidly involuting congenital hemangioma with fetal involution.
    Pediatric Dermatology 12/2014; 32(3). DOI:10.1111/pde.12356 · 1.02 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Pediatrics 08/2014; 165(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.06.042 · 3.79 Impact Factor
  • Article: Abstract 63
    Plastic &amp Reconstructive Surgery 04/2014; 133:1024. DOI:10.1097/01.prs.0000445846.72781.db · 2.99 Impact Factor
  • Article: Abstract 75
    Plastic &amp Reconstructive Surgery 03/2014; 133:10-99. DOI:10.1097/01.prs.0000445108.46997.57 · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism for the growth of infantile hemangioma and vascular malformations is unknown. Follicle-stimulating hormone secretion mirrors the life cycle of infantile hemangioma and increases during adolescence, when vascular malformations often progress. The purpose of this study was to determine whether vascular anomalies express the receptor for follicle-stimulating hormone. Human vascular tumors (i.e., infantile hemangioma, congenital hemangioma, kaposiform hemangioendothelioma, and pyogenic granuloma) and vascular malformations (i.e., capillary, lymphatic, venous, and arteriovenous) were subjected to immunofluorescence for follicle-stimulating hormone receptor. Control specimens included normal skin/subcutis, mucosa, liver, spleen, Crohn disease, granulation, pancreatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and synovitis. Receptor and microvessel density were quantified using imaging software. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor was found in the endothelium of all vascular anomalies but was not present in control specimens. Expression was greater in proliferating infantile hemangioma (6.0 percent) compared with other vascular tumors (congenital hemangioma, 0.61 percent; kaposiform hemangioendothelioma, 0.55 percent; pyogenic granuloma, 0.56 percent; p < 0.0001), despite similar microvessel density (p = 0.1). Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor was elevated in arteriovenous malformations (2.65 percent) compared with other types of vascular malformations (capillary, 1.02 percent; lymphatic, 0.38 percent; venous, 0.76 percent; p < 0.0001). Vascular anomalies express follicle-stimulating hormone receptor on their endothelium, in contrast to vascular control tissues. Vascular anomalies are the only benign, pathologic tissue known to express this receptor. Because the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone correlates with the growth pattern of infantile hemangioma and vascular malformations, follicle-stimulating hormone might be involved in the pathogenesis of these lesions.
    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 03/2014; 133(3):344e-51e. DOI:10.1097/01.prs.0000438458.60474.fc · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glomuvenous malformation (GVM) is an inherited autosomal dominant trait. The lesions, which appear as bluish nodules or plaque-like cutaneous elevations, are usually tender and more firm than sporadic venous malformations. Conventionally, the lesions are thought to be limited to the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue planes. The objective was to characterize the depth of involvement of GVM lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in GVM were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The signal characteristics, tissue distribution, pattern of contrast enhancement of the lesions in GVM were documented. Thirty patients (19 female) aged 1-35 years (mean 18 years) were diagnosed with GVM based on clinical features (n = 20) and/or histopathological findings (n = 10). The lesions were present in the lower extremity (n = 15), upper extremity (n = 6), cervico-facial region (n = 6), pelvis (n = 2), and chest wall (n = 1). All patients had skin and subcutaneous lesions. Fifty percent of the patients (n = 15) demonstrated subfascial intramuscular (n = 15), intra-osseous (n = 1), and intra-articular involvement (n = 1). Contrary to the conventional belief that GVMs are generally limited to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, deep subfascial extension of the lesions is common.
    Skeletal Radiology 02/2014; 43(7). DOI:10.1007/s00256-014-1836-3 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In mice, activated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling induces tumors with myogenic differentiation. In humans, hyperactive Hh signaling due to germline PATCHED1 (PTCH1) mutations has been linked to nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). We report an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a 16-month-old girl with NBCCS and review the literature on myogenic neoplasms in NBCCS, including 8 fetal rhabdomyomas and 3 rhabdomyosarcomas. Of note, 3 population studies, including 255 individuals with NBCCS aged 4 months to 87 years, did not identify any myogenic tumors. Thus, myogenic tumors in NBCCS are rare and include both rhabdomyosarcomas and fetal rhabdomyomas.
    Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 02/2014; 37(2). DOI:10.1097/MPH.0000000000000115 · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infantile hemangiomas demonstrate a pattern of proliferative growth in infancy followed by a slow phase of involution. In contrast a rare type of vascular tumor, intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma, usually presents beyond the period of infancy with nonspecific symptoms and no evidence of involution. The purpose of this study was to characterize the clinical, imaging, histopathological characteristics and management of intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. We performed a retrospective review of a 20-year period to identify children diagnosed with intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma. Patient demographics, imaging and histopathological findings were recorded. We included 18 children (10 boys, 8 girls) with histologically proven intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma - and adequate imaging. The mean age at presentation was 8.1 years (range 1 day to 19 years). Twelve lesions involved muscles of the extremities, 4 were located in the trunk and 2 were in the head and neck. MRI had been performed in all children and demonstrated a soft-tissue mass with flow voids, consistent with fast flow. The lesion was well-circumscribed in 16 children and intralesional fat was seen in 14. Doppler US demonstrated a heterogeneous lesion, predominantly isoechoic to surrounding muscle, with enlarged arterial feeders. Enlarged feeding arteries, inhomogeneous blush and lack of arteriovenous shunting were noted on angiography (n = 5). The most common histopathological findings were lobules of capillaries with plump endothelium and at least some adipose tissue. The lesions were excised in six children. Two children were lost to follow-up. In the remaining 10, follow-up MRI studies ranging from 3 months to 10 years showed that the lesion enlarged in proportion to the child (n = 7), demonstrated slow growth (n = 2) or remained stable (n = 1). There was no change in imaging characteristics on follow-up. Intramuscular capillary-type hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumor of skeletal muscle. The most typical imaging features show a heterogeneous intramuscular mass with fast flow, and intralesional fat. Although the lesion is relatively stable in appearance over time, imaging does not obviate the need for a biopsy to rule out sarcoma. The diagnosis can usually be established by typical findings on histopathology.
    Pediatric Radiology 02/2014; 44(5). DOI:10.1007/s00247-014-2876-5 · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnosis and management of vascular anomalies of the extremities can be challenging as these disorders are uncommon and may clinically overlap. The aim of this paper is to describe the clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features of fibro-adipose vascular anomaly (FAVA), a previously unrecognized disorder of the limb. The clinical, imaging, operative, and histopathologic data from patients with a unique intramuscular lesion of the extremities comprising dense fibrofatty tissue and slow-flow vascular malformations were retrospectively reviewed. Sixteen patients diagnosed with FAVA of the extremity (3 male and 13 female individuals) met the clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic inclusion criteria. The age at presentation ranged from the time of birth to 28 years. The locations of the lesions were: calf (n=10), forearm/wrist (n=3), and thigh (n=3). Fourteen patients presented with severe pain. Seven of the patients with calf lesions had limited ankle dorsiflexion. On imaging, the complex intramuscular lesions replaced muscle fibers with fibrofatty overgrowth and phlebectasia (dilation of the veins). The extrafascial component comprised fatty overgrowth, phlebectasia, and an occasional lymphatic malformation. The histopathologic features comprised dense fibrous tissue, fat, and lymphoplasmacytic aggregates within atrophied skeletal muscle. Adipose tissue also infiltrated skeletal muscle at the periphery of the lesion. There were large, irregular, and sometimes excessively muscularized venous channels and smaller, clustered channels. Other findings include organizing thrombi, a lymphatic component, and dense fibrous tissue-encircled nerves. The constellation of clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features constitutes a distinct entity comprising fibrofatty infiltration of muscle, unusual phlebectasia with pain, and contracture of the affected extremity. The clinical and radiologic findings permit the diagnosis of FAVA with major therapeutic implications. Level III.
    Journal of pediatric orthopedics 01/2014; 34(1):109-17. DOI:10.1097/BPO.0b013e3182a1f0b8 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a retrospective analysis of childhood thyroid nodules, 18% were radiographic incidentalomas and 41% were discovered by a clinician's palpation; 40% were discovered by patients' families. The latter group had the largest nodules and highest rates of thyroid cancer metastasis, suggesting opportunities for earlier detection through annual well-child visits.
    The Journal of pediatrics 12/2013; 164(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.10.090 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical and imaging characteristics of a new lymphatic disorder with a unique histological pattern and poor prognosis. An observational, retrospective study identified and characterized 20 patients with distinct lymphatic histopathology referred to the Vascular Anomalies Center at Boston Children's Hospital between 1995 and 2011. The median age at onset was 6.5 years (range, birth to 44 years). Clinical and radiologic findings suggested a generalized process. The most common presentations were respiratory symptoms (50%), hemostatic abnormalities (50%), and an enlarging, palpable mass (35%). All patients had mediastinal involvement; 19 patients developed pericardial (70%) and/or pleural effusions (85%). Extrathoracic disease manifested in bone and spleen and less frequently in abdominal viscera, peritoneum, integument, and extremities. Despite aggressive procedural and medical therapies, the 5-year survival was 51% and the overall survival was 34%. Mean interval between diagnosis and death was 2.75 years (range, 1-6.5 years). We describe a clinicopathologically distinct lymphatic anomaly. We propose the term kaposiform lymphangiomatosis (KLA) because of characteristic clusters or sheets of spindled lymphatic endothelial cells accompanying malformed lymphatic channels. The intrathoracic component is most commonly implicated in morbidity and mortality; however, extrathoracic disease is frequent, indicating that KLA is not restricted to pulmonary lymphatics. The mortality rate of KLA is high despite aggressive multimodal therapy.
    The Journal of pediatrics 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.10.013 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic hemangiomas are often found in association with multiple cutaneous infantile hemangiomas. Screening abdominal ultrasonography has been recommended for patients with five or more cutaneous lesions. We sought to determine whether hemangiomas found through screening had improved clinical outcomes. Patients entered into our hepatic hemangioma registry between 1995 and 2012 were reviewed. Seventy-two patients with multiple cutaneous and hepatic hemangiomas were identified; 43 (60%) were detected through screening. The median age at diagnosis was 41 days for screened patients and 53 days for those not screened. Screening detected 40 (93%) multifocal and 3 (7%) diffuse hemangiomas, compared to 18 (62%) and 11 (38%), respectively, in the nonscreened group. Patients identified by screening had lower incidences of congestive heart failure and hypothyroidism and were less likely to receive treatment for their hemangiomas. The mortality rate in the children not screened was 28% (n = 8). None of the patients found by screening died (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis of treated patients demonstrated that screening was a significant predictor of reduced mortality (p = 0.04). Hepatic hemangiomas found through screening ultrasonography are less likely to develop serious clinical sequelae. Although the reasons for this may include detection of hemangiomas that are less likely to progress to symptomatic disease, it appears that it also allows for earlier intervention for more concerning (e.g. diffuse) subtypes. Screening may allow for closer surveillance and earlier treatment before life-threatening progression in a subset of infants with liver hemangiomas, preventing complications and reducing mortality. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    2013 American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference and Exhibition; 10/2013
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    ABSTRACT: CONTEXT:Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy but, due to its rare occurrence in the pediatric population, the cancer risk of childhood thyroid nodules is incompletely defined and optimal management of children with suspected nodules is debated.OBJECTIVE:To study the presenting features and cancer risk of sporadic childhood thyroid nodules, using a standardized clinical assessment and management plan.DESIGN AND SETTING:Boston Children's Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital collaborated to create a multidisciplinary pediatric thyroid nodule clinic and implement a standardized assessment plan. Upon referral for a suspected nodule, serum TSH was measured and hypothyrotropinemic patients underwent (123)I scintigraphy. All others underwent thyroid ultrasonography and, if this confirmed nodule(s) ≥1 cm, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and compared to a control population of 2582 adults evaluated by identical methods.PATIENTS AND RESULTS:Of 300 consecutive children referred for the initial evaluation of suspected thyroid nodules from 1997 to 2011, 17 were diagnosed with autonomous nodules by scintigraphy. Neck ultrasonography performed in the remainder revealed that biopsy was unnecessary in over half, either by documenting only subcentimeter nodules or showing that no nodule was present. One-hundred and twenty five children met criteria for thyroid biopsy, which was performed without complication. Their rate of cancer was 22%, significantly higher than the adult rate of 14% (p =0.02).CONCLUSIONS:Neck ultrasonography and biopsy were key to the evaluation of children with suspected thyroid nodules. While the relative cancer prevalence of sonographically-confirmed nodules ≥1 cm is higher in pediatric patients than adults, most children referred for suspected nodules have benign conditions and efforts to avoid unnecessary surgery in this majority are warranted.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 06/2013; 98(8). DOI:10.1210/jc.2013-1796 · 6.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare and lethal developmental disorder of the lung defined by a constellation of characteristic histopathological features. Non-pulmonary anomalies involving organs of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and genitourinary systems have been identified in approximately 80% of patients with ACD/MPV. We have collected DNA and pathological samples from more than 90 infants with ACD/MPV and their family members. Since the publication of our initial report of four point mutations and ten deletions, we have identified an additional thirty eight novel nonsynonymous mutations of FOXF1 (nine nonsense, seven frameshift, one inframe deletion, twenty missense, and one no stop). This report represents an up to date list of all known FOXF1 mutations to the best of our knowledge. Majority of the cases are sporadic whereas four familial cases with three showing maternal inheritance, consistent with paternal imprinting of the gene. Twenty five mutations (60%) are located within the putative DNA binding domain, indicating its plausible role in gene regulation. Five mutations map to the second exon. We identified two additional genic and eight genomic deletions upstream to FOXF1. These results corroborate and extend our previous observations and further establish involvement of FOXF1 in ACD/MPV and lung organogenesis.
    Human Mutation 03/2013; 34(6). DOI:10.1002/humu.22313 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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    Skeletal Radiology 02/2013; 42(9). DOI:10.1007/s00256-013-1592-9 · 1.51 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
643.00 Total Impact Points


  • 1993–2015
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1986–2015
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • • Vascular Anomalies Center
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Department of Neurosurgery
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 1988–2013
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Radiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Division of Plastic Surgery
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2007
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Department of Cell & Developmental Biology
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 2001
    • Universitair Ziekenhuis Leuven
      Louvain, Flemish, Belgium
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1993–1998
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      • Department of Pediatric Oncology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1981–1996
    • University of Massachusetts Boston
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Antwerp
      • Department of Pathology
      Antwerpen, Flanders, Belgium