[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triazolopyrimidine Organotin(IV) Apoptosis In vitro anticancer activity Crystal structure a b s t r a c t The organotin(IV) compounds Me 2 SnCl 2 (dbtp)(1), Me 2 SnCl 2 (dbtp) 2 (2), Et 2 SnCl 2 (dbtp) (3), Et 2 SnCl 2 (dbtp) 2 (4), Et 2 SnCl 2 (dptp) (5), n Bu 2 SnCl 2 (dbtp) 2 (6), n Bu 2 SnCl 2 (dptp) (7), Ph 2 SnCl 2 (dbtp) (8), Ph 2 SnCl 2 (EtOH) 2 (dptp) 2 (9), where dbtp = 5,7-di-tert-butyl-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine and dptp = 5,7-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazolo [1,5-a]pyrimidine, have been tested by MTT for their cytotoxic activity on three tumor cell lines, HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), HeLa (human cervix adenocarcinoma) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer). Except for 1 and 2, which were ineffective, all compounds significantly showed a dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect against the three cell lines. By calculated IC 50 values, the cytotoxicity of the complexes followed the order n Bu > Ph > Et > Me for all the selected tumor cells. The cell death of HepG2, induced by organotin(IV) compounds 6–9, was considered to be apoptotic by measuring the expo-sure of phosphatidylserine to the outer membrane and observing the typical apoptotic morphological change by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. Flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide-stained cells also demonstrated that organotin(IV) complexes caused apoptosis of HepG2 cells through cell arrest at G0–G1 phase. The crystal structure of 7, investigated by X-ray diffraction study, exhibited a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry with N, Cl as axial atoms and Cl and butyl groups in the equatorial plane. The triazolopyrimidine unit coordinates to the Sn atom through N(3) in a monodentate mode. Two conformational isomers (molecule A and B in the crystallographic independent unit) are co-crystallized in the solid state, a phenomenon that has been observed only occasionally. Conformational mobility of the cytotoxic complex 7 can sum up to the ligands ability to form H-bonds and pÁ Á Áp stacking, facilitating its intracellular uptake. Ó 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary approaches to control inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) may include proanthocyanidin-rich foods. Our previous research showed that a hydrophilic extract from Sicilian pistachio nut (HPE) contains substantial amounts of proanthocyanidins and possesses anti-inflammatory activities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graphical abstract
The crystal and molecular structure of the compound cis-[PtCl2(DMSO)HL]·2DMSO is reported. The complex was characterized in the solid state and in solution. The antiproliferative activity of complex has been tested in vitro against HepG2 human hepatoma cells and non-malignant human-derived hepatic cells (Chang).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phytochemicals may exert chemo-preventive effects on cells of the gastro-intestinal tract by modulating epigenome-regulated gene expression. The effect of the aqueous extract from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus indica (OFI extract), and of its betalain pigment indicaxanthin (Ind), on proliferation of human colon cancer Caco-2 cells has been investigated. Whole extract and Ind caused a dose-dependent apoptosis of proliferating cells at nutritionally relevant amounts, with IC50 400±25 mg fresh pulp equivalents/mL, and 115±15 μM (n=9), respectively, without toxicity for post-confluent differentiated cells. Ind accounted for ∼80% of the effect of the whole extract. Ind did not cause oxidative stress in proliferating Caco-2 cells. Epigenomic activity of Ind was evident as de-methylation of the tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) gene promoter, reactivation of the silenced mRNA expression and accumulation of p16(INK4a), a major controller of cell cycle. As a consequence, decrease of hyper-phosphorylated, in favor of the hypo-phosphorylated retinoblastoma was observed, with unaltered level of the cycline-dependent kinase CDK4. Cell cycle showed arrest in the G2/M- phase. Dietary cactus pear fruit and Ind may have chemo-preventive potential in intestinal cells.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages come across active prostaglandin (PG) metabolism during inflammation, shunting early production of pro-inflammatory towards anti-inflammatory mediators terminating the process. This work for the first time provides evidence that a phytochemical may modulate the arachidonate (AA) metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, promoting the ultimate formation of anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone 15deoxy-PGJ2. Added 1 h before LPS, indicaxanthin from Opuntia Ficus Indica prevented activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and over-expression of PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), but up-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGD2 synthase (H-PGDS), with final production of the anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone. The effects were positively related with concentration between 50 and 100 µM. Indicaxanthin did not have any effect in the absence of LPS. A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50-100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5-3 h) modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3-12 h) concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5-3 h) concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nutritional research has shifted recently from alleviating nutrient deficiencies to chronic disease prevention. We investigated the activity of indicaxanthin, a bioavailable phytochemical of the betalain class from the edible fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Miller) in a rat model of acute inflammation. Rat pleurisy was achieved by injection of 0.2 mL of λ-carrageenin in the pleural cavity, and rats were killed 4, 24, and 48 h later; exudates were collected to analyze inflammatory parameters, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); cells recruited in pleura were analyzed for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation. Indicaxanthin (0.5, 1, or 2 μmol/kg), given orally before carrageenin, time- and dose-dependently, reduced the exudate volume (up to 70%) and the number of leukocytes recruited in the pleural cavity (up to 95%) at 24 h. Pretreatment with indicaxanthin at 2 μmol/kg inhibited the carrageenin-induced release of PGE2 (91.4%), NO (67.7%), IL-1β (53.6%), and TNF-α (71.1%), and caused a decrease of IL-1β (34.5%), TNF-α (81.6%), iNOS (75.2%), and COX2 (87.7%) mRNA, as well as iNOS (71.9%) and COX-2 (65.9%) protein expression, in the recruited leukocytes. Indicaxanthin inhibited time- and dose- dependently the activation of NF-κB, a key transcription factor in the whole inflammatory cascade. A pharmacokinetic study with a single 2 μmol/kg oral administration showed a maximum 0.22 ± 0.02 μmol/L (n = 15) plasma concentration of indicaxanthin, with a half-life of 1.15 ± 0.11 h. When considering the high bioavailability of indicaxanthin in humans, our findings suggest that this dietary pigment has the potential to improve health and prevent inflammation-based disorders.
Journal of Nutrition 12/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary redox-active/antioxidant phytochemicals may help control or mitigate the inflammatory response in chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activity of indicaxanthin (Ind), a pigment from the edible fruit of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica, L.), was shown in an IBD model consisting of a human intestinal epithelial cell line (Caco-2 cells) stimulated by IL-1β, a cytokine known to play a major role in the initiation and amplification of inflammatory activity in IBD. The exposure of Caco-2 cells to IL-1β brought about the activation of NADPH oxidase (NOX-1) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to activate intracellular signalling leading to the activation of NF-κB, with the over-expression of inflammatory enzymes and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind, at a nutritionally relevant concentration (5-25 μm), and IL-1β prevented the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, PGE2 and NO, the formation of ROS and the loss of thiols in a dose-dependent manner. The co-incubation of the cells with Ind and IL-1β also prevented the IL-1β-induced increase of epithelial permeability. It was also shown that the activation of NOX-1 and NF-κB was prevented by Ind and the expression of COX-2 and inducible NO synthase was reduced. The uptake of Ind in Caco-2 cell monolayers appeared to be unaffected by the inflamed state of the cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the dietary pigment Ind may have the potential to modulate inflammatory processes at the intestinal level.
The British journal of nutrition 08/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuovi composti di-e tri-organostagno(IV) stati sintetizzati e e caratterizzati per essere testati per la loro capacità di causare citotossicità contro linee cellulari tumorali. I complessi sono stati ottenuti per reazione degli idrossidi e/o degli ossidi di organostagno(IV) con N a -Boc-Ornitina (Boc-Orn) in metanolo a riflusso. I dati analitici sono in accordo con la formazione di complessi 1:2 diorganostagno-legante e 1:1 triorganostagno-legante. La natura dei prodotti ottenuti è stata indagata analizzando i dati spettroscopici IR, 13 C, 1 H e 119 Sn NMR. 1. Effetto dei complessi di organostagno (IV) con N -Boc-Ornitina sulla crescita di cellule tumorali umane di epatocarcinoma HepG2 2. Effetto di Ph 3 Sn(Boc-Orn) sulla crescita di cellule tumorali umane di carcinoma della mammella MCF-7 L'effetto dei composti nel range di concentrazione 0.5-25 µM , sulla vitalità di cellule HepG2, è stato valutato mediante saggio MTT. Mentre i complessi dimetile Me 2 Sn(Boc-Orn) 2 , trimetile Me 3 Sn(Boc-Orn) e dibutile Bu 2 Sn(Boc-Orn) 2 mostrano un blando effetto anti-proliferativo, il trifenile Ph 3 Sn(Boc-Orn) inibisce fortemente la crescita cellulare con IC 50 di 1.12 0.1mM (n=4). Il Ph 3 Sn(Boc-Orn) fino alla concentrazione 2.5mM, non appare influenzare significativamente la crescita di cellule umane epatiche non-maligne (Chang), indicando preferenziale azione sulle tumorali, almeno a basse concentrazioni.
BIOTECNOLOGIE: RICERCA DI BASE, INTERDISCIPLINARE E TRASLAZIONALE IN AMBITO BIOMEDICO; 06/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 7-Ketocholesterol (7-KC)-induced apoptosis of macrophages is considered a key event in the development of human atheromas. In the present study, the effect of indicaxanthin (Ind), a bioactive pigment from cactus pear fruit, on 7-KC-induced apoptosis of human monocyte/macrophage THP-1 cells was investigated. A pathophysiological condition was simulated by using amounts of 7-KC that can be reached in human atheromatous plaque. Ind was assayed within a micromolar concentration range, consistent with its plasma level after dietary supplementation with cactus pear fruit. Pro-apoptotic effects of 7-KC were assessed by cell cycle arrest, exposure of phosphatidylserine at the plasma membrane, variation of nuclear morphology, decrease of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, activation of Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 cleavage. Kinetic measurements within 24 h showed early formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species over basal levels, preceding NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX-4) over-expression and elevation of cytosolic Ca2+, with progressive depletion of total thiols. 7-KC-dependent activation of the redox-sensitive NF-κB was observed. Co-incubation of 2·5 μm of Ind completely prevented 7-KC-induced pro-apoptotic events. The effects of Ind may be ascribed to inhibition of NOX-4 basal activity and over-expression, inhibition of NF-κB activation, maintaining cell redox balance and Ca homeostasis, with prevention of mitochondrial damage and consequently apoptosis. The findings suggest that Ind, a highly bioavailable dietary phytochemical, may exert protective effects against atherogenetic toxicity of 7-KC at a concentration of nutritional interest.
The British journal of nutrition 12/2012; · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This study investigated the absorption mechanism of the phytochemicals indicaxanthin and betanin and the influence of their food matrix (cactus pear and red beet) on the intestinal transport. METHODS: Trans-epithelial transport of dietary-consistent amounts of indicaxanthin and betanin in Caco-2 cell monolayers seeded on Transwell(R) inserts was measured in apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and basolateral to apical (BL-AP) direction, under an inwardly directed pH gradient (pH 6.0/7.4, AP/BL) mimicking luminal and serosal sides of human intestinal epithelium. The effect of inhibitors of membrane transporters on the absorption was also evaluated. Contribution of the paracellular route was investigated after EDTA treatment of the cell monolayer. In vitro digestion of betalainic food was performed to provide a post-intestinal fraction containing bioaccessible pigments. RESULTS: Apparent permeability coefficients (P (app)) in the absorptive direction were (4.4 ± 0.4) × 10(-6) and (3.2 ± 0.3) × 10(-6) cm s(-1) for indicaxanthin and betanin, respectively. Transport of indicaxanthin was non-polarized, linear as a function of time and concentration, and unaffected by inhibitors of membrane transporters. Betanin exhibited significantly different bidirectional P (app) values and non-linear efflux kinetics. The concentration-dependent betanin efflux was described by a kinetic model including one non-saturable (K ( d ) = 0.042 μL cm(-2) min(-1)) and one saturable component identified as the apical multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2; K ( m ) = 275 μM; J (max) = 42 pmol min(-1) cm(-2)). Permeation of both betalains increased remarkably after EDTA treatment of the cell monolayer. Neither indicaxanthin nor betanin underwent metabolic transformation. Food matrix did not affect trans-epithelial transfer of indicaxanthin, but reduced the absorption rate of betanin, red beet more than cactus pear. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary indicaxanthin and betanin can substantially be absorbed through paracellular junctions of intestinal epithelial cells. Additional trans-membrane permeation can be considered for betanin, whose absorption is limited by a MRP2-mediated efflux and negatively affected by its food matrix. Present findings are consistent with the quite higher bioavailability of indicaxanthin over betanin established in humans.
European Journal of Nutrition 07/2012; · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positive effects of pistachio nut consumption on plasma inflammatory biomarkers have been described; however, little is known about molecular events associated with these effects.
We studied the anti-inflammatory activity of a hydrophilic extract from Sicilian Pistacia L. (HPE) in a macrophage model and investigated bioactive components relevant to the observed effects.
HPE oligomer/polymer proanthocyanidin fractions were isolated by adsorbance chromatography, and components quantified as anthocyanidins after acidic hydrolysis. Isoflavones were measured by gradient elution HPLC analysis. RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were pre-incubated with either HPE (1- to 20-mg fresh nut equivalents) or its isolated components for 1 h, then washed before stimulating with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. Cell viability and parameters associated with Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were assayed according to established methods including ELISA, Western blot, or cytofluorimetric analysis.
HPE suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production and inducible NO-synthase levels dose dependently, whereas inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release and decreased cyclo-oxygenase-2 content, the lower the HPE amount the higher the effect. Cytotoxic effects were not observed. HPE also caused a dose-dependent decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species and interfered with the NF-κB activation. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, but not isoflavones, at a concentration comparable with their content in HPE, inhibited NO, PGE2, and TNF-α formation, as well as activation of IκB-α. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins showed only minor effects.
Our results provide molecular evidence of anti-inflammatory activity of pistachio nut and indicate polymeric proanthocyanidins as the bioactive components. The mechanism may involve the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB. Potential effects associated with pistachio nut consumption are discussed in terms of the proanthocyanidin bioavailability.
European Journal of Nutrition 07/2011; 51(3):353-63. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we have showed that indicaxanthin, the yellow betalain pigment abundant in the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica, has remarkable spasmolytic effects on the intestinal contractility in vitro. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action underlying the observed response. We used organ bath technique to record the mechanical activity of the mouse ileum longitudinal muscle and ELISA to measure the levels of cAMP. Indicaxanthin induced inhibitory effects on spontaneous mechanical activity, which were unaffected by indomethacin, a non-selective inhibitor of cycloxygenase; 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide-dependent guanylyl cyclase; 2'5'dideoxyadenosine, an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor; and zaprinast, a selective inhibitor of the cGMP phosphodiesterase isoenzyme. Indicaxanthin effects were reduced significantly in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a non selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Indicaxanthin and IBMX significantly reduced the carbachol-evoked contractions and the joint application of both drugs did not produce any additive effect. Indicaxanthin and IBMX increased the inhibitory effects of forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, and the joint application of both drugs did not produce any additive effect. Indicaxanthin, contrarily to IBMX, did not affect the inhibitory action of sodium nitroprusside, a soluble guanylyl cyclase activator. Indicaxanthin increased both basal and forskolin-induced cAMP content of mouse ileal muscle. The present data show that indicaxanthin reduces the contractility of ileal longitudinal muscle by inhibition of PDEs and increase of cAMP concentration and raise the possibility of using indicaxanthin in the treatment of motility disorders, such as abdominal cramps.
European journal of pharmacology 02/2011; 658(2-3):200-5. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study demonstrates that a long-lasting co-culture of neutrophil surrogates (HL-60 cells), minimally primed by platelet activating factor (PAF), and resting endothelial cells (EC) results in the elaboration of an hyper-adhesive endothelial surface, as measured by the increase in the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules E-Selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1. This endothelial dysfunction is mediated by the activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB through an exclusive adhesion-driven mechanism active in the endothelial cell: reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, extracellularly released by minimally primed HL-60 cells, are not involved in the induction of the endothelial dysfunction. By exploring for the first time the potential for minimally primed neutrophil surrogates to induce endothelial dysfunction, this study suggests a novel mechanism which may be operative in pathologies, mediated by minimally primed neutrophils, such as hyperdyslipidemia and cardiovascular complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated, using an organ bath technique, the effects of a hydrophilic extract from Opuntia ficus indica fruit pulp (cactus fruit extract, CFE) on the motility of mouse ileum, and researched the extract component(s) responsible for the observed responses. CFE (10-320 mg of fresh fruit pulp equivalents/mL of organ bath) reduced dose-dependently the spontaneous contractions. This effect was unaffected by tetrodotoxin, a neuronal blocker, N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase blocker, tetraethylammonium, a potassium channel blocker, or atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. CFE also reduced the contractions evoked by carbachol, without affecting the contractions evoked by high extracellular potassium. Indicaxanthin, but not ascorbic acid, assayed at concentrations comparable with their content in CFE, mimicked the CFE effects. The data show that CFE is able to exert direct antispasmodic effects on the intestinal motility. The CFE inhibitory effects do not involve potassium channels or voltage-dependent calcium channels but rather pathways of calcium intracellular release. The fruit pigment indicaxanthin appears to be the main component responsible for the CFE-induced effects.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2010; 58(13):7565-71. · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The solubilization site of indicaxanthin (Ind) in lipid bilayers was investigated by the kinetics of Ind oxidation by peroxyl radicals in water and in aqueous/L-alpha-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) vesicles, pH 7.4, and 37.0 and 48.0 degrees C, that is, in a gel-like and a crystal liquidlike bilayer state, respectively. The time-dependent Ind absorbance decay, matched with a successful simulation of the reaction kinetic mechanism by Gepasi software, supported a multistep pathway. Computer-assisted analysis allowed calculation of the rate constants associated with the reactions involved, the values of which decreased with increasing DPPC concentration. The binding constant calculated according to a pseudo two-phase distribution model did not vary with the physicochemical state of the vesicle, indicating location of Ind in a region whose state is not affected by temperature changes, at the interface between hydrophobic core and hydrophilic head groups. Other measurements carried out in the presence of dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine vesicles, indicated that the phytochemical was confined to the aqueous phase.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2009; 57(22):10959-63. · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reaction kinetics of betanin and its aglycone betanidin towards peroxyl radicals generated from the azo-initiated oxidation of methyl linoleate in methanol and of a heterogeneous aqueous/soybean phosphatidylcholine liposomal system were studied by monitoring formation of linoleic acid hydroperoxides and consumption of the pigments. Betanin was a weak retarder in methanol and an effective chain breaking antioxidant in the liposomal model, indicating that kinetic solvent effects and partition in lipid bilayers may affect its activity. Betanidin behaved as a chain terminating antioxidant in both models. Kinetic parameters characterizing peroxyl radical-scavenging activity showed that betanidin was more effective than betanin, in terms of both radical-scavenging rate constant and stoichiometric factor, with effectiveness of the same order as vitamin E under comparable conditions. Products identified by spectrophotometric and HPLC techniques indicated reaction of the glucose-substituted monophenol and ortho-diphenol moieties of betanin and betanidin, respectively, and suggested mechanisms of the antioxidant activity. Either betanin or betanidin incorporated in liposomes with alpha-tocopherol had additive effects, supporting partition of the pigments in the bilayer and lipoperoxyl radical reduction.
Free Radical Research 07/2009; 43(8):706-17. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Betalains are considered to be bioactive dietary phytochemicals. The stability of betacyanins and betaxanthins from either fresh foods or manufactured products of cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia ficus indica L. Mill. cv. Gialla and Rossa) and red beet ( Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) was assessed in a simulated oral, gastric, and small intestinal digestion and compared with the digestive stability of purified pigments. A minor loss of indicaxanthin, at the gastric-like environment only, and a decrease of vulgaxanthin I through all digestion steps were observed, which was not affected by food matrix. In contrast, food matrix prevented decay of betanin and isobetanin at the gastric-like environment. Loss of betacyanins, either purified or food-derived, was observed during the small intestinal phase of digestion. Betalamic acid accumulated after digestive degradation of purified pigments, but not of food betalains. Betaxanthins were wholly soluble in the aqueous (bioaccessible) fraction after ultracentrifugation of the postintestinal (PI) digesta, whereas release of betacyanins from the matrix was incomplete. PI digesta inhibited dose-dependently the oxidation of methyl linoleate in methanol, an effect not correlated with the betalain content. The data suggest that digestive stability controls bioaccessibility of dietary betaxanthins, whereas additional factors, relevant to the food matrix and style of processing, affect betacyanin bioaccessibility.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2008; 56(22):10487-92. · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bioavailability of phenolic compounds from five cultivars of frozen sweet cherries was assessed by a digestion process involving pepsin-HCl digestion (to simulate gastric digestion) and pancreatin digestion with bile salts (to simulate small intestine conditions) and dialyzed to assess serum- and colon-available fractions. After pepsin digestion, the % recovery of total phenolics, relative to the original starting material, increased, whereas the % anthocyanins did not change. Following pancreatic digestion and dialysis, the total phenolics in the IN (serum-available) fraction was about 26-30% and the OUT (colon-available) fraction was about 77-101%. The anthocyanin content in the IN fraction was 15-21%, and in the OUT fraction, it was 52-67%. Skeena, Lapins, and Sweetheart cultivars contained higher levels of total phenolics and anthocyanins, which resulted in higher concentrations of these compounds in the IN and OUT fractions. The potential bioavailability of phenolic compounds was also assessed in Bing and Lapins cultivars at three ripening stages. Immature cherries had higher % total phenolics in the IN fraction than mature or overmature cherries. However, immature cherries had the lowest concentrations of these compounds, making the actual bioavailable amounts of these compounds lower than for mature and overmature fruit. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of Lapins cherries at three maturity stages confirmed the results obtained using spectrophotometric methods for total phenolics and anthocyanins.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2008; 56(10):3561-8. · 3.11 Impact Factor